Organizational Factors Affect Safety-Net Hospitals' Breast Cancer Treatment Rates.
ABSTRACT: To identify key organizational approaches associated with underuse of breast cancer care.Nine New York City area safety-net hospitals.Mixed qualitative-quantitative, cross-sectional cohort.We used qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of key stakeholder interviews, defined organizational "conditions," calibrated conditions, and identified solution pathways. We defined underuse as no radiation after lumpectomy in women <75 years or mastectomy in women with ?4 positive nodes, or no systemic therapy in women with tumors ?1 cm. We used hierarchical models to assess organizational and patient factors' impact on underuse.Underuse varied by hospital (8-29 percent). QCA found lower underuse sites designated individuals to track and follow-up no-shows; shared clinical information during handoffs; had fully integrated electronic medical records enabling transfer of responsibility across specialties; had strong system support; allocated resources to cancer clinics; had a patient-centered culture paying close organizational attention to clinic patients. High underuse sites lacked these characteristics. Multivariate modeling found that hospitals with strong approaches to follow-up had low underuse rates (RR = 0.28; 0.08-0.95); individual patient characteristics were not significant.At safety-net hospitals, underuse of needed cancer therapies is associated with organizational approaches to track and follow-up treatment. Findings provide varying approaches to safety nets to improve cancer care delivery.
Project description:PURPOSE:To implement and test a Web-based tracking and feedback (T&F) tool to close referral loops and reduce adjuvant breast cancer treatment underuse in safety-net hospitals (SNHs). PATIENT AND METHODS:We randomly assigned 10 SNHs, identified patients with new stage 1 to stage 3 breast cancer, assessed their connection with the oncologist, and relayed this information to surgeons for follow-up. We interviewed key informants about the tool's usefulness. We conducted intention-to-treat and pre- and poststudy analyses to assess the T&F tool and implementation effectiveness, respectively. RESULTS:Between the study start and intervention implementation, several hospitals reorganized care delivery and 49% of patients scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery were ineligible because they already were in contact with an oncologist. One high-volume hospital closed. Despite randomization of hospitals, intervention (INT) hospitals had fewer white patients (5% v 16%; P = .0005), and more underuse (28% v 15%; P = .002) compared with usual care (UC) hospitals. Over time, INT hospitals with poorer follow-up significantly reduced underuse compared with UC hospitals (INT hospitals, from 33% to 9%, P = .001 v UC hospitals, from 15% to 11%, P = .5). There was no difference in underuse (9% at INT hospitals, 11% at UC hospitals; P = .8). Hospitals with better follow-up (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.98) had less underuse. In settings with poor follow-up and tracking approaches, key informants found the tool useful. The rapidly changing delivery landscape posed significant challenges to this implementation research. CONCLUSION:A T&F tool did not significantly reduce adjuvant underuse but may help reduce underuse in SNHs with poor follow-up capabilities. Inability to discern T&F effectiveness is likely due to encountered challenges that inform lessons for future implementation research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The high prevalence of cervical cancer at safety-net health systems requires careful analysis to best inform prevention and quality improvement efforts. We characterized cervical cancer burden and identified opportunities for prevention in a U.S. safety-net system. METHODS:We reviewed tumor registry and electronic health record (EHR) data of women with invasive cervical cancer with ages 18+, diagnosed between 2010 and 2015, in a large, integrated urban safety-net. We developed an algorithm to: (i) classify whether women had been engaged in care (?1 clinical encounter between 6 months and 5 years before cancer diagnosis); and (ii) identify missed opportunities (no screening, no follow-up, failure of a test to detect cancer, and treatment failure) and associated factors among engaged patients. RESULTS:Of 419 women with cervical cancer, more than half (58%) were stage 2B or higher at diagnosis and 40% were uninsured. Most (69%) had no prior healthcare system contact; 47% were diagnosed elsewhere. Among 122 engaged in care prior to diagnosis, failure to screen was most common (63%), followed by lack of follow-up (21%), and failure of test to detect cancer (16%). Tumor stage, patient characteristics, and healthcare utilization differed across groups. CONCLUSIONS:Safety-net healthcare systems face a high cervical cancer burden, mainly from women with no prior contact with the system. To prevent or detect cancer early, community-based efforts should encourage uninsured women to use safety-nets for primary care and preventive services. IMPACT:Among engaged patients, strategies to increase screening and follow-up of abnormal screening tests could prevent over 80% of cervical cancer cases.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To determine whether safety net and non-safety net hospitals influence inpatient breast cancer care in insured and uninsured women and in white and African American women. DATA SOURCES: Six years of Virginia Cancer Registry and Virginia Health Information discharge data were linked and supplemented with American Hospital Association data. STUDY DESIGN: Hierarchical generalized linear models and linear probability regression models were used to estimate the relationship between hospital safety net status, the explanatory variables, and the days from diagnosis to mastectomy and the likelihood of breast reconstruction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The time between diagnosis and surgery was longer in safety net hospitals for all patients, regardless of insurance source. Medicaid insured and uninsured women were approximately 20 percent less likely to receive reconstruction than privately insured women. African American women were less likely to receive reconstruction than white women. CONCLUSIONS: Following the implementation of health reform, disparities may potentially worsen if safety net hospitals' burden of care increases without commensurate increases in reimbursement and staffing levels. This study also suggests that Medicaid expansions may not improve outcomes in inpatient breast cancer care within the safety net system.
