Genome Sequence of the Alcelaphine Gammaherpesvirus 1 Attenuated Laboratory Strain WC11.
ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of the alcelaphine gammaherpesvirus 1 (AIHV-1) attenuated laboratory strain WC11 was determined from purified virion DNA. The viral light DNA (L-DNA) genome of 127,215 bp is mostly conserved compared to the pathogenic strain C500; however, 3.3 kb is deleted in two regions, affecting 4 of 10 AIHV-1-specific open reading frames.
Project description:Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. Upon cross-species transmission, AlHV-1 induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of ruminants, including cattle. The strain C500 has been cloned as an infectious, pathogenic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that is used to study MCF. Although AlHV-1 infection can be established in cell culture, multiple passages in vitro cause a loss of virulence associated with rearrangements of the viral genome. Here, sequencing of the BAC clone showed that the long unique region (LUR) of the genome is nearly identical to that of the previously sequenced strain from which the BAC was derived, and identified the duplication and translocation of a region from within LUR, containing the entire coding sequences of ORF50-encoding reactivation transactivator Rta and A6-encoding bZIP protein genes. The duplicated region was further located to a position within the terminal repeat (TR) and its deletion resulted in lower ORF50 expression levels and reduced viral fitness. Finally, the presence of a similar but not identical duplication and translocation containing both genes was found in AlHV-1 strain WC11. These results indicate that selection pressure for enhanced viral fitness may drive the duplication of ORF50 and A6 in AlHV-1.
Project description:Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1), a causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, was detected in wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) placenta tissue for the first time. Although viral load was low, the finding of viral DNA in over 50% of 94 samples tested lends support to the possibility that placental tissue could play a role in disease transmission and that wildebeest calves are infected in utero. Two viral loci were sequenced to examine variation among virus samples obtained from wildebeest and cattle: the ORF50 gene, encoding the lytic cycle transactivator protein, and the A9.5 gene, encoding a novel polymorphic viral glycoprotein. ORF50 was well conserved with six newly discovered alleles differing at only one or two base positions. In contrast, while only three new A9.5 alleles were discovered, these differed by up to 13% at the nucleotide level and up to 20% at the amino acid level. Structural homology searching performed with the additional A9.5 sequences determined in this study adds power to recent analysis identifying the four-helix bundle cytokine interleukin-4 (IL4) as the major homologue. The majority of MCF virus samples obtained from Tanzanian cattle and wildebeest encoded A9.5 polypeptides identical to the previously characterized A9.5 allele present in the laboratory maintained AlHV-1 C500 strain. This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF.
Project description:Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) is a gammaherpesvirus that is carried asymptomatically by wildebeest. Upon cross-species transmission to other ruminants, including domestic cattle, AlHV-1 induces malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), which is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease resulting from proliferation and uncontrolled activation of latently infected CD8+ T cells. Two laboratory strains of AlHV-1 are used commonly in research: C500, which is pathogenic, and WC11, which has been attenuated by long-term maintenance in cell culture. The published genome sequence of a WC11 seed stock from a German laboratory revealed the deletion of two major regions. The sequence of a WC11 seed stock used in our laboratory also bears these deletions and, in addition, the duplication of an internal sequence in the terminal region. The larger of the two deletions has resulted in the absence of gene A7 and a large portion of gene A8. These genes are positional orthologs of the Epstein-Barr virus genes encoding envelope glycoproteins gp42 and gp350, respectively, which are involved in viral propagation and switching of cell tropism. To investigate the degree to which the absence of A7 and A8 participates in WC11 attenuation, recombinant viruses lacking these individual functions were generated in C500. Using bovine nasal turbinate and embryonic lung cell lines, increased cell-free viral propagation and impaired syncytia formation were observed in the absence of A7, whereas cell-free viral spread was inhibited in the absence of A8. Therefore, A7 appears to be involved in cell-to-cell viral spread, and A8 in viral cell-free propagation. Finally, infection of rabbits with either mutant did not induce the signs of MCF or the expansion of infected CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that A7 and A8 are both essential for regulating viral spread and suggest that AlHV-1 requires both genes to efficiently spread in vivo and reach CD8+ T lymphocytes and induce MCF.
