PLOD2 regulated by transcription factor FOXA1 promotes metastasis in NSCLC.
ABSTRACT: In multiple types of tumors, fibrotic collagen is regarded as the 'highway' for cancer cell migration, which is mainly modified by lysyl hydroxylase 2 (PLOD2). The previous findings have demonstrated that the expression of PLOD2 was regulated by multiple factors, including HIF-1?, TGF-? and microRNA-26a/b. Although PLOD2 was confirmed to be related to poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma, the regulatory mechanism and function of PLOD2 in human lung adenocarcinoma is poorly understood. On the other hand, upregulation or hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor is considered as a prognostic marker in many cancers, especially in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we found that PLOD2 was elevated in NSCLC specimens and positively links to NSCLC poor prognosis. Gain- and loss-of-function studies and orthotopic implantation metastasis model pinpointed that PLOD2 promotes NSCLC metastasis directly by enhancing migration and indirectly by inducing collagen reorganization. In addition, we revealed that PLOD2 was regulated by PI3K/AKT-FOXA1 axis. The transcription factor FOXA1 directly bound to the PLOD2 promoter, and turned on PLOD2 transcription. In summary, our findings revealed a regulatory mechanism of NSCLC metastasis through EGFR-PI3K/AKT-FOXA1-PLOD2 pathway, and provided PLOD2 as a therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.
Project description:Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors with poor 5-year survival rate. Dysregulation of procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) was observed in gliomas, but the specific role and molecular mechanism of PLOD2 in glioma have not been reported yet. In this study, PLOD2 was found to be frequently up-regulated in glioma and could serve as an independent prognostic marker to identify patients with poor clinical outcome. Knockdown of PLOD2 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibition of PLOD2 inactivated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and thus regulated the expression of its downstream epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated regulators, including E-cadherin, vimentin, N-cadherin, ?-catenin, snail and slug in glioma cells. Moreover, PLOD2 could be induced by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) via hypoxia, thereby promoting hypoxia-induced EMT in glioma cells. Our data suggests that PLOD2 may be a potential therapeutic target for patients with glioma.
Project description:Intra-tumoral hypoxia and increases in extracellular level of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), which are common findings in cancer, are associated with an increased risk of metastasis and mortality. Moreover, metastasis is the leading cause of death of patients with cervical cancer. PLOD2 is an intracellular enzyme required for the biogenesis of collagen and its expression can be induced by hypoxia and TGF-?1. Specifically, PLOD2 is up-regulated in several types of cancer, including cervical cancer, and is associated with cancer metastasis. Thus, in this research, we aimed to investigate the role of PLOD2 in the motility of cervical cancer cells and to show the molecular mechanism underlying this effect.siRNA was used to knockdown PLOD2 in the cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa. The ability of cells to migrate and invade, their adhesion to type I collagen, and their capacity for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (???) and focal adhesion formation were analyzed. Gene expression changes were validated by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and Immunocytochemistry. The morphological status of cells was examined using phalloidin staining. Differences in PLOD2 expression among patients with cervical cancer were identified by referring to public databases, including Oncomine and TCGA.Hypoxia and TGF-?1 enhanced the expression of PLOD2 in HeLa and SiHa cells, and knockdown of PLOD2 inhibited cell motility and EMT. Moreover, the depletion of PLOD2 attenuated hypoxia-mediated cell migration and invasion and inhibited TGF-?1-induced phenotypic EMT-like changes by preventing ?-catenin from entering the nucleus. In addition, PLOD2 depletion decreased cell adhesion to extracellular collagen by inhibiting the formation of focal adhesions. Moreover, a database analysis showed that PLOD2 expression is associated with human cervical cancer progression.Overall, our results indicated that hypoxia- and TGF-?1-induced PLOD2 expression promotes the migratory, invasive and adhesive capacities of cervical cancer cells by participating in TGF-?1 induced EMT and the formation of focal adhesions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adipocytes make up the major component of breast tissue, accounting for 90% of stromal tissue. Thus, the crosstalk between adipocytes and breast cancer cells may play a critical role in cancer progression. Adipocyte-breast cancer interactions have been considered important for the promotion of breast cancer metastasis. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these interactions are unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of adipocyte-mediated breast cancer metastasis. METHODS:Breast cancer cells were cocultured with mature adipocytes for migration and 3D matrix invasion assays. Next, lentivirus-mediated loss-of-function experiments were used to explore the function of lysyl hydroxylase (PLOD2) in breast cancer migration and adipocyte-dependent migration of breast cancer cells. The role of PLOD2 in breast cancer metastasis was further confirmed using orthotopic mammary fat pad xenografts in vivo. Clinical samples were used to confirm that PLOD2 expression is increased in tumor tissue and is associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Cells were treated with cytokines and pharmacological inhibitors in order to verify which adipokines were responsible for activation of PLOD2 expression and which signaling pathways were activated in vitro. RESULTS:Gene expression profiling and Western blotting analyses revealed that PLOD2 was upregulated in breast cancer cells following coculture with adipocytes; this process was accompanied by enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Loss-of-function studies indicated that PLOD2 knockdown suppressed cell migration and disrupted the formation of actin stress fibers in breast cancer cells and abrogated the migration induced by following