Histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of capsular tissue around failed Ahmed glaucoma valves.
ABSTRACT: Impervious encapsulation around Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) results in surgical failure raising intraocular pressure (IOP). Dysregulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and cellular factors might contribute to increased hydraulic resistance to aqueous drainage. Therefore, we examined these molecules in failed AGV capsular tissue. Immunostaining for ECM molecules (collagen I, collagen III, decorin, lumican, chondroitin sulfate, aggrecan and keratan sulfate) and cellular factors (?SMA and TGF?) was performed on excised capsules from failed AGVs and control tenon's tissue. Staining intensity of ECM molecules was assessed using Image J. Cellular factors were assessed based on positive cell counts. Histopathologically two distinct layers were visible in capsules. The inner layer (proximal to the AGV) showed significant decrease in most ECM molecules compared to outer layer. Furthermore, collagen III (p = 0.004), decorin (p = 0.02), lumican (p = 0.01) and chondroitin sulfate (p = 0.02) was significantly less in inner layer compared to tenon's tissue. Outer layer labelling however was similar to control tenon's for most ECM molecules. Significantly increased cellular expression of ?SMA (p = 0.02) and TGF? (p = 0.008) was detected within capsular tissue compared to controls. Our results suggest profibrotic activity indicated by increased ?SMA and TGF? expression and decreased expression of proteoglycan (decorin and lumican) and glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate). Additionally, we observed decreased collagen III which might reflect increased myofibroblast contractility when coupled with increased TGF? and ?SMA expression. Together these events lead to tissue dysfunction potentially resulting in hydraulic resistance that may affect aqueous flow through the capsular wall.
Project description:The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture composed of fibrillar collagens as well as additional protein and carbohydrate components. Proteoglycans (PGs) contribute to the heterogeneity of the ECM and play an important role in its structure and function. While the small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), including decorin and lumican, have been studied extensively as mediators of collagen fibrillogenesis and organization, the function of large matrix PGs in collagen matrices is less well known. In this study, we showed that different matrix PGs have distinct roles in regulating collagen behaviors. We found that versican, a large chondroitin sulfate PG, promotes collagen fibrillogenesis in a turbidity assay and upregulates cell-mediated collagen compaction and reorganization, whereas aggrecan, a structurally-similar large PG, has different and often opposing effects on collagen. Compared to versican, decorin and lumican also have distinct functions in regulating collagen behaviors. The different ways in which matrix PGs interact with collagen have important implications for understanding the role of the ECM in diseases such as fibrosis and cancer, and suggest that matrix PGs are potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) is a well-known molecular chaperone in collagen synthesis and maturation. The aim of this study is to investigate its putative role in the transdifferentiation of Tenon's fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. METHODS: Primary cultured human Tenon's fibroblasts were exposed to transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) for up to 48 hours. The mRNA levels of Hsp47 and ? smooth muscle actin (?SMA) were determined by quantitative real time RT-PCR. After delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules targeting Hsp47 into the cells, the expression of Hsp47 and ?SMA proteins was determined by western immunoblotting. RESULTS: TGF-?1 increased the mRNA expressions of both Hsp47 and ?SMA in human Tenon's fibroblasts, as determined by quantitative real time RT-PCR. However, it induced the protein expression of only ?SMA but not Hsp47, as determined by western immunoblots. When siRNAs specific for Hsp47 were introduced into those cells, the TGF-?1-induced expression of ?SMA was significantly attenuated on western immunoblots; after 48 hours of exposure to TGF-?1, the relative densities of immunobands were 11.58 for the TGF-?1 only group and 2.75 for the siRNA treatment group, compared with the no treatment control group (p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that Hsp47 may be related to the TGF-?1-induced transdifferentiation of human Tenon's fibroblasts to myofibroblasts.