Project description:Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1) causes wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever, a lymphoproliferative syndrome in ungulate species other than the natural host. Based on biological properties and limited structural data, it has been classified as a member of the genus Rhadinovirus of the subfamily Gammaherpes-virinae. Here, we report on cloning and structural analysis of the complete genome of AHV-1 C500. The low GC content DNA (L-DNA) region of the genome consists of 130,608 bp with low (46.17%) GC content and marked suppression of CpG dinucleotide frequency. Like in herpesvirus saimiri, the prototype of the rhadinoviruses, the L-DNA is flanked by approximately 20 to 25 GC-rich (71.83%) high GC content DNA (H-DNA) repeats of 1,113 to 1,118 nucleotides. The analysis of the L-DNA sequence revealed 70 open reading frames (ORFs), 61 of which showed homology to other herpesviruses. The conserved ORFs are arranged in four blocks collinear to other Rhadinovirus genomes. These gene blocks are flanked by nonconserved regions containing ORFs without similarities to known herpesvirus genes. Notably, a spliced reading frame with a coding capacity for a 199-amino-acid protein is located in a position homologous to the transforming genes of herpesvirus saimiri at the left end of the L-DNA. A gene with homology to the semaphorin family is located adjacent to this. Despite common biological and epidemiological properties, AHV-1 differs significantly from herpesvirus saimiri with regard to cell homologous genes, probably using a different set of effector proteins to achieve a similar T-lymphocyte-transforming phenotype.
Project description:Open reading frame 11 (ORF11) is a conserved gammaherpesvirus gene that remains undefined. We identified the product of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) ORF11, p43, as a virion component with a predominantly perinuclear distribution in infected cells. MHV-68 lacking p43 grew normally in vitro but showed reduced lytic replication in vivo and a delay in seeding to the spleen. Subsequent latency amplification was normal. Thus, MHV-68 ORF11 encoded a virion component that was important for in vivo lytic replication but dispensable for the establishment of latency.
Project description:Rodent herpesviruses such as murine cytomegalovirus (host, Mus musculus), rat cytomegalovirus (host, Rattus norvegicus), and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (hosts, Apodemus species) are important tools for the experimental study of human herpesvirus diseases. However, alphaherpesviruses, roseoloviruses, and lymphocryptoviruses, as well as rhadinoviruses, that naturally infect Mus musculus (house mouse) and other Old World mice are unknown. To identify hitherto-unknown rodent-associated herpesviruses, we captured M. musculus, R. norvegicus, and 14 other rodent species in several locations in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Thailand. Samples of trigeminal ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, brains, spleens, and other organs, as well as blood, were analyzed with a degenerate panherpesvirus PCR targeting the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene. Herpesvirus-positive samples were subjected to a second degenerate PCR targeting the glycoprotein B (gB) gene. The sequences located between the partial DPOL and gB sequences were amplified by long-distance PCR and sequenced, resulting in a contiguous sequence of approximately 3.5 kbp. By DPOL PCR, we detected 17 novel betaherpesviruses and 21 novel gammaherpesviruses but no alphaherpesvirus. Of these 38 novel herpesviruses, 14 were successfully analyzed by the complete bigenic approach. Most importantly, the first gammaherpesvirus of Mus musculus was discovered (Mus musculus rhadinovirus 1 [MmusRHV1]). This virus is a member of a novel group of rodent gammaherpesviruses, which is clearly distinct from murine herpesvirus 68-like rodent gammaherpesviruses. Multigenic phylogenetic analysis, using an 8-kbp locus, revealed that MmusRHV1 diverged from the other gammaherpesviruses soon after the evolutionary separation of Epstein-Barr virus-like lymphocryptoviruses from human herpesvirus 8-like rhadinoviruses and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1-like macaviruses.
