Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.
ABSTRACT: Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.
Project description:By inducing the generation and function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, the master regulator of hematopoiesis GATA-2 controls the production of all blood cell types. Heterozygous <i>GATA2</i> mutations cause immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. <i>GATA2</i> disease mutations commonly disrupt amino acid residues that mediate DNA binding or <i>cis</i>-elements within a vital <i>GATA2</i> intronic enhancer, suggesting a haploinsufficiency mechanism of pathogenesis. Mutations also occur in <i>GATA2</i> coding regions distinct from the DNA-binding carboxyl-terminal zinc finger (C-finger), including the amino-terminal zinc finger (N-finger), and N-finger function is not established. Whether distinct mutations differentially impact GATA-2 mechanisms is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that N-finger mutations decreased GATA-2 chromatin occupancy and attenuated target gene regulation. We developed a genetic complementation assay to quantify GATA-2 function in myeloid progenitor cells from <i>Gata2</i> -77 enhancer-mutant mice. GATA-2 complementation increased erythroid and myeloid differentiation. While GATA-2 disease mutants were not competent to induce erythroid differentiation of Lin<sup>-</sup>Kit<sup>+</sup> myeloid progenitors, unexpectedly, they promoted myeloid differentiation and proliferation. As the myelopoiesis-promoting activity of GATA-2 mutants exceeded that of GATA-2, <i>GATA2</i> disease mutations are not strictly inhibitory. Thus, we propose that the haploinsufficiency paradigm does not fully explain GATA-2-linked pathogenesis, and an amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative defects instigated by <i>GATA2</i> mutations underlies the complex phenotypes of GATA-2-dependent pathologies.
Project description:GATA-2 deficiency was recently described as common cause of overlapping syndromes of immunodeficiency, lymphedema, familiar myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of our study was to analyze bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of children with myelodysplastic syndrome or aplastic anemia to define prevalence of the GATA2 mutation and to assess whether mutations in GATA-2 transcription factor exhibit specific immunophenotypic features. The prevalence of a GATA2 mutation in a consecutively diagnosed cohort of children was 14% in advanced forms of myelodysplastic syndrome (refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, and myelodysplasia-related acute myeloid leukemia), 17% in refractory cytopenia of childhood, and 0% in aplastic anemia. In GATA-2-deficient cases, we found the most profound B-cell lymphopenia, including its progenitors in blood and bone marrow, which correlated with significantly diminished intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles in comparison to other myelodysplastic syndrome/aplastic anemia cases. The other typical features of GATA-2 deficiency (monocytopenia and natural killer cell lymphopenia) were less discriminative. In conclusion, we suggest screening for GATA2 mutations in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome, preferentially in patients with impaired B-cell homeostasis in bone marrow and peripheral blood (low number of progenitors, intronRSS-Kde recombination excision circles and naïve cells).
Project description:GATA2, a key transcription factor in hematopoiesis, is frequently mutated in hematopoietic malignancies. How the GATA2 mutants contribute to hematopoiesis and malignant transformation remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that Gata2-L359V mutation impeded hematopoietic differentiation in murine embryonic and adult hematopoiesis and blocked murine chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell differentiation. We established a Gata2-L359V knockin mouse model in which the homozygous Gata2-L359V mutation caused major defects in primitive erythropoiesis with an accumulation of erythroid precursors and severe anemia, leading to embryonic lethality around E11.5. During adult life, the Gata2-L359V heterozygous mice exhibited a notable decrease in bone marrow (BM) recovery under stress induction with cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. Using RNA sequencing, it was revealed that homozygous Gata2-L359V suppressed genes related to embryonic hematopoiesis in yolk sac, while heterozygous Gata2-L359V dysregulated genes related to cell cycle and proliferation in BM Lin<sup>-</sup>Sca1<sup>+</sup>c-kit<sup>+</sup> cells. Furthermore, through chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and transactivation experiments, we found that this mutation enhanced the DNA-binding capacity and transcriptional activities of Gata2, which was likely associated with the altered expression of some essential genes during embryonic and adult hematopoiesis. In mice model harboring BCR/ABL, single-cell RNA-sequencing demonstrated that Gata2-L359V induced additional gene expression profile abnormalities and partially affected cell differentiation at the early stage of myelomonocytic lineage, evidenced by the increase of granulocyte-monocyte progenitors and monocytosis. Taken together, our study unveiled that Gata2-L359V mutation induces defective hematopoietic development and blocks the differentiation of CML cells.
