Identification of a t(3;4)(p1.3;q1.5) translocation breakpoint in pigs using somatic cell hybrid mapping and high-resolution mate-pair sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Reciprocal translocations are the most frequently occurring constitutional structural rearrangements in mammalian genomes. In phenotypically normal pigs, an incidence of 1/200 is estimated for such rearrangements. Even if constitutional translocations do not necessarily induce defects and diseases, they are responsible for significant economic losses in domestic animals due to reproduction failures. Over the last 30 years, advances in molecular and cytogenetic technologies have led to major improvements in the resolution of the characterization of translocation events. Characterization of translocation breakpoints helps to decipher the mechanisms that lead to such rearrangements and the functions of the genes that are involved in the translocation. Here, we describe the fine characterization of a reciprocal translocation t(3;4) (p1.3;q1.5) detected in a pig line. The breakpoint was identified at the base-pair level using a positional cloning and chromosome walking strategy in somatic cell hybrids that were generated from an animal that carries this translocation. We show that this translocation occurs within the ADAMTSL4 gene and results in a loss of expression in homozygous carriers. In addition, by taking this translocation as a model, we used a whole-genome next-generation mate-pair sequencing approach on pooled individuals to evaluate this strategy for high-throughput screening of structural rearrangements.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Banana cultivars are derived from hybridizations involving Musa acuminata subspecies. The latter diverged following geographical isolation in distinct South-east Asian continental regions and islands. Observation of chromosome pairing irregularities in meiosis of hybrids between these subspecies suggested the presence of large chromosomal structural variations. The aim of this study was to characterize such rearrangements. METHODS:Marker (single nucleotide polymorphism) segregation in a self-progeny of the 'Calcutta 4' accession and mate-pair sequencing were used to search for chromosomal rearrangements in comparison with the M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis genome reference sequence. Signature segment junctions of the revealed chromosome structures were identified and searched in whole-genome sequencing data from 123 wild and cultivated Musa accessions. KEY RESULTS:Two large reciprocal translocations were characterized in the seedy banana M. acuminata ssp. burmannicoides 'Calcutta 4' accession. One consisted of an exchange of a 240 kb distal region of chromosome 2 with a 7.2 Mb distal region of chromosome 8. The other involved an exchange of a 20.8 Mb distal region of chromosome 1 with a 11.6 Mb distal region of chromosome 9. Both translocations were found only in wild accessions belonging to the burmannicoides/burmannica/siamea subspecies. Only two of the 87 cultivars analysed displayed the 2/8 translocation, while none displayed the 1/9 translocation. CONCLUSION:Two large reciprocal translocations were identified that probably originated in the burmannica genetic group. Accurate characterization of these translocations should enhance the use of this disease resistance-rich burmannica group in breeding programmes.
Project description:Structural chromosomal rearrangements occur commonly in the general population. Individuals that carry a balanced translocation are at risk of having unbalanced offspring; therefore, the frequency of translocations in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions is higher than that in the general population. The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the most common recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans and may serve as a model to determine the mechanism that causes recurrent meiotic translocations. We previously localized the t(11;22) translocation breakpoint to a region on 22q11 within a low-copy repeat, termed "LCR22." To define the breakpoint on 11q23 and to ascertain whether this region shares homology with LCR22 sequences, we performed haplotype analysis on patients with der(22) syndrome. We found that the breakpoint on 11q23 occurred between two genetic markers, D11S1340 and APOC3-tetra, both being present within a single bacterial-artificial-chromosome clone. To determine whether the breakpoint occurred within the same region among a larger set of carriers, we performed FISH mapping studies. The breakpoints were all within the same clone, suggesting that this region may harbor sequences that are prone to breakage. We narrowed the breakpoint interval, in both derivative chromosomes from two unrelated carriers, to a 190-bp, AT-rich repeat, which indicates that this repeat may mediate recombination events on chromosome 11. Interestingly, the LCR22s harbor AT-rich repeats, suggesting that this sequence motif may mediate recombination events in nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS:The t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.2) has been identified as one of several recurrent constitutional translocations mediated by palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs). Although the breakage on 22q11 utilizes the same PATRR as that of the more prevalent constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11.2), the breakpoint region on 8q24 has not been elucidated in detail since the analysis of palindromic sequence is technically challenging. RESULTS:In this study, the entire 8q24 breakpoint region has been resolved by next generation sequencing. Eight polymorphic alleles were identified and compared with the junction sequences of previous and two recently identified t(8;22) cases . All of the breakpoints were found to be within the PATRRs on chromosomes 8 and 22 (PATRR8 and PATRR22), but the locations were different among cases at the level of nucleotide resolution. The translocations were always found to arise on symmetric PATRR8 alleles with breakpoints at the center of symmetry. The translocation junction is often accompanied by symmetric deletions at the center of both PATRRs. Rejoining occurs with minimal homology between the translocation partners. Remarkably, comparison of der (8) to der(22) sequences shows identical breakpoint junctions between them, which likely represent products of two independent events on the basis of a classical model. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest the hypothesis that interactions between the two PATRRs prior to the translocation event might trigger illegitimate recombination resulting in the recurrent palindrome-mediated translocation.