Project description:Keratocytes of the corneal stroma secrete a unique population of proteoglycan molecules considered essential for corneal transparency. In healing corneal wounds, keratocytes exhibit a myofibroblastic phenotype in response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), characterized by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin. This study examined proteoglycan and collagen expression by keratocytes in vitro during the TGF-beta-induced keratocyte-myofibroblast transition. TGF-beta-treated primary bovine keratocytes developed myofibroblastic features, including actin stress fibers anchored to paxillin-containing focal adhesions, cell-associated fibronectin, alpha(5) integrin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Collagen I and III protein and mRNA increased in response to TGF-beta. Secretion of [(35)S]sulfate-labeled keratan sulfate proteoglycans decreased markedly in response to TGF-beta. Dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, however, increased in size and abundance. Protein and mRNA transcripts for normal stromal proteoglycans (lumican, keratocan, mimecan, and decorin) all decreased in response to TGF-beta, but protein expression and mRNA for biglycan, a proteoglycan present in fibrotic tissue, was markedly up-regulated. These results show that TGF-beta in vitro induces a proteoglycan expression pattern similar to that of corneal scars in vivo. This altered proteoglycan expression occurred coordinately with transdifferentiation of keratocytes to the myofibroblastic phenotype, implicating these cells as the source of fibrotic tissue in nontransparent corneal scars.
Project description:Cancer progression is characterized by a complex reciprocity between neoplastic epithelium and adjacent stromal cells. In ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast, both reduced stromal decorin expression and myxoid stroma are correlated with increased recurrence risk. In this study, we aimed to investigate paracrine regulation of expression of decorin and related extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) was identified as a competent ECM modulator, as it reduced decorin and strongly enhanced versican, biglycan and type I collagen expression. Similar but less pronounced effects were observed when fibroblasts were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Despite this concerted ECM modulation, TGF-?1 and bFGF differentially regulated alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, which is often proposed as a CAF-marker. Cancer cell-derived secretomes induced versican and biglycan expression in fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry on twenty DCIS specimens showed a trend toward periductal versican overexpression in DCIS with myxoid stroma. Cancer cell adhesion was inhibited by decorin, but not by CAF-derived matrices. Cancer cells presented significantly enhanced spreading when seeded on matrices derived from TGF-?1-treated CAF. Altogether these data indicate that preinvasive cancerous lesions might modulate the composition of surrounding stroma through TGF-?1 release to obtain an invasion-permissive microenvironment.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated that four members of the family of small leucine-rich-proteoglycans (SLRPs) of the extracellular matrix (ECM), named decorin, biglycan, lumican and fibromodulin, are deeply remodeled in mouse uterine tissues along the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. It is known that the combined action of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) orchestrates the estrous cycle and prepares the endometrium for pregnancy, modulating synthesis, deposition and degradation of various molecules. Indeed, we showed that versican, another proteoglycan of the ECM, is under hormonal control in the uterine tissues.E2 and/or medroxiprogesterone acetate (MPA) were used to demonstrate, by real time PCR and immunoperoxidase staining, respectively, their effects on mRNA expression and protein deposition of these SLRPs, in the uterine tissues.Decorin and lumican were constitutively expressed and deposited in the ECM in the absence of the ovarian hormones, whereas deposition of biglycan and fibromodulin were abolished from the uterine ECM in the non-treated group. Interestingly, ovariectomy promoted an increase in decorin, lumican and fibromodulin mRNA levels, while biglycan mRNA conspicuously decreased. Hormone replacement with E2 and/or MPA differentially modulates their expression and deposition.The patterns of expression of these SLRPs in the uterine tissues were found to be hormone-dependent and uterine compartment-related. These results reinforce the existence of subpopulations of endometrial fibroblasts, localized into distinct functional uterine compartments, resembling the organization into basal and functional layers of the human endometrium.
Project description:The build-up of diversified and tissue-specific assemblies of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins depends on secreted and cell surface-located molecular arrays that coordinate ECM proteins into discrete designs. The family of small leucine-rich proteins (SLRPs) associates with and dictates the structure of fibrillar collagens, which form the backbone of most ECM types. However, whether SLRPs form complexes with proteins other than collagens is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), a well-established endoplasmic reticulum-resident collagen chaperone, also binds the SLRPs decorin, lumican, and fibromodulin with affinities comparable with that in the Hsp47-type I collagen interaction. Furthermore, we show that a lack of Hsp47 inhibits the cellular secretion of decorin and lumican. Our results expand the understanding of the concerted molecular interactions that control the secretion and organization of a functional collagenous ECM.
