A comparison of chloroplast genome sequences in Aconitum (Ranunculaceae): a traditional herbal medicinal genus.
ABSTRACT: The herbal medicinal genus Aconitum L., belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, represents the earliest diverging lineage within the eudicots. It currently comprises of two subgenera, A. subgenus Lycoctonum and A. subg. Aconitum. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences were characterized in three species: A. angustius, A. finetianum, and A. sinomontanum in subg. Lycoctonum and compared to other Aconitum species to clarify their phylogenetic relationship and provide molecular information for utilization of Aconitum species particularly in Eastern Asia. The length of the chloroplast genome sequences were 156,109 bp in A. angustius, 155,625 bp in A. finetianum and 157,215 bp in A. sinomontanum, with each species possessing 126 genes with 84 protein coding genes (PCGs). While genomic rearrangements were absent, structural variation was detected in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries. Five pseudogenes were identified, among which ?rps19 and ?ycf1 were in the LSC/IR/SSC boundaries, ?rps16 and ?infA in the LSC region, and ?ycf15 in the IRb region. The nucleotide variability (Pi) of Aconitum was estimated to be 0.00549, with comparably higher variations in the LSC and SSC than the IR regions. Eight intergenic regions were revealed to be highly variable and a total of 58-62 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in all three species. More than 80% of SSRs were present in the LSC region. Altogether, 64.41% and 46.81% of SSRs are mononucleotides in subg. Lycoctonum and subg. Aconitum, respectively, while a higher percentage of di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- SSRs were present in subg. Aconitum. Most species of subg. Aconitum in Eastern Asia were first used for phylogenetic analyses. The availability of the complete cp genome sequences of these species in subg. Lycoctonum will benefit future phylogenetic analyses and aid in germplasm utilization in Aconitum species.
Project description:Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai and Aconitum longecassidatum Nakai, which belong to the Aconitum subgenus Lycoctonum, are distributed in East Asia and Korea. Aconitum species are used in herbal medicine and contain highly toxic components, including aconitine. A. pseudolaeve, an endemic species of Korea, is a commercially valuable material that has been used in the manufacture of cosmetics and perfumes. Although Aconitum species are important plant resources, they have not been extensively studied, and genomic information is limited. Within the subgenus Lycoctonum, which includes A. pseudolaeve and A. longecassidatum, a complete chloroplast (CP) genome is available for only one species, Aconitum barbatum Patrin ex Pers. Therefore, we sequenced the complete CP genomes of two Aconitum species, A. pseudolaeve and A. longecassidatum, which are 155,628 and 155,524 bp in length, respectively. Both genomes have a quadripartite structure consisting of a pair of inverted repeated regions (51,854 and 52,108 bp, respectively) separated by large single-copy (86,683 and 86,466 bp) and small single-copy (17,091 and 16,950 bp) regions similar to those in other Aconitum CP genomes. Both CP genomes consist of 112 unique genes, 78 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. We identified 268 and 277 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in A. pseudolaeve and A. longecassidatum, respectively. We also identified potential 36 species-specific SSRs, 53 indels, and 62 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the two CP genomes. Furthermore, a comparison of the three Aconitum CP genomes from the subgenus Lycoctonum revealed highly divergent regions, including trnK-trnQ, ycf1-ndhF, and ycf4-cemA. Based on this finding, we developed indel markers using indel sequences in trnK-trnQ and ycf1-ndhF. A. pseudolaeve, A. longecassidatum, and A. barbatum could be clearly distinguished using the novel indel markers AcoTT (Aconitum trnK-trnQ) and AcoYN (Aconitum ycf1-ndhF). These two new complete CP genomes provide useful genomic information for species identification and evolutionary studies of the Aconitum subgenus Lycoctonum.
