Respiratory syncytial virus elicits enriched CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in lung compared with blood in African green monkeys.
ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of serious lower respiratory tract disease in young children and older adults throughout the world. Prevention of severe RSV disease through active immunization is optimal but no RSV vaccine has been licensed so far. Immune mechanisms of protection against RSV infection in humans have not been fully established, thus a comprehensive characterization of virus-specific immune responses in a relevant animal model will be beneficial in defining correlates of protection. In this study, we infected juvenile naive AGMs with RSV A2 strain and longitudinally assessed virus-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in both peripheral blood and the respiratory tract. RSV viral loads at nasopharyngeal surfaces and in the lung peaked at around day 5 following infection, and then largely resolved by day 10. Low levels of neutralizing antibody titers were detected in serum, with similar kinetics as RSV fusion (F) protein-binding IgG antibodies. RSV infection induced CD8+, but very little CD4+, T lymphocyte responses in peripheral blood. Virus-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies were ~10 fold higher in bronchoaveolar lavage (BAL) compared to peripheral blood and exhibited effector memory (CD95+CD28-) / tissue resident memory (CD69+CD103+) T (TRM) cell phenotypes. The kinetics of virus-specific CD8+ T cells emerging in peripheral blood and BAL correlated with declining viral titers, suggesting that virus-specific cellular responses contribute to the clearance of RSV infection. RSV-experienced AGMs were protected from subsequent exposure to RSV infection. Additional studies are underway to understand protective correlates in these seropositive monkeys.
Project description:Background:The pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in older adults may be due to age-related T-cell immunosenescence. Thus, we evaluated CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses during RSV infection in adults across the age spectrum. Methods:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during RSV infection in adults, age 26-96 years, were stimulated with live RSV and peptide pools representing F, M, NP, and G proteins and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results:There were no significant age-related differences in frequency of CD4+ T cells synthesizing interferon (IFN)?, interleukin (IL)2, IL4, IL10, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? or in CD8+IFN?+ T cells. IL4+CD4+ T-cell numbers were low, as were IL13 and IL17 responses. However, in univariate analysis, CD4 T-cell IFN?, IL2, IL4, IL10, and TNF? responses and CD8+IFN?+ T cells were significantly increased with more severe illness requiring hospitalization. In multivariate analysis, viral load was also associated with increased T-cell responses. Conclusions:We found no evidence of diminished RSV-specific CD4 or CD8 T-cell responses in adults infected with RSV. However, adults with severe disease seemed to have more robust CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses during infection, suggesting that disease severity may have a greater association with T-cell responses than age.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a serious health problem in young children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The development of novel prevention strategies, such as a vaccine to RSV, is a high priority. One strategy is to design a peptide-based vaccine that activates appropriate CD8(+) T-cell responses. However, this approach is limited by the low number of RSV peptide epitopes defined to date that activate CD8(+) T cells. We aimed to identify peptide epitopes that are presented by common human leukocyte antigen types (HLA-A*01, -A*02, and -B*07). We identify one novel HLA-A*02-restricted and two novel HLA-A*01-restricted peptide epitopes from RSV polymerase. Peptide-HLA multimer staining of specific T cells from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cell, the memory phenotype of such peptide-specific T cells ex vivo, and functional IFN? responses in short-term stimulation assays suggest that these peptides are recognized during RSV infection. Such peptides are candidates for inclusion into a peptide-based RSV vaccine designed to stimulate defined CD8(+) T-cell responses.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection across the world, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. The replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-RSV) vaccines were shown to be safe and immunogenic in young healthy adults. Here we report an extension to this first-in-man vaccine trial to include healthy older adults aged 60-75 years. METHODS:We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of MVA-RSV given by intra-muscular (IM) injection (n?=?6), two doses of IM PanAd3-RSV given 4-weeks apart (n?=?6), IM PanAd3-RSV prime and IM MVA-RSV boost 8-weeks later (n?=?6), intra-nasal (IN) spray of PanAd3-RSV prime and IM MVA-RSV boost 8-weeks later (n?=?6), or no vaccine (n?=?6). Safety measures included all adverse events within one week of vaccination and blood monitoring. Immunogenicity measures included serum antibody responses (RSV- and PanAd3-neutralising antibody titres measured by plaque-reduction neutralisation and SEAP assays, respectively), peripheral B-cell immune responses (frequencies of F-specific IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells and memory B-cells by ex vivo and cultured dual-colour ELISpot assays respectively), and peripheral RSV-specific T-cell immune responses (frequencies of IFN?-producing T-cells by ex vivo ELISpot and CD4+/CD8+/Tfh-like cell frequencies by ICS/FACS assay). RESULTS:The vaccines were safe and well tolerated. Compared with each individual baseline immunity the mean fold-changes in serum RSV-neutralising antibody, appearance and magnitude of F-specific IgG and IgA ASCs and expansion of CD4+/CD8+ IFN?-producing T-cells in peripheral circulation were comparable to the results seen from younger healthy adults who received the same vaccine combination and dose. There were little/no IgA memory B-cell responses in younger and older adults. Expansion of IFN?-producing T-cells was most marked in older adults following IM prime, with balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The RSV-specific immune responses to vaccination did not appear to be attenuated in the presence of PanAd3 (vector) neutralising antibody. CONCLUSIONS:PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV was safe and immunogenic in older adults and the parallel induction of RSV-specific humoral and cellular immunity merits further assessment in providing protection from severe disease.