Project description:It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.
Project description:Balanced constitutional reciprocal translocations are the most common structural chromosomal rearrangements identiﬁed in man and pigs. Carriers are generally phenotypically normal, but such rearrangements frequently lead to reproductive disorders. In reciprocal translocation heterozygotes, the homologous regions of the normal and derivative chromosomes involved in the rearrangement pair during the prophase of the first meiotic division, thanks to the synaptonemal complex (SC), and form a particular structure called quadrivalent. In some cases, chromosomal regions (within the quadrivalent) remain unsynapsed, especially around the breakpoints, which may trigger meiosis checkpoints leading to spermatogenesis arrest at the pachytene stage. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain such effects of pairing failure on gametogenesis. The first one is an altered transcription of the genes located on the unpaired segments. Indeed, studies conducted in mice revealed a transcriptional repression of unpaired regions by a specific mechanism called “Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapsed Chromatin” (MSUC) in individuals with a partial or total spermatogenesis arrest (Turner et al., 2005). If some genes necessary for the proper course of meiosis are located in such unsynapsed genomic regions, MSUC may result in an arrest of the meiotic division. Secondly, associations between the “quadrivalent” and the XY bivalent which is transcriptionally silenced by a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, (Turner, 2007) were also observed in individuals with altered semen parameters (azoospermic or oligospemic) (Oliver-Bonet et al., 2005; Sciurano et al., 2007a, 2012). Such an association could result in a partial reactivation of the XY body (XYB) leading to the expression of some genes located on the X chromosome (Lifschytz and Lindsley, 1972), or result in the spreading of the XYB inactivation towards the autosomal segments attached to the XYB, without reactivation of the latter (Jaafar et al., 1993). Beyond the potential spermatogenesis failure mentioned above, reciprocal translocations are systematically responsible for the production of genetically unbalanced gametes. Here we report the detailed analysis of the whole meiotic process (from spermatocytes to spermatozoa) in the case of a constitutional balanced reciprocal translocation responsible for severe oligoasthenoteratospermia. Total RNA was extracted in 3 replicates from testicular biopsies control animals, from testicular biopsy of an oligospermic boar and from testicular biopsy of a severe oligo-astheno-teratospermic boar carrier of the trcp(1;14) reciprocal translocation.
Project description:Constitutional translocations, typically involving chromosome 3, have been recognized as a rare cause of inherited predisposition to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for four decades. However, knowledge of the molecular basis of this association is limited. We have characterized the breakpoints by genome sequencing (GS) of constitutional chromosome abnormalities in five individuals who presented with RCC. In one individual with constitutional t(10;17)(q11.21;p11.2), the translocation breakpoint disrupted two genes: the known renal tumor suppressor gene (TSG) FLCN (and clinical features of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome were detected) and RASGEF1A. In four cases, the rearrangement breakpoints did not disrupt known inherited RCC genes. In the second case without chromosome 3 involvement, the translocation breakpoint in an individual with a constitutional t(2;17)(q21.1;q11.2) mapped 12 Kb upstream of NLK. Interestingly, NLK has been reported to interact indirectly with FBXW7 and a previously reported RCC-associated translocation breakpoint disrupted FBXW7. In two cases of constitutional chromosome 3 translocations, no candidate TSGs were identified in the vicinity of the breakpoints. However, in an individual with a constitutional chromosome 3 inversion, the 3p breakpoint disrupted the FHIT TSG (which has been reported previously to be disrupted in two apparently unrelated families with an RCC-associated t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1). These findings (a) expand the range of constitutional chromosome rearrangements that may be associated with predisposition to RCC, (b) confirm that chromosome rearrangements not involving chromosome 3 can predispose to RCC, (c) suggest that a variety of molecular mechanisms are involved the pathogenesis of translocation-associated RCC, and (d) demonstrate the utility of GS for investigating such cases.
