ABSTRACT: Oesophageal carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in China, and more than 90% of these tumours are oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Although several ESCC genomic sequencing studies have identified mutated somatic genes, the number of samples in each study was relatively small, and the molecular basis of ESCC has not been fully elucidated. Here, we performed an integrated analysis of 490 tumours by combining the genomic data from 7 previous ESCC projects. We identified 18 significantly mutated genes (SMGs). PTEN, DCDC1 and CUL3 were first reported as SMGs in ESCC. Notably, the AJUBA mutations and mutational signature4 were significantly correlated with a poorer survival in patients with ESCC. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the copy number alteration (CNA) of cancer gene census (CGC) genes in ESCC patients revealed three subtypes, and subtype3 exhibited more CNAs and marked for worse prognosis compared with subtype2. Moreover, database annotation suggested that two significantly differential CNA genes (PIK3CA and FBXW7) between subtype3 and subtype2 may serve as therapeutic drug targets. This study has extended our knowledge of the genetic basis of ESCC and shed some light into the clinical relevance, which would help improve the therapy and prognosis of ESCC patients.
Project description:Comprehensive genomic characterization of prostate cancer has identified recurrent alterations in genes involved in androgen signaling, DNA repair, and PI3K signaling, among others. However, larger and uniform genomic analysis may identify additional recurrently mutated genes at lower frequencies. Here we aggregate and uniformly analyze exome sequencing data from 1,013 prostate cancers. We identify and validate a new class of E26 transformation-specific (ETS)-fusion-negative tumors defined by mutations in epigenetic regulators, as well as alterations in pathways not previously implicated in prostate cancer, such as the spliceosome pathway. We find that the incidence of significantly mutated genes (SMGs) follows a long-tail distribution, with many genes mutated in less than 3% of cases. We identify a total of 97 SMGs, including 70 not previously implicated in prostate cancer, such as the ubiquitin ligase CUL3 and the transcription factor SPEN. Finally, comparing primary and metastatic prostate cancer identifies a set of genomic markers that may inform risk stratification.
Project description:Background:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is often diagnosed at an advanced and incurable stage. Information on driver genes and prognosticators in ESCC remains incomplete. The objective was to elucidate significantly mutated genes (SMGs), mutational signatures, and prognosticators in ESCC. Patients and methods:Three MutSig algorithms (i.e. MutSigCV, MutSigCL and MutSigFN) and '20/20+' ratio-metric were employed to identify SMGs. Nonnegative matrix factorization was used to decipher mutational signatures. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate Cox and logistic regression models were applied to analyze association between mutational features and clinical parameters. Results:We identified 26 SMGs, including 8 novel (NAV3, TENM3, PTCH1, TGFBR2, RIPK4, PBRM1, USP8 and BAP1) and 18 that have been previously reported. Three mutational signatures were identified to be prevalent in ESCC including clocklike C>T at CpG, APOBEC overactive C>T at TpCp[A/T], and a signature featured by T>C substitution. The T>C mutational signature was significantly correlated with alcohol consumption (OR: 3.59; 95% CI: 2.30-5.67; P?<?0.001). This alcohol consumption signature was also observed in liver cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and its mutational activity was substantially higher in samples with mutations in TP53. Survival analysis revealed that TENM3 mutations (HR: 5.54; CI: 2.68-11.45; P?<?0.001) and TP53 hotspot mutation p.R213* (HR: 3.37; CI: 1.73-8.06; P?<?0.001) were significantly associated with shortened survival outcome. The association remained statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, TNM stage and tumor grade. Conclusions:We have uncovered several new SMGs in ESCC and defined an alcohol consumption related mutational signature. TENM3 mutations and the TP53 hotspot mutation p.R213* are independent prognosticators for poor survival in ESCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly heterogeneous cancer with a distinct incidence and prognosis. Molecular events driving ESCC subtypes and prognosis have not been established, and little is known regarding Chinese ESCC patients in Xinjiang, China. METHODS:Here, we first integrated the genomic and transcriptomic data of 125 Chinese ESCC patients from Xinjiang Tumor Hospital (Urumqi, China). Two independent datasets of GSE53624 and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ESCC were used to confirm the results of this study. DNA mutation and overall survival (OS) were analysed independently in the Chinese ESCC cohorts. FINDINGS:Genomic analyses revealed a consistent mutation signatures and discordance among mutated genes across the different ESCC cohorts. In addition, transcriptomic profiling identified three Chinese ESCC subtypes associated with clinical and molecular attributes, including patient survival, lymph node status and genetic profile. Moreover, Chinese ESCC subtypes have distinct metabolic, inflammatory, metastatic, and cell proliferation features and unique potential therapeutics. Furthermore, the expression of cell cycle- and/or cell proliferation-related genes was higher in cyclin D1 (CCND1)-amplified tumours than in CCND1-normal tumours from Chinese ESCC patients, suggesting that CCND1 amplification promoted cell proliferation. INTERPRETATION:Our findings provide a framework to facilitate the rational categorization of ESCC in Chinese patients and a foundation for new therapies. FUNDING:This study was supported by the Research Fund of Key Laboratory of Xinjiang oncology (Grant no.2017D04006) and the Outstanding Youth Science and technology training project fund of Xinjiang, China (Grant no. 2017Q058).