coculture with adipocytes. Moreover, experiments performed in orthotopic mammary fat pad xenografts showed that PLOD2 knockdown could reduce metastasis to the lung and liver. Further, high PLOD2 expression correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, adipocyte-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin may facilitate PLOD2 upregulation in breast cancer cells and promote breast cancer metastasis in tail vein metastasis assays. Further investigation revealed that adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promoted PLOD2 expression through activation of the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals that adipocyte-derived IL-6 and leptin promote PLOD2 expression by activating the JAK/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, thus promoting breast cancer metastasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer cells recruit surrounding stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), to remodel collagen and promote tumor metastasis. Adipocytes are the most abundant stromal partners in breast tissue, local invasion of breast cancer leads to the proximity of cancer cells and adipocytes, which respond to generate cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs). These cells exhibit enhanced secretion of extracellular matrix related proteins, including collagens. However, the role of adipocyte-derived collagen on breast cancer progression still remains unclear. METHODS:Adipocytes were cocultured with breast cancer cells for 3D collagen invasion and collagen organization exploration. Breast cancer cells and adipose tissue co- implanted mouse model, clinical breast cancer samples analysis were used to study the crosstalk between adipose and breast cancer cells in vivo. A combination of proteomics, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, loss of function assay, qPCR, western blot, database analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were performed to study the mechanism mediated the activation of PLOD2 in adipocytes. RESULTS:It was found that CAAs remodeled collagen alignment during crosstalk with breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which further promoted breast cancer metastasis. Tumor-derived PAI-1 was required to activate the expression of the intracellular enzyme procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2) in CAAs. Pharmacologic blockade of PAI-1 or PLOD2 disrupted the collagen reorganization in CAAs. Mechanistically, it was observed that PI3K/AKT pathway was activated in adipocytes upon co-culturing with breast cancer cells or treatment with recombinant PAI-1, which could promote the translocation of transcription factor FOXP1 into the nucleus and further enhanced the promoter activity of PLOD2 in CAAs. In addition, collagen reorganization at the tumor-adipose periphery, as well as the positive relevance between PAI-1 and PLOD2 in invasive breast carcinoma were confirmed in clinical specimens of breast cancer. CONCLUSION:In summary, our findings revealed a new stromal collagen network that favors tumor invasion and metastasis establish between breast cancer cells and surrounding adipocytes at the tumor invasive front, and identified PLOD2 as a therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer treatment.
Project description:Intratumoral hypoxia and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) correlate with metastasis and poor survival in patients with sarcoma. We show here that hypoxia controls sarcoma metastasis through a novel mechanism wherein HIF-1? enhances expression of the intracellular enzyme procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2). We show that loss of HIF-1? or PLOD2 expression disrupts collagen modification, cell migration, and pulmonary metastasis (but not primary tumor growth) in allograft and autochthonous LSL-Kras(G12D/+); Trp53(fl/fl) murine sarcoma models. Furthermore, ectopic PLOD2 expression restores migration and metastatic potential in HIF-1?-deficient tumors, and analysis of human sarcomas reveals elevated HIF1A and PLOD2 expression in metastatic primary lesions. Pharmacologic inhibition of PLOD enzymatic activity suppresses metastases. Collectively, these data indicate that HIF-1? controls sarcoma metastasis through PLOD2-dependent collagen modification and organization in primary tumors. We conclude that PLOD2 is a novel therapeutic target in sarcomas and successful inhibition of this enzyme may reduce tumor cell dissemination.Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a commonly diagnosed and particularly aggressive sarcoma subtype in adults, which frequently and fatally metastasizes to the lung. Here, we show the potential use of a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of metastatic UPS, specifi cally the collagen-modifying enzyme PLOD2.
Project description:Upregulation of collagen matrix crosslinking directly increases its ability to relieve stress under the constant strain imposed by solid tumor, a matrix property termed stress relaxation. However, it is unknown how rapid stress relaxation in response to increased strain impacts disease progression in a hypoxic environment. Previously, it has been demonstrated that hypoxia-induced expression of the crosslinker procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 (PLOD2), in sarcomas has resulted in increased lung metastasis. Here, we show that short stress relaxation times led to increased cell migration along a hypoxic gradient in 3D collagen matrices, and rapid stress relaxation upregulated PLOD2 expression via TGF?-SMAD2 signaling, forming a feedback loop between hypoxia and the matrix. Inhibition of this pathway led to a decrease in migration along the hypoxic gradients. In vivo, sarcoma primed in a hypoxic matrix with short stress relaxation time enhanced collagen fiber size and tumor density and increased lung metastasis. High expression of PLOD2 correlated with decreased overall survival in patients with sarcoma. Using a patient-derived sarcoma cell line, we developed a predictive platform for future personalized studies and therapeutics. Overall, these data show that the interplay between hypoxia and matrix stress relaxation amplifies PLOD2, which in turn accelerates sarcoma cell motility and metastasis. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that mechanical (stress relaxation) and chemical (hypoxia) properties of the tumor microenvironment jointly accelerate sarcoma motility and metastasis via increased expression of collagen matrix crosslinker PLOD2.