Project description:<i>Aconitum scaposum</i> Franch 1894 belongs to the Genus <i>Aconitum</i> and Subgenus <i>Lycoctonum</i> (Ranunculaceae). It is widely distributed in China and adjacent areas, used as herbal medicine and had highy toxic components. This species has little reasearch information, especially its chloroplast (cp) genome information being unclear. Therefore, with the method of high salt and low pH to extract the cp of <i>A. scaposum</i>, we sequenced and assembled the complete cp genome of <i>A. scaposum</i> using Illumina high-throughput sequencing platform. The results showed the cp genome of <i>A. scaposum</i> was 157 688 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeated regions (IRa 26 156 bp and IRb 26 232 bp, respectively), large single copy region (LSC 69 309 bp) and small single copy region (SSC 16 917 bp). And cp genome of <i>A. scaposum</i> consisted of 145 unique genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 38 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, with GC content was 38%. Meanwhile, based on the cp complete genome, we performed the phylogenetic tree of <b>66</b> species with maximum likelihood (ML) method, respectively. Among them, we selected one <i>Delphinium</i> species as the outgroup and the bootstrap of each braches were greater than 90%. The results indicated that the phylogenetic relationship of <i>A. scaposum</i> was <b>relatively closely related to <i>A. scaposum</i> var. <i>vaginatum</i> compared to other <i>Aconitum</i> species</b>.
Project description:The Tangut monkshood (<i>Aconitum tanguticum</i>) is a perennial herb with high medicinal values. Here, its chloroplast genome was assembled from Illumina sequencing reads. The circular genome is 157,114 bp long with an A + T-biased nucleotide composition, and comprises a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (26,255 bp), separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region (87,559 bp) and a small single-copy (SSC) region (17,045 bp). It encodes a total of 112 gene species, with 19 of them being completely or partially duplicated and 18 of them harboring one or two introns. Phylogenetic analysis recovered two major clades of the genus <i>Aconitum</i>.
Project description:The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an important medicinal plant of the family Ranunculaceae, <i>Aconitum carmichaelii</i> Debx., was characterized in this study. The assembled chloroplast genome was 154,776?bp in length, which included a large single-copy (LSC), a small single-copy (SSC), and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 86,330bp, 15,986?bp, and 26,193?bp, respectively. The GC content of the genome was 38.1%. Phylogenetic analysis with the whole nucleotide sequences of reported <i>Aconitum</i> chloroplast genomes indicated a close relationship of <i>A. carmichaelii</i> with <i>A. kusnezoffii</i>.
Project description:Cerasus humilis is endemic to China and is a new fruit tree species with economic and environmental benefits, with potential developmental and utilization applications. We report the first complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. humilis. Its genome is 158,084 bp in size, and the overall GC content is 36.8%. An inverted repeats (IR) of 52,672 bp in size is separated by a large single-copy (LSC) region of 86,374 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 19,038 bp. The chloroplast genome of C. humilis contains 131 genes including 90 protein-coding genes, 33 transfer RNA genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA genes. The genome has a total 510 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Of these, 306, 149, and 55 were found in the LSC, IR, and SSC regions, respectively. In addition, a comparison of the boundaries of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions of ten other Prunus species exhibited an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with slight variations in the IR boundary region which included gene deletions, insertions, expansions, and contractions. C. humilis lost the ycf1 gene at the IRA/SSC border and it has the largest ycf1 gene at the IRB/SSC border among these Prunus species, whereas the rps19 gene was inserted at the IRB/LSC junction. Furthermore, phylogenetic reconstruction using 61 conserved coding-protein genes clustered C. humilis with Prunus tomentosa. Thus, the complete chloroplast genome sequence of C. humilis provides a rich source of genetic information for studies on Prunus taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolution, as well as lays the foundation for further development and utilization of C. humilis.