Project description:During viral infection, inflammation and recovery are tightly controlled by competing proinflammatory and regulatory immune pathways. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading global cause of infantile bronchiolitis, which is associated with recurrent wheeze and asthma diagnosis in later life. Th2-driven disease has been well described under some conditions for RSV-infected mice. In the present studies, we used the Foxp3(DTR) mice (which allow specific conditional depletion of Foxp3(+) T cells) to investigate the functional effects of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during A2-strain RSV infection. Infected Treg-depleted mice lost significantly more weight than wild-type mice, indicating enhanced disease. This enhancement was characterized by increased cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and notable lung eosinophilia not seen in control mice. This was accompanied by abundant CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells exhibiting an activated phenotype and induction of interleukin 13 (IL-13)- and GATA3-expressing Th2-type CD4(+) T cells that remained present in the airways even 14 days after infection. Therefore, Treg cells perform vital anti-inflammatory functions during RSV infection, suppressing pathogenic T cell responses and inhibiting lung eosinophilia. These findings provide additional evidence that dysregulation of normal immune responses to viral infection may contribute to severe RSV disease.
Project description:Memory CD8 T cells can provide protection from re-infection by respiratory viruses such as influenza and SARS. However, the relative contribution of memory CD8 T cells in providing protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is currently unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we utilized a prime-boost immunization approach to induce robust memory CD8 T cell responses in the absence of RSV-specific CD4 T cells and antibodies. Unexpectedly, RSV infection of mice with pre-existing CD8 T cell memory led to exacerbated weight loss, pulmonary disease, and lethal immunopathology. The exacerbated disease in immunized mice was not epitope-dependent and occurred despite a significant reduction in RSV viral titers. In addition, the lethal immunopathology was unique to the context of an RSV infection as mice were protected from a normally lethal challenge with a recombinant influenza virus expressing an RSV epitope. Memory CD8 T cells rapidly produced IFN-? following RSV infection resulting in elevated protein levels in the lung and periphery. Neutralization of IFN-? in the respiratory tract reduced morbidity and prevented mortality. These results demonstrate that in contrast to other respiratory viruses, RSV-specific memory CD8 T cells can induce lethal immunopathology despite mediating enhanced viral clearance.