Project description:BACKGROUND Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) mainly includes lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the difference between the expression of Cbl-b in lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical features and survival data of NSCLC patients and Cbl-b mRNA (FPKM) were obtained from the TCGA database. Then, lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cell lines were transfected with lentivirus-mediated RNA interference vector to knockdown the expression of Cbl-b. Next, a Transwell assay was performed to study the effect of Cbl-b shRNA on migration and invasion of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells. Finally, Western blot analysis was performed to measure the expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, GSK3?, p-GSK3?, mTOR, and p-mTOR protein in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cells. RESULTS The correlation of Cbl-b expression and OS was different between NSCLC adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. After transfection, the expression of Cbl-b was inhibited in A549, H1975, and SW900 cells. Cbl-b shRNA promoted the migration and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma A549 and H1975 cells, but it inhibited the invasion of lung squamous cell carcinoma SW900 cells. In addition, Cbl-b regulated the expression of PI3K and ERK1/2-GSK3? pathway proteins in A549 and SW900 cells. CONCLUSIONS The OS of Cbl-b mRNA low expression in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was different. The difference in signal pathways may be one of the reasons for the difference in the correlation between Cbl-b expression and the survival rate of these 2 pathological types of lung cancer.
Project description:Tumor metastasis is the most lethal and debilitating process that threatens cancer patients. Among the regulators involved in tumor metastasis, lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an important contributor for tumor invasion, migration and the formation of the pre-metastatic niche. Although the relationship between LOX and poor prognosis of lung patients has been preliminary reported, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we found that LOX overexpression is closely related to the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients but not squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, we confirmed that LOX expression is regulated by the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via the PI3K/AKT, MEK/ERK, and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Meanwhile, the study also suggested that the traditional anti-fibrosis drug silibinin inhibited NSCLC cell migration in an EGFR/LOX dependent manner. In addition, an orthotopic implantation metastasis model also confirmed that the EGFR inhibitor WZ4002 and silibinin decreased tumor metastasis through the EGFR/LOX pathway. Altogether, this study revealed that LOX expression is regulated by the EGFR pathway and this may account for the anti-cancer metastasis effects of silibinin, indicating LOX as a potentially therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.
Project description:Identifying the specific functional regulator of integrin family molecules in cancer cells is critical because they are directly involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Here we report high expression of PLOD2 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and its critical role as a stabilizer of integrin ?1, enabling integrin ?1 to initiate tumor invasion/metastasis. Integrin ?1 stabilized by PLOD2-mediated hydroxylation was recruited to the plasma membrane, its functional site, and accelerated tumor cell motility, leading to tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas loss of PLOD2 expression abrogated it. In accordance with molecular analysis, examination of oropharyngeal SCC tissues from patients corroborated PLOD2 expression associated with integrin ?1 at the invasive front of tumor nests. PLOD2 is thus implicated as the key regulator of integrin ?1 that prominently regulates tumor invasion and metastasis, and it provides important clues engendering novel therapeutics for these intractable cancers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among both men and women in the world. Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rates with an overall 5-year survival of only 15%. This high mortality is probably attributable to early metastasis. Although several well-known markers correlated with poor/metastasis prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients by immunohistochemistry was reported, the molecular mechanisms of lung adenocarcinoma development are still not clear. To explore novel molecular markers and their signaling pathways will be crucial for aiding in treatment of lung adenocarcinoma patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify novel lung adenocarcinoma-associated /metastasis genes and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of these targets in lung cancer progression, we created a bioinformatics scheme consisting of integrating three gene expression profile datasets, including pairwise lung adenocarcinoma, secondary metastatic tumors vs. benign tumors, and a series of invasive cell lines. Among the novel targets identified, FLJ10540 was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues and is associated with cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, we employed two co-expression strategies to identify in which pathway FLJ10540 was involved. Lung adenocarcinoma array profiles and tissue microarray IHC staining data showed that FLJ10540 and VEGF-A, as well as FLJ10540 and phospho-AKT exhibit positive correlations, respectively. Stimulation of lung cancer cells with VEGF-A results in an increase in FLJ10540 protein expression and enhances complex formation with PI3K. Treatment with VEGFR2 and PI3K inhibitors affects cell migration and invasion by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, knockdown of FLJ10540 destabilizes formation of the P110-alpha/P85-alpha-(PI3K) complex, further supporting the participation of FLJ10540 in the VEGF-A/PI3K/AKT pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding set the stage for further testing of FLJ10540 as a new therapeutic target for treating lung cancer and may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies that are able to block the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer cells.