Project description:Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal cancers in China. Recently, a study identified that cullin 3 (CUL3) was significantly mutated and deleted in ESCC. We then hypothesis that germline variants in CUL3 may also associated with the susceptibility of ESCC. Variants in the gene 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) may associate with gene expression by altering miRNAs binding. Material and Methods: We systematically searched for variants in the 3'-UTR of CUL3 using the Ensembl database. Taqman SNP Genotyping Assay was performed in 638 ESCC cases and 546 controls to examine the association between the rs2396092 and the risk of ESCC. The eQTL analysis for CUL3 were conducted by using the GTEx database. Results: We identified that the rs2396092 was significantly associated with the susceptibility of ESCC. Compared with the TT genotype carriers, the CT genotype and CC genotype carriers were correlated with risk of ESCC with odds ratio being 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04-1.70, P=0.0222) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.07-2.50, P=0.0241), respectively. Different genotypes of rs2396092 was also shown to be correlated with altered CUL3 expression. Conclusion: The results emphasize the importance of CUL3 in the development of ESCC and may contribute to the personalized prevention of this cancer in the future.
Project description:The LIM-domain protein AJUBA has been reported to be involved in cell-cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and cell fate decision by acting as a scaffold or adaptor protein. We previously identified AJUBA as a putative cancer gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the function and underlying mechanisms of AJUBA in ESCC remain largely unknown. In the present study, we detected AJUBA levels in ESCC tumor tissues and in corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and investigated the function and mechanism of AJUBA in ESCC cells. The IHC results showed that AJUBA levels were significantly higher in ESCC tissues compared with corresponding adjacent non-tumor tissues (P < 0.001). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that AJUBA promoted cell growth and colony formation, inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis of ESCC cells, and promoted ESCC cell migration and invasion. RNA sequencing was used to reveal the oncogenic pathways of AJUBA that were involved, and MMP10 and MMP13 were identified as two of the downstream targets of AJUBA. Thus, AJUBA upregulates the levels of MMP10 and MMP13 by activating ERK1/2. Taken together, these findings revealed that AJUBA serves as oncogenic gene in ESCC and may serve as a new target for ESCC therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Molecular mechanism of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) remains poorly understood, hampering effective targeted therapies or precision diagnosis about LUSC. We devised an integrative framework to investigate on the molecular patterns of LUSC by systematically mining the genomic, transcriptional and clinical information. METHODS:We utilized the genomics and transcriptomics data for the LUSC cohorts in The Cancer Genome Atlas.. Both kinds of omics data for 33 types of cancers were downloaded from The NCI's Genomic Data Commons (GDC) (https://gdc.cancer.gov/about-data/publications/pancanatlas). The genomics data were processed in mutation annotation format (maf), and the transcriptomics data were determined by RNA-seq method. Mutation significance was estimated by MutSigCV. Prognosis analysis was based on the cox proportional hazards regression (Coxph) model. RESULTS:Significant somatic mutated genes (SMGs) like NFE2L2, RASA1 and COL11A1 and their potential down-stream pathways were recognized. Furthermore, two LUSC-specific and prognosis-meaningful subtypes were identified. Interestingly, the good prognosis subtype was enriched with mutations in CUL3/KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and with markedly suppressed expressions of multiple down-stream pathways like epithelial mesenchymal transition. The subtypes were verified by the other two cohorts. Additionally, primarily regulated down-stream elements of different SMGs were also estimated. NFE2L2, KEAP1 and RASA1 mutations showed remarkable effects on the subtype-determinant gene expressions, especially for the inflammatory relevant genes. CONCLUSIONS:This study supplies valuable references on potential down-stream processes of SMGs and an alternative way to classify LUSC.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Ovarian fibromas and adenofibromas are rare ovarian tumours. They are benign tumours composed of spindle-like stromal cells (pure fibroma) or a mixture of fibroblast and epithelial components (adenofibroma). We have previously shown that 40% of benign serous ovarian tumours are likely primary fibromas due to the neoplastic alterations being restricted to the stromal compartment of these tumours. We further explore this finding by comparing benign serous tumours to pure fibromas. RESULTS:Performing copy number aberration (CNA) analysis on the stromal component of 45 benign serous tumours and 8 pure fibromas, we have again shown that trisomy of chromosome 12 is the most common aberration in ovarian fibromas. CNAs were more frequent in the pure fibromas than the benign serous tumours (88% vs 33%), however pure fibromas more frequently harboured more than one CNA event compared with benign serous tumours. As these extra CNA events observed in the pure fibromas were unique to this subset our data indicates a unique tumour evolution. Gene expression analysis on the two cohorts was unable to show gene expression changes that differed based on tumour subtype. Exome analysis did not reveal any recurrently mutated genes.