Project description:African green monkeys (AGMs) are a natural host of SIV that do not develop simian AIDS. Adult AGMs naturally have low numbers of CD4+ T cells and a large population of MHC class II-restricted CD8?? T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. In this article, we study the functional profiles and SIV infection status in vivo of CD4+ T cells, CD8?? T cells, and CD8?? T cells in lymph nodes, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AGMs and rhesus macaques (in which CD4 downregulation is not observed). We show that, although CD8?? T cells in AGMs maintain functions associated with CD4+ T cells (including Th follicular functionality in lymphoid tissues and Th2 responses in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), they also accumulate functions normally attributed to canonical CD8+ T cells. These hyperfunctional CD8?? T cells are found to circulate peripherally, as well as reside within the lymphoid tissue. Due to their unique combination of CD4 and CD8 T cell effector functions, these CD4- CD8?? T cells are likely able to serve as an immunophenotype capable of Th1, follicular Th, and CTL functionalities, yet they are unable to be infected by SIV. These data demonstrate the ambiguity of CD4/CD8 expression in dictating the functional capacities of T cells and suggest that accumulation of hyperfunctional CD8?? T cells in AGMs may lead to tissue-specific antiviral immune responses in lymphoid follicles that limit SIV replication in this particular anatomical niche.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, are the most important causes of lower respiratory tract infection in young children. Infections with RSV and hMPV are clinically indistinguishable, and both RSV and hMPV infection have been associated with aberrant adaptive immune responses. Myeloid Dendritic cells (mDCs) play a pivotal role in shaping adaptive immune responses during infection; however, few studies have examined how interactions of RSV and hMPV with individual mDC subsets (BDCA-1(+) and BDCA-3(+) mDCs) affect the outcome of anti-viral responses. To determine whether RSV and hMPV induce virus-specific responses from each subset, we examined co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines expressed by BDCA-1(+) and BDCA-3(+) mDCs isolated from peripheral blood after infection with hMPV and RSV, and examined their ability to stimulate T cell proliferation and differentiation. Our data show that RSV and hMPV induce virus-specific and subset-specific patterns of co-stimulatory molecule and cytokine expression. RSV, but not hMPV, impaired the capacity of infected mDCs to stimulate T cell proliferation. Whereas hMPV-infected BDCA-1(+) and BDCA-3(+) mDCs induced expansion of Th17 cells, in response to RSV, BDCA-1(+) mDCs induced expansion of Th1 cells and BDCA-3(+) mDCs induced expansion of Th2 cells and Tregs. These results demonstrate a virus-specific and subset-specific effect of RSV and hMPV infection on mDC function, suggesting that these viruses may induce different adaptive immune responses.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in infants. It is well established that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are critical for mediating viral clearance but also contribute to the induction of immunopathology following RSV infection. C57BL/6 mice are often used to study T cell responses following RSV infection given the wide variety of genetically modified animals available. To date, few RSV-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes have been identified in C57BL/6 mice. Using an overlapping peptide library spanning the entire RSV proteome, intracellular cytokine staining for IFN-? was performed to identify novel CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes in C57BL/6 mice. We identified two novel CD4+ T cell epitopes and three novel CD8+ T cell epitopes located within multiple RSV proteins. Additionally, we characterized the newly described T cell epitopes by determining their TCR V? expression profiles and MHC restriction. Overall, the novel RSV-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes identified in C57BL/6 mice will aid in future studies of RSV-specific T cell responses.
Project description:In animal models, resident memory CD8+ T (Trm) cells assist in respiratory virus elimination but their importance in man has not been determined. Here, using experimental human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we investigate systemic and local virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in adult volunteers. Having defined the immunodominance hierarchy, we analyse phenotype and function longitudinally in blood and by serial bronchoscopy. Despite rapid clinical recovery, we note surprisingly extensive lower airway inflammation with persistent viral antigen and cellular infiltrates. Pulmonary virus-specific CD8+ T cells display a CD69+CD103+ Trm phenotype and accumulate to strikingly high frequencies into convalescence without continued proliferation. While these have a more highly differentiated phenotype, they express fewer cytotoxicity markers than in blood. Nevertheless, their abundance before infection correlates with reduced symptoms and viral load, implying that CD8+ Trm cells in the human lung can confer protection against severe respiratory viral disease when humoral immunity is overcome.
Project description:Despite being a leading cause of severe respiratory disease, there remains no licensed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine. Neutralizing antibodies reduce the severity of RSV-associated disease, but are not sufficient for preventing reinfection. In contrast, the role of memory CD8 T cells in protecting against a secondary RSV infection is less established. We recently demonstrated that high-magnitude memory CD8 T cells efficiently reduced lung viral titers following RSV infection, but induced fatal immunopathology that was mediated by IFN-?. To evaluate the ability of RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies to prevent memory CD8 T cell-mediated immunopathology, mice with high-magnitude memory CD8 T cell responses were treated with neutralizing antibodies prior to RSV challenge. Neutralizing antibody treatment significantly reduced morbidity and prevented mortality following RSV challenge compared with IgG-treated controls. Neutralizing antibody treatment restricted early virus replication, which caused a substantial reduction in memory CD8 T cell activation and IFN-? production, directly resulting in survival. In contrast, therapeutic neutralizing antibody administration did not impact morbidity, mortality, or IFN-? levels, despite significantly reducing lung viral titers. Therefore, only pre-existing neutralizing antibodies prevent memory CD8 T cell-mediated immunopathology following RSV infection. Overall, our results have important implications for the development of future RSV vaccines.