Project description:Sonchus brachyotus DC. possesses both edible and medicinal properties and is widely distributed throughout China. In this study, the complete cp genome of S. brachyotus was sequenced and assembled. The total length of the complete S. brachyotus cp genome was 151,977 bp, including an LSC region of 84,553 bp, SSC region of 18,138 bp, and IR region of 24,643 bp. Sequence analyses revealed that the cp genome encoded 132 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. The GC content was 37.6%. One hundred mononucleotide microsatellites, 4 dinucleotide microsatellites, 67 trinucleotide microsatellites, 4 tetranucleotide microsatellites, and 1 long repeat were identified. The SSR frequency of the LSC region was significantly greater than that of the IR and SSC regions. In total, 175 SSRs and highly variable regions were recognized as potential cp markers. By analyzing the IR/LSC and IR/SSC boundaries, structural differences between S. brachyotus and 6 other species were detected. According to phylogenetic analyses, S. brachyotus was most closely related to S. arvensis and S. oleraceus. Overall, this study provides complete cp genome resources for S. brachyotus that will be beneficial for identifying potential molecular markers and evolutionary patterns of S. brachyotus and its closely related species.
Project description:Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. spontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses. This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa, and it might also facilitate the genetics and breeding of modern roses.
Project description:The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of <i>Aconitum austroyunnanense</i> W. T. Wang, a rare and endangered medicinal plant endemic to southwestern China, was sequenced to be 155,818 bp in length, including two inverted repeat (IR, 26,128 bp) regions, one large single-copy region (LSC) and one small single-copy region (SSC) of 86,555 bp and 17,007 bp, respectively. The cp genome has 131 annotated genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, 8 rRNA genes, and a pseudogene (<i>ycf1</i>). The overall GC content of it is 38.1%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cp genome of <i>A. austroyunnanense</i> is closely related to that of <i>Aconitum hemsleyanum.</i>
Project description:Abstract Aconitum piepunense belonging to the family Ranunculaceae is an endangered herb species in southwestern China. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome of A. piepunense was sequenced, and the results revealed a typical quadripartite structure with a length of 155,836 bp, including a large single-copy region (LSC, 86,433 bp), a small single-copy region (SSC, 16,945 bp), and a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (IRa and IRb, 26,229 bp, respectively). A total of 130 genes were identified in the A. piepunense chloroplast genome, containing 85 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the maximum likelihood method indicated that A. piepunense formed a monophyletic group, which was sister to A. contortum and A. vilmorinianum.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Paphiopedilum is the largest genus of slipper orchids. Previous studies showed that the phylogenetic relationships of this genus are not well resolved, and sparse taxon sampling documented inverted repeat (IR) expansion and small single copy (SSC) contraction of the chloroplast genomes of Paphiopedilum.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we sequenced, assembled, and annotated 77 plastomes of Paphiopedilum species (size range of 152,130 - 164,092 bp). The phylogeny based on the plastome resolved the relationships of the genus except for the phylogenetic position of two unstable species. We used phylogenetic and comparative genomic approaches to elucidate the plastome evolution of Paphiopedilum. The plastomes of Paphiopedilum have a conserved genome structure and gene content except in the SSC region. The large single copy/inverted repeat (LSC/IR) boundaries are relatively stable, while the boundaries of the inverted repeat and small single copy region (IR/SSC) varied among species. Corresponding to the IR/SSC boundary shifts, the chloroplast genomes of the genus experienced IR expansion and SSC contraction. The IR region incorporated one to six genes of the SSC region. Unexpectedly, great variation in the size, gene order, and gene content of the SSC regions was found, especially in the subg. Parvisepalum. Furthermore, Paphiopedilum provides evidence for the ongoing degradation of the ndh genes in the photoautotrophic plants. The estimated substitution rates of the protein coding genes show accelerated rates of evolution in clpP, psbH, and psbZ. Genes transferred to the IR region due to the boundary shift also have higher substitution rates.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found IR expansion and SSC contraction in the chloroplast genomes of Paphiopedilum with dense sampling, and the genus shows variation in the size, gene order, and gene content of the SSC region. This genus provides an ideal system to investigate the dynamics of plastome evolution.