Project description:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the fourth most lethal cancer in China. However, although genomic studies have identified some mutations associated with ESCC, we know little of the mutational processes responsible. To identify genome-wide mutational signatures, we performed either whole-genome sequencing (WGS) or whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 104 ESCC individuals and combined our data with those of 88 previously reported samples. An APOBEC-mediated mutational signature in 47% of 192 tumors suggests that APOBEC-catalyzed deamination provides a source of DNA damage in ESCC. Moreover, PIK3CA hotspot mutations (c.1624G>A [p.Glu542Lys] and c.1633G>A [p.Glu545Lys]) were enriched in APOBEC-signature tumors, and no smoking-associated signature was observed in ESCC. In the samples analyzed by WGS, we identified focal (<100 kb) amplifications of CBX4 and CBX8. In our combined cohort, we identified frequent inactivating mutations in AJUBA, ZNF750, and PTCH1 and the chromatin-remodeling genes CREBBP and BAP1, in addition to known mutations. Functional analyses suggest roles for several genes (CBX4, CBX8, AJUBA, and ZNF750) in ESCC. Notably, high activity of hedgehog signaling and the PI3K pathway in approximately 60% of 104 ESCC tumors indicates that therapies targeting these pathways might be particularly promising strategies for ESCC. Collectively, our data provide comprehensive insights into the mutational signatures of ESCC and identify markers for early diagnosis and potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. Studies are warranted on the clinical relevance of its genomic copy-number alterations (CNA) as prognosticators for ESCC. In the present study, we first screened recurrent CNA by array-based comparative genomic hybridization using an in-house focused bacterial artificial chromosome-based array for 108 loci in 45 ESCC specimens. We detected 14 regions showing recurrent (>20%) CNA (4 losses and 10 gains) by array-based comparative genomic hybridization in the first cohort. Among them, loss of 3p14.2 and gain of 8q24.21 for the FHIT and MYC genes, respectively, and the accumulation of those two CNA (higher FM-CNA scores) were significantly associated with a worse overall survival (OS) in the first cohort (P = 0.0273, P = 0.0356 and P = 0.0089, respectively). In the independent validation cohort of 92 resected ESCC cases, loss of FHIT, gain of MYC and higher FM-CNA scores determined by a quantitative genomic PCR-based copy-number analysis were associated with a worse OS (P = 0.0011, P = 0.0104 and P = 0.0008, respectively) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0038, P = 0.0132 and P = 0.0021, respectively). In addition, the Cox model showed the presence of either CNA to be an independent prognosticator for OS and disease-free survival in the validation cohort (P = 0.0120 and P = 0.0255, respectively). These results suggest that CNA of MYC and FHIT are poor prognostic markers, and risk stratification based on the copy-number status of those genes is useful to select the optimal treatment strategy in resected ESCC patients.
Project description:Oesophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide,and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histological type both globally and in China. Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) has been found to be upregulated in ESCC. However, its role in tumourigenesis and progression of ESCC remains unclear.Using our previous ESCC mRNA profiling data, we screened upregulated genes to identify those required for proliferation. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of CTHRC1 protein expression in 204 ESCC patients. Correlations between CTHRC1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics were assessed. In addition, pyrosequencing and 5-aza-dC treatment were performed to evaluate methylation status of CTHRC1 promoter. In vitro and in vivo analyses were also conducted to determine the role of CTHRC1 in ESCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and RNA sequencing and molecular experiments were performed to study the underlying mechanisms.Based on mRNA profiling data, CTHRC1 was identified as one of the most significantly upregulated genes in ESCC tissues (n?=?119, fold change?=?20.5, P?=?2.12E-66). RNA interference screening also showed that CTHRC1 was required for cell proliferation. Immunohistochemistry confirmed markedly high CTHRC1 protein expression in tumour tissues, and high CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with advanced T stage (P?=?0.043), lymph node metastasis (P?=?0.023), TNM stage (P?=?0.024) and poor overall survival (P?=?0.020). Promoter hypomethylation at cg07757887 may contribute to increased CTHRC1 expression in ESCC cells and tumours. Forced overexpression of CTHRC1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas depletion of CTHRC1 suppressed these cellular functions in three ESCC cell lines and xenografts. CTHRC1 was found to activate FRA-1 (Fos-related antigen 1, also known as FOSL1) through the MAPK/MEK/ERK cascade, which led to upregulation of cyclin D1 and thus promoted cell proliferation. FRA-1 also induced snail1-mediated MMP14 (matrix metallopeptidase 14, also known as MT1-MMP) expression to facilitate ESCC cell invasion, migration, and metastasis.Our data suggest that CTHRC1 may act as an oncogenic driver in progression and metastasis of ESCC, and may serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis and personalized therapy.