Project description:Chondrosarcoma is a malignant bone tumor characterized by the production of a modified cartilage?type extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, the expression levels of the small leucine?rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), decorin, biglycan and lumican, were examined in the HTB94 human chondrosarcoma cell line. HTB94 cells were found to express and secrete the 3 SLRP members. RT?qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that lumican was the most abundantly secreted SLRP, whereas decorin and biglycan expression levels were low. The utilization of short interfering RNA specific for the decorin, biglycan, and lumican genes resulted in the efficient downregulation of the respective mRNA levels (P?0.001). The growth of the HTB94 cells was stimulated by lumican (P?0.001), whereas their migration and adhesion were not affected (P=NS). By contrast, these cellular functions were not sensitive to a decrease in low endogenous levels of decorin and biglycan. Lumicandeficiency significantly inhibited both basal and insulin?like growth factor I (IGF?I)?induced HTB94 cell growth (P?0.001 andP?0.01, respectively). These effects were executed through the insulin?like growth factor I receptor (IGF?IR), whose activation was markedly attenuated (P?0.01) in lumican?deficient HTB94 cells. The downregulation of lumican induced the substantial inhibition of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation (P? 0.01), indicating that ERK1/2 is a necessary component of lumican/IGF?IR?mediated HTB94 cell proliferation. Moreover, the lumican?deficient cells exhibit increased mRNA levels of p53 (P?0.05), suggesting that lumican facilitates HTB94 cell growth through an IGF?IR/ERK1/2/p53 signaling cascade. On the whole, the findings of the present study demonstrate that endogenous lumican is a novel regulator of HTB94 cell growth.
Project description:Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increasingly lineage restricted through differentiation. Alterations to the cellular proteoglycan composition and structure should accompany these changes to influence cell proliferation, delineation of tissues and acquisition of cell migration capabilities. Retinoic acid plays an important role in pre-patterning of the early embryo. Retinoic acid can be used in vitro to induce differentiation, causing pluripotent and multipotent cells to become increasingly lineage restricted. We examined retinoic acid-induced changes in the cellular proteoglycan composition of the well-characterized teratocarcinoma line NCCIT. Our analysis revealed changes in the abundance of transcripts for genes encoding core proteins, enzymes that are responsible for early and late linkage region biosynthesis, as well as enzymes for GAG chain extension and modification. Transcript levels for genes encoding core proteins used as backbones for polysaccharide synthesis revealed highly significant increases in expression of lumican and decorin, 1,500-fold and 2,800-fold, respectively. Similarly, glypican 3, glypican 5, versican and glypican 6 showed increases between 5 and 70-fold. Significant decreases in biglycan, serglycin, glypican 4, aggrecan, neurocan, CD74 and glypican 1 were observed. Disaccharide analysis of the glycans in heparin/heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate revealed retinoic acid-induced changes restricted to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate glycans. Our study provides the first detailed analysis of changes in the glycosaminoglycan profile of human pluripotent cells upon treatment with the retinoic acid morphogen.
Project description:We have analysed the interactions of three proteoglycans of the decorin family, decorin, biglycan and fibromodulin, with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). The proteoglycan core proteins, expressed from human cDNAs as fusion proteins with Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein, each bound TGF-beta 1. They showed only negligible binding to several other growth factors. Intact decorin, biglycan and fibromodulin isolated from bovine tissues competed with the fusion proteins for the TGF-beta binding. Affinity measurements suggest a two-site binding model with Kd values ranging from 1 to 20 nM for a high-affinity binding site and 50 to 200 nM for the lower-affinity binding site. The stoichiometry indicated that the high-affinity binding site was present in one of ten proteoglycan core molecules and that each molecule contained a low-affinity binding site. Tissue-derived biglycan and decorin were less effective competitors for TGF-beta binding than fibromodulin or the non-glycosylated fusion proteins; removal of the chondroitin/dermatan sulphate chains of decorin and biglycan (fibromodulin is a keratan sulphate proteoglycan) increased the activities of decorin and biglycan, suggesting that the glycosaminoglycan chains may hinder the interaction of the core proteins with TGF-beta. The fusion proteins competed for the binding of radiolabelled TGF-beta to Mv 1 Lu cells and endothelial cells. Affinity labelling showed that the binding of TGF-beta to betaglycan and the type-I receptors in Mv 1 Lu cells and to endoglin in endothelial cells was reduced, but the binding to the type-II receptors was unaffected. TGF-beta 2 and 3 also bound to all three fusion proteins. Latent recombinant TGF-beta 1 precursor bound slightly to fibromodulin and not at all to decorin and biglycan. The results show that the three decorin-type proteoglycans each bind TGF-beta isoforms and that slight differences exist in their binding properties. They may regulate TGF-beta activities by sequestering TGF-beta into extracellular matrix.