Project description:Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the peripheral nervous system in which structural chromosome aberrations are emblematic of aggressive tumors. In this study, we performed an in-depth analysis of somatic rearrangements in two neuroblastoma cell lines and two primary tumors using paired-end sequencing of mate-pair libraries and RNA-seq. The cell lines presented with typical genetic alterations of neuroblastoma and the two tumors belong to the group of neuroblastoma exhibiting a profile of chromothripsis. Inter and intra-chromosomal rearrangements were identified in the four samples, allowing in particular characterization of unbalanced translocations at high resolution. Using complementary experiments, we further characterized 51 rearrangements at the base pair resolution that revealed 59 DNA junctions. In a subset of cases, complex rearrangements were observed with templated insertion of fragments of nearby sequences. Although we did not identify known particular motifs in the local environment of the breakpoints, we documented frequent microhomologies at the junctions in both chromothripsis and non-chromothripsis associated breakpoints. RNA-seq experiments confirmed expression of several predicted chimeric genes and genes with disrupted exon structure including ALK, NBAS, FHIT, PTPRD and ODZ4. Our study therefore indicates that both non-homologous end joining-mediated repair and replicative processes may account for genomic rearrangements in neuroblastoma. RNA-seq analysis allows the identification of the subset of abnormal transcripts expressed from genomic rearrangements that may be involved in neuroblastoma oncogenesis.
Project description:Familial apparently balanced translocations (ABTs) segregating with discordant phenotypes are extremely challenging for interpretation and counseling due to the scarcity of publications and lack of routine techniques for quick investigation. Recently, next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficacious methodology for precise detection of translocation breakpoints. However, studies so far have mainly focused on de novo translocations. The present study focuses specifically on familial cases in order to shed some light to this diagnostic dilemma. Whole-genome mate-pair sequencing (WG-MPS) was applied to map the breakpoints in nine two-way ABT carriers from four families. Translocation breakpoints and patient-specific structural variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Identical sequencing patterns and breakpoints were identified in affected and non-affected members carrying the same translocations. PTCD1, ATP5J2-PTCD1, CADPS2, and STPG1 were disrupted by the translocations in three families, rendering them initially as possible disease candidate genes. However, subsequent mutation screening and structural variant analysis did not reveal any pathogenic mutations or unique variants in the affected individuals that could explain the phenotypic differences between carriers of the same translocations. In conclusion, we suggest that NGS-based methods, such as WG-MPS, can be successfully used for detailed mapping of translocation breakpoints, which can also be used in routine clinical investigation of ABT cases. Unlike de novo translocations, no associations were determined here between familial two-way ABTs and the phenotype of the affected members, in which the presence of cryptic imbalances and complex chromosomal rearrangements has been excluded. Future whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing will potentially reveal unidentified mutations in the patients underlying the discordant phenotypes within each family. In addition, larger studies are needed to determine the exact percentage for phenotypic risk in families with ABTs.
Project description:Translocation is one of the most frequently occurring human chromosomal aberrations. The constitutional t(11;22)(q23;q11), which is the only known recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation, represents a good model for studying translocations in humans. Here we demonstrate polymorphisms of the palindromic sequence at the t(11;22) breakpoint that affect the frequency of de novo translocations in sperm from normal males. A typical allele consists of a perfect palindrome, producing ~10-5 de novo t(11;22) translocations. Alleles with an asymmetric center do not form the t(11;22). Our data show the importance of genome sequence on chromosomal rearrangements, a class of human mutation that is thought to be random.
Project description:Chromosomal translocations that results in formation and activation of fusion oncogenes are observed in numerous solid malignancies since years back. Expression of fusion kinases in these cancers drives the initiation & progression that ultimately leads to tumour development and thus comes out to be clinically imperative in terms of diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Nonetheless, molecular mechanisms beneath these translocations remained unexplored consequently limiting our knowledge of carcinogenesis and hence is the current field where further research is required. The issue of prime focus is the precision with which the chromosomes breaks and reunites within genome. Characterization of Genomic sequences located at Breakpoint region may direct us towards the thorough understanding of mechanism leading to chromosomal rearrangement. A unique computational multi-parametric analysis was performed for characterization of genomic sequence within and around breakpoint region. This study turns out to be novel as it reveals the occurrence of Segmental Duplications flanking the breakpoints of all translocation. Breakpoint Islands were also investigated for the presence of other intricate genomic architecture and various physico-chemical parameters. Our study particularly highlights the probable role of SDs and specific genomic features in precise chromosomal breakage. Additionally, it pinpoints the potential features that may be significant for double-strand breaks leading to chromosomal rearrangements.