Project description:Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) glycoprotein B (gB) was identified in purified virions by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy. It was synthesized as a 120-kDa precursor in infected cells and cleaved into 65-kDa and 55-kDa disulfide-linked subunits close to the time of virion release. The N-linked glycans on the cleaved, virion gB remained partially endoglycosidase H sensitive. The processing of MHV-68 gB therefore appears similar to that of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gB and human cytomegalovirus gB.
Project description:Tegument is a unique structure of herpesvirus, which surrounds the capsid and interacts with the envelope. Morphogenesis of gammaherpesvirus is poorly understood due to lack of efficient lytic replication for Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8, which are etiologically associated with several types of human malignancies. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is genetically related to the human gammaherpesviruses and presents an excellent model for studying de novo lytic replication of gammaherpesviruses. MHV-68 open reading frame 33 (ORF33) is conserved among Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaherpesvirinae subfamilies. However, the specific role of ORF33 in gammaherpesvirus replication has not yet been characterized. We describe here that ORF33 is a true late gene and encodes a tegument protein. By constructing an ORF33-null MHV-68 mutant, we demonstrated that ORF33 is not required for viral DNA replication, early and late gene expression, viral DNA packaging or capsid assembly but is required for virion morphogenesis and egress. Although the ORF33-null virus was deficient in release of infectious virions, partially tegumented capsids produced by the ORF33-null mutant accumulated in the cytoplasm, containing conserved capsid proteins, ORF52 tegument protein, but virtually no ORF45 tegument protein and the 65-kDa glycoprotein B. Finally, we found that the defect of ORF33-null MHV-68 could be rescued by providing ORF33 in trans or in an ORF33-null revertant virus. Taken together, our results indicate that ORF33 is a tegument protein required for viral lytic replication and functions in virion morphogenesis and egress.
Project description:The herpesvirus nuclear egress complex (NEC) is composed of two viral proteins. They play key roles in mediating the translocation of capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by facilitating the budding of capsids into the perinuclear space (PNS). The NEC of alphaherpesvirus can induce the formation of virion-like vesicles from the nuclear membrane in the absence of other viral proteins. However, whether the NEC of gammaherpesvirus harbors the ability to do so in mammalian cells remains to be determined. In this study, we first constructed open reading frame 67 (ORF67)-null and ORF69-null mutants of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and demonstrated that both ORF67 and ORF69 play critical roles in nuclear egress and hence viral lytic replication. Biochemical and bioimaging analyses showed that ORF67 and ORF69 interacted with each other and were sufficient to induce the formation of virion-like vesicles from the nuclear membrane in mammalian cells. Thus, we designated ORF67 and ORF69 components of MHV-68 NEC. Furthermore, we identified amino acids critical for mediating the interaction between ORF67 and ORF69 through homology modeling and verified their function in nuclear egress, providing insights into the molecular basis of NEC formation in gammaherpesviruses.IMPORTANCE Increasing amounts of knowledge indicate that the nuclear egress complex (NEC) is critical for the nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids, which can be viewed as a vesicle-mediated transport pathway through the nuclear membrane. In this study, we identified open reading frame 67 (ORF67) and ORF69 as components of the NEC in murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and demonstrated that they efficiently induce virion-like vesicles from the nuclear membrane in mammalian cells. This is the first time that the NEC of a gammaherpesvirus has been found to demonstrate such an essential characteristic. In addition, we identified amino acids critical for mediating the interaction between ORF67 and ORF69 as well as nuclear egress. Notably, these amino acids are conserved in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), providing a structural basis to design antigammaherpesvirus drugs.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis strain C500 is a live vaccine attenuated by chemical methods. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain, which may be helpful for elucidating the attenuation mechanism of the vaccine strain.