Project description:Constitutional GATA2 deficiency caused by heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations has a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes, including systemic infections, lymphedema, cytopenias, and myeloid neoplasms. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not well understood mechanistically in GATA2 deficiency. We performed whole transcriptome sequencing of single hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from 8 patients, who had pathogenic GATA2 mutations and myelodysplasia. Mapping patients' cells onto normal hematopoiesis, we observed deficiency in lymphoid/myeloid progenitors, also evident from highly constrained gene correlations. HSPCs of patients exhibited distinct patterns of gene expression and coexpression compared with counterparts from healthy donors. Distinct lineages showed differently altered transcriptional profiles. Stem cells in patients had dysregulated gene expression related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and quiescence; increased expression of erythroid/megakaryocytic priming genes; and decreased lymphoid priming genes. The prominent deficiency in lympho-myeloid lineages in GATA2 deficiency appeared at least partly due to the expression of aberrant gene programs in stem cells prior to lineage commitment. We computationally imputed cells with chromosomal abnormalities and determined their gene expression; DNA repair genes were downregulated in trisomy 8 cells, potentially rendering these cells vulnerable to second-hit somatic mutations and additional chromosomal abnormalities. Cells with complex cytogenetic abnormalities showed defects in genes related to multilineage differentiation and cell cycle. Single-cell RNA sequencing is powerful in resolving transcriptomes of cell subpopulations despite a paucity of cells in marrow failure. Our study discloses previously uncharacterized transcriptome signatures of stem cells and progenitors in GATA2 deficiency, providing a broad perspective of potential mechanisms by which germline mutations modulate early hematopoiesis in a human disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01905826, NCT01861106, and NCT00001620.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical immune response regulators; however, the mechanism of DC differentiation is not fully understood. Heterozygous germ line GATA2 mutations induce GATA2-deficiency syndrome, characterized by monocytopenia, a predisposition to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia, and a profoundly reduced DC population, which is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased cytokine production. To define the role of GATA2 in DC differentiation and function, we studied Gata2 conditional knockout and haploinsufficient mice. Gata2 conditional deficiency significantly reduced the DC count, whereas Gata2 haploinsufficiency did not affect this population. GATA2 was required for the in vitro generation of DCs from Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells, common myeloid-restricted progenitors, and common dendritic cell precursors, but not common lymphoid-restricted progenitors or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, suggesting that GATA2 functions in the myeloid pathway of DC differentiation. Moreover, expression profiling demonstrated reduced expression of myeloid-related genes, including mafb, and increased expression of T-lymphocyte-related genes, including Gata3 and Tcf7, in Gata2-deficient DC progenitors. In addition, GATA2 was found to bind an enhancer element 190-kb downstream region of Gata3, and a reporter assay exhibited significantly reduced luciferase activity after adding this enhancer region to the Gata3 promoter, which was recovered by GATA sequence deletion within Gata3 +190. These results suggest that GATA2 plays an important role in cell-fate specification toward the myeloid vs T-lymphocyte lineage by regulating lineage-specific transcription factors in DC progenitors, thereby contributing to DC differentiation.
Project description:Hematopoietic development requires the transcription factor GATA-2, and GATA-2 mutations cause diverse pathologies, including leukemia. GATA-2-regulated enhancers increase Gata2 expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and control hematopoiesis. The +9.5-kb enhancer activates transcription in endothelium and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its deletion abrogates HSC generation. The -77-kb enhancer activates transcription in myeloid progenitors, and its deletion impairs differentiation. Since +9.5-/- embryos are HSC deficient, it was unclear whether the +9.5 functions in progenitors or if GATA-2 expression in progenitors solely requires -77. We further dissected the mechanisms using -77;+9.5 compound heterozygous (CH) mice. The embryonic lethal CH mutation depleted megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs). While the +9.5 suffices for HSC generation, the -77 and +9.5 must reside on one allele to induce MEPs. The -77 generated burst-forming unit-erythroid through the induction of GATA-1 and other GATA-2 targets. The enhancer circuits controlled signaling pathways that orchestrate a GATA factor-dependent blood development program.
Project description:Increased expression of Kruppel like factor 7 (KLF7) is an independent predictor of poor outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The contribution of KLF7 to hematopoiesis has not been previously described. Herein, we characterized the effect on murine hematopoiesis of the loss of KLF7 and enforced expression of KLF7. Long-term multilineage engraftment of Klf7-/- cells was comparable to control cells, and self-renewal, as assessed by serial transplantation, was not affected. Enforced expression of KLF7 results in a marked suppression of myeloid progenitor cell growth and a loss of short- and long-term repopulating activity. Interestingly, enforced expression of KLF7, while resulting in multi-lineage growth suppression that extended to hematopoietic stem cells and common lymphoid progenitors, spared T cells and enhanced the survival of early thymocytes. RNA expression profiling of KLF7-overexpressing hematopoietic progenitors identified several potential target genes mediating these effects. Notably, the known KLF7 target Cdkn1a (p21Cip1/Waf1) was not induced by KLF7, and loss of CDKN1A does not rescue the repopulating defect. These results suggest that KLF7 is not required for normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor (HSPC) function, but increased expression, as seen in a subset of lymphoid leukemia, inhibits myeloid cell proliferation and promotes early thymocyte survival. KLF7 KO vs WT HSPC expression array: KLS (lineage- c-Kit+ Sca-1+) cells were sorted from the bone marrow of Klf7-/- chimeras at 12 weeks post-transplant. Fetal liver cells were used to establish chimeric mice (C57Bl/6 background) containing a mixture of Klf7+/+ and Klf7-/- bone marrow cells.
