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The response of gene expression associated with lipid metabolism, fat deposition and fatty acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Gannan yaks to different energy levels of diets.
ABSTRACT: The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg), medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg) and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg) diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05) affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05). Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05) mRNA expression levels of PPAR?, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.
Project description:The yak rumen microflora has more efficient fiber-degrading and energy-harvesting abilities than that of low-altitude cattle; however, few studies have investigated the effects of dietary energy levels on the rumen bacterial populations and the relationship between rumen bacteria and the intramuscular fatty acid profile of fattening yaks. In this study, thirty yaks were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group received one of the three isonitrogenous diets with low (3.72 MJ/kg), medium (4.52 MJ/kg), and high (5.32 MJ/kg) levels of net energy for maintenance and fattening. After 120 days of feeding, results showed that increasing dietary energy significantly increased ruminal propionate fermentation and reduced ammonia concentration. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that increasing dietary energy significantly increased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and stimulated the relative abundance of Succiniclasticum, Saccharofermentans, Ruminococcus, and Blautia populations. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that high dietary energy increased the abundances of Streptococcus bovis, Prevotella ruminicola, and Ruminobacter amylophilus at the species level. Association analysis showed that ruminal acetate was positively related to some intramuscular saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents, and Prevotella was significantly positively related to intramuscular total polyunsaturated fatty acid content and negatively related to intramuscular total SFA content. This study showed that high dietary energy mainly increased ruminal amylolytic and propionate-producing bacteria populations, which gave insights into how the effects of dietary energy on rumen bacteria are related to intramuscular fat fatty acids of fattening yaks.
Project description:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels on growth performance, rumen fermentation and bacterial community, and meat quality of Holstein-Friesians bulls slaughtered at different ages. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesians bulls (17 months of age) were divided into a 3 × 3 factorial experiment with three energy levels (LE, ME and HE; metabolizable energy is 10.12, 10.90 and 11.68 MJ/kg, respectively) of diets, and three slaughter ages (20, 23 and 26 months). Results indicated that bulls fed with ME and HE diets had higher dry matter intake, average daily gain, and dressing percentage at 23 or 26 months of age. The ME and HE diets also reduced bacterial diversity, altered relative abundances of bacteria and produced lower concentrations of acetate, but higher butyrate and valerate concentrations in rumen fluid. Increasing in dietary energy and slaughter age increased the intramuscular fat (IMF) and water holding capacity. In summary, Holstein-Friesians bulls fed with ME and HE diets, slaughtered at 23 and 26 months of age could be a good choice to produce beef with high IMF. Slaughter age may have less influence than dietary energy in altering fermentation by increasing amylolytic bacteria and decreasing cellulolytic bacteria, and thus, further affecting meat quality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in meat products, which is positively correlated with meat quality, is an important trait considered by consumers. The regulation of IMF deposition is species specific. However, the IMF-deposition-related mRNA and non-coding RNA and their regulatory network in yak (Bos grunniens) remain unknown. High-throughput sequencing technology provides a powerful approach for analyzing the association between transcriptome-related differences and specific traits in animals. Thus, the whole transcriptomes of yak muscle and adipose tissues were screened and analyzed to elucidate the IMF deposition-related genes. The muscle tissues were used for IMF content measurements. RESULTS:Significant differences were observed between the 0.5- and 2.5-year-old yaks. Several mRNAs, miRNAs, lncRNAs and circRNAs were generally expressed in both muscle and adipose tissues. Between the 0.5- and 2.5-year-old yaks, 149 mRNAs, 62 miRNAs, 4 lncRNAs, and 223 circRNAs were differentially expressed in muscle tissue, and 72 mRNAs, 15 miRNAs, 9 lncRNAs, and 211 circRNAs were differentially expressed in adipose tissue. KEGG annotation revelved that these differentially expressed genes were related to pathways that maintain normal biological functions of muscle and adipose tissues. Moreover, 16 mRNAs, 5 miRNAs, 3 lncRNAs, and 5 circRNAs were co-differentially expressed in both types of tissue. We suspected that these co-differentially expressed genes were involved in IMF-deposition in the yak. Additionally, LPL, ACADL, SCD, and FASN, which were previously shown to be associated with the IMF content, were identified in the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network that was constructed on the basis of the IMF deposition-related genes. Three ceRNA subnetworks also revealed that TCONS-00016416 and its target SIRT1 "talk" to each other through the same miR-381-y and miR-208 response elements, whereas TCONS-00061798 and its target PRKCA, and TCONS-00084092 and its target LPL "talk" to each other through miR-122-x and miR-499-y response elements, respectively. CONCLUSION:Taken together, our results reveal the potential mRNA and noncoding RNAs involved in IMF deposition in the yak, providing a useful resource for further research on IMF deposition in this animal species.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF) is the most important evaluating indicator of chicken meat quality, the content of which is positively correlated with tenderness, flavor, and succulence of the meat. Chicken IMF deposition process is regulated by many factors, including genetic, nutrition, and environment. Although large number of omics' studies focused on the IMF deposition process, the molecular mechanism of chicken IMF deposition is still poorly understood. In order to study the role of miRNAs in chicken intramuscular adipogenesis, the intramuscular adipocyte differentiation model (IMF-preadipocytes and IMF-adipocytes) was established and subject to miRNA-Seq. A total of 117 differentially expressed miRNAs between two groups were obtained. Target genes prediction and functional enrichment analysis revealed that eight pathways involved in lipid metabolism related processes, such as fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid elongation. Meanwhile a putative miRNA, gga-miR-18b-3p, was identified be served a function in the intramuscular adipocyte differentiation. Luciferase assay suggested that the gga-miR-18b-3p targeted to the 3'UTR of ACOT13. Subsequent functional experiments demonstrated that gga-miR-18b-3p acted as an inhibitor of intramuscular adipocyte differentiation by targeting ACOT13. Our findings laid a new theoretical foundation for the study of lipid metabolism, and also provided a potential target to improve the meat quality in the poultry industry.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF), which regulated by genetics, nutrition and environment is an important factor that influencing meat quality. Up to now, the epigenetic regulation mechanism underlying poultry IMF deposition remains poorly understood. Here, we focused on the DNA methylation, which usually regulate genes in transcription level. To look into the essential role of DNA methylation on the IMF deposition, chicken intramuscular preadipocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro, and a model of intramuscular adipocyte differentiation was constructed. Combined the whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA-Seq technologies, we identified several methylated genes, which mainly affecting fatty acid metabolism and muscle development. Furthermore, we reported that DNA methylation regulate intramuscular adipogenesis by regulating the genes, such as collagen, type VI, alpha 1 (COL6A1) thus affecting IMF deposition. Overexpression of COL6A1 increases the lipid droplet and inhibits cell proliferation by regulating CHAD and CAMK2 in intramuscular adipocytes, while knockdown of COL6A1 shows the opposite effect. Taken together, our results reveal that DNA methylation plays an important role in poultry IMF deposition.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary energy levels on serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as well as gene expression of their associated binding proteins and receptors in yak. Fifteen adult male yaks with BW of 276.1 ± 3.5 kg were allotted in three dietary groups and were fed with low (LE), medium (ME), and high energy (HE) level diet having different NEg of 5.5 MJ/kg, 6.2 MJ/kg, 6.9 MJ/kg, respectively. The effects of these treatments on ADG, BW, ADFI, and feed conversion ratio were significant (p < 0.05) throughout the experimental period. Serum GH concentration decreased (p < 0.05) with an increase in dietary energy level on d 30 and d 60. While IGF-1 concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in ME group, as compared to LE and HE groups on d 60. The expression level of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was decreased (p < 0.001) and IGF-1 was increased with the increase in the dietary energy level. The relative expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) was higher (p < 0.001) in ME and HE groups, except the LE group. In conclusion, our findings provide a first insight into the combined effect of GH and IGF-1 in controlling the metabolism and productivity of yak. It also showed that medium energy level diet contributed to promote growth performance of yak during the cold season.