Project description:The potential of in vivo lentivirus-mediated bone marrow stem cell gene transfer by bone cavity injection, which could take full advantage of any source of stem cells present there, has not been previously explored. Such an approach may avoid several difficulties encountered by ex vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene transfer. We sought to determine if efficient gene transfer could be achieved in HSC and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSC) by intrafemoral injection of a lentivirus vector in mice. Four months after injection, up to 12% GFP-expressing cells were observed in myeloid and lymphoid subpopulations. Significant transduction efficiencies were seen in Lin(-)c-kit(+)Sca1(+) HSC/progenitors and CFU with multilineage potential, which were also confirmed by duplex PCR analysis of progenitor-derived colonies. Four months after secondary BMT, we observed 8.1 to 15% vector(+) CFU in all recipients. Integration analysis by LAM-PCR demonstrated that multiple transduced clones contributed to hematopoiesis in these animals. We also showed that GFP-expressing MSC retained multilineage differentiation potential, with 2.9 to 8.8% GFP-containing CFU-fibroblasts detected in both injected and BMT recipients. Our data provide evidence that adult stem cells in bone marrow can be efficiently transduced "in situ" by in vivo vector administration without preconditioning. This approach could lead to a novel application for treatment of human diseases.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of mouse comparing in vitro-derived DC progenitors from control and Gata2 conditional knockout mice. Two-condition experiment, Control DCs vs. G2 Knockout DCs. Biological replicates: 4 control, 3 Gata2 knockout, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical immune response regulators; however, the mechanism of DC differentiation is not fully understood. Heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations induce GATA2 deficiency syndrome, characterized by monocytopenia, a predisposition to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia, and a profoundly reduced DC population, which is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased cytokine production. To define the role of GATA2 in DC differentiation and function, we studied Gata2 conditional knockout and haploinsufficient mice. Gata2 conditional deficiency significantly reduced the DC count, whereas Gata2 haploinsufficiency did not affect this population. GATA2 was required for the in vitro generation of DCs from Linâ??Sca-1+Kit+ cells, common myeloid-restricted progenitors, and common dendritic cell precursors, but not common lymphoid-restricted progenitors or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, suggesting that GATA2 functions in the myeloid pathway of DC differentiation. Moreover, expression profiling demonstrated reduced expression of myeloid-related genes, including mafb, and increased expression of T-lymphocyte-related genes, including Gata3 and Tcf7, in Gata2-deficient DC progenitors. In addition, GATA2 was found to bind an enhancer element 190-kb downstream region of Gata3, and a reporter assay exhibited significantly reduced luciferase activity after adding this enhancer region to the Gata3 promoter, which was recovered by GATA sequence deletion within Gata3 +190. These results suggest that GATA2 plays an important role in cell fate specification toward the myeloid versus T lymphocyte lineage by regulating lineage-specific transcription factors in DC progenitors, thereby contributing to DC differentiation.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic disorders rare in childhood, often occurring in patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes or germinal predisposition syndromes. Among the latter, one of the most frequent involves the gene GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2), coding for a transcriptional regulator of hematopoiesis. The genetic lesion as well as the clinical phenotype are extremely variable; many patients present hematological malignancies, especially MDS with the possibility to evolve into acute myeloid leukemia. Variable immune dysfunction, especially resulting in B- and NK-cell lymphopenia, lead to severe infections, including generalized warts and mycobacterial infection. Defects of alveolar macrophages lead to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis through inadequate clearance of surfactant proteins. Currently, there are no clear guidelines for the monitoring and treatment of patients with GATA2 mutations. In patients with MDS, the only curative treatment is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that restores normal hematopoiesis preventing the progression to acute myeloid leukemia and clears long-standing infections. However, to date, the donor type, conditioning regimen, and the optimal time to proceed to HSCT, as well as the level of chimerism needed to reverse the phenotype, remain unclear highlighting the need for consensus guidelines.