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF)-an important factor affecting meat quality-can be appropriately increased by genetic selection. Chicken lines divergently selected for IMF content were used in this study to investigate the mechanisms behind differential IMF deposition. Sixty 15th generation chickens were genotyped using the IASCHICK 55K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. After quality control, 59 chickens and 36,893 SNPs were available for subsequent analysis. Population structure assessment indicated that the lines were genetically differentiated. Based on the top 1% paired fixation index values, three pathways were significantly (p < 0.05) enriched, and nine genes were considered candidate genes for differential IMF deposition. Differences between the lines in the expressions of representative genes involved in the above pathways were detected in 16th generation chickens. This study suggests that genetic selection for increased IMF in the pectoralis major muscle may enhance fatty acid synthesis, transport, and esterification, and reduce triglyceride hydrolysis. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, glycerolipid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation pathway may have contributed to the differences in IMF deposition between the lines. These results contribute to the understanding of the genetic mechanisms behind IMF deposition, and the improvement of chicken meat quality.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to measure the special expression pattern of lipid metabolism genes and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition in Longissimus dorsi muscle of Laiwu pigs. METHODS:Thirty-six pigs (Laiwu n = 18; Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire n = 18) were used for the measurement of the backfat thickness, marbling score, IMF content, and expression of lipid metabolism genes. RESULTS:Significant correlations were found between IMF content and the mRNA expression of lipid metabolism genes. Of the 14 fat deposition genes measured, fatty acid synthase (FASN) showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) with IMF content, and of the 6 fat removal genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1B (CPT1B) exhibited the greatest negative correlation (r = -0.66, p = 0.003) with IMF content in Laiwu pig. Multiple regression analysis showed that CPT1B, FASN, solute carrier family 27 member 1 (SLC27A1), and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) contributed 38% of the prediction value for IMF content in Laiwu pigs. Of these four variables, CPT1B had the greatest contribution to IMF content (14%) followed by FASN (11%), SLC27A1 (9%), and FABP3 (4%). CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that the combined effects of an upregulation in fat deposition genes and downregulation in fat removal genes promotes IMF deposition in Laiwu pigs.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF) content plays an important role in meat quality. Many genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism were identified as candidate genes for IMF deposition, since genetic polymorphisms within these genes were associated with IMF content. However, there is less information on the expression levels of these genes in the muscle tissue. This study aimed at investigating the expression levels of sterol regulating element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT-1), heart-fatty acids binding protein (H-FABP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes and proteins in two divergent Banna mini-pig inbred lines (BMIL). A similar growth performance was found in both the fat and the lean BMIL. The fat meat and IMF content in the fat BMIL were significantly higher than in the lean BMIL, but the lean meat content was lower. The serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) contents were significantly higher in the fat than in the lean BMIL. The expression levels of SREBP-1c, DGAT-1 and H-FABP genes and proteins in fat BMIL were increased compared to the lean BMIL. However, the expression levels of LEPR and MC4R genes and proteins were lower.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the concentration of undesirable cholesterol (LDL) in circulating blood. Different feeding practices and genetic variation within and between breeds influences the amount of IMF and fatty acid (FA) composition in meat. However, it is difficult and costly to determine fatty acid composition, which has precluded beef cattle breeding programs from selecting for a healthier fatty acid profile. In this study, we employed a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip to genotype 386 Nellore steers, a Bos indicus breed and, a Bayesian approach to identify genomic regions and putative candidate genes that could be involved with deposition and composition of IMF. RESULTS: Twenty-three genomic regions (1-Mb SNP windows) associated with IMF deposition and FA composition that each explain??1% of the genetic variance were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 17, 26 and 27. Many of these regions were not previously detected in other breeds. The genes present in these regions were identified and some can help explain the genetic basis of deposition and composition of fat in cattle. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic regions and genes identified contribute to a better understanding of the genetic control of fatty acid deposition and can lead to DNA-based selection strategies to improve meat quality for human consumption.