Project description:Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was developed over 25 years ago to bridge the qualitative and quantitative research gap. Upon searching PubMed and the Journal of Mixed Methods Research, this review identified 30 original research studies that utilized QCA. Perceptions that QCA is complex and provides few relative advantages over other methods may be limiting QCA adoption. Thus, to overcome these perceptions, this article demonstrates how to perform QCA using data from fifteen institutions that implemented universal tumor screening (UTS) programs to identify patients at high risk for hereditary colorectal cancer. In this example, QCA revealed a combination of conditions unique to effective UTS programs. Results informed additional research and provided a model for improving patient follow-through after a positive screen.
Project description:To summarize research relating to health services research translation in the safety net through analysis of the literature and case study of a safety net system.Literature review and key informant interviews at an integrated safety net hospital.This paper describes the results of a comprehensive literature review of translational science literature as applied to health care paired with qualitative analysis of five key informant interviews conducted with senior-level management at Denver Health and Hospital Authority.Results from the literature suggest that implementing innovation may be more difficult in the safety net due to multiple factors, including financial and organizational constraints. Results from key informant interviews confirmed the reality of financial barriers to innovation implementation but also implied that factors, including institutional respect for data, organizational attitudes, and leadership support, could compensate for disadvantages.Translating research into practice is of critical importance to safety net providers, which are under increased pressure to improve patient care and satisfaction. Results suggest that translational research done in the safety net can better illuminate the special challenges of this setting; more such research is needed.
Project description:PURPOSE:Appropriate surveillance intervals for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is one of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 2014 physician quality reporting system measures. Appropriateness of surveillance intervals will continue to be monitored closely, particularly as reimbursements become tied to quality measures. AIMS:Quantify and identify predictors for guideline-concordant surveillance recommendations after adenoma polypectomy. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who had colonoscopy with polypectomy at a safety-net health system between June 2011 and December 2013. Surveillance recommendations shorter and longer than guideline recommendations were defined as potential overuse and underuse. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of guideline-concordant surveillance recommendations, overuse, and underuse. RESULTS:Among 1,822 patients with polypectomy, 1,329 had ?1 adenoma. Surveillance interval recommendations were guideline-concordant in 1,410 (77.4%) patients, potential overuse in 263 (14.4%), potential underuse in 85 (4.7%), and missing in 64 (3.5%) patients. Predictors of guideline-concordant recommendations in multivariate analyses included age >65 years (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.80), incomplete resection (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.41-9.09), and good/excellent prep quality (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.72-2.86). Underuse recommendations were more likely in patients with ?3 adenomas; overuse recommendations were more likely in patients with high-grade dysplasia or fair prep quality and less likely in those with piecemeal resection, ?3 adenomas, age >65, or Hispanic ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS:Surveillance recommendations are not concordant with guidelines in one of four cases. Interventions to improve prep quality and guideline concordance of surveillance recommendations can improve cost-effectiveness of CRC screening.
Project description:This article is oriented to the analysis of organizational and emotional variables in amateur sporting organizations. The general objective is to analyze the influence of organizational variables such as service quality, transactional leadership, and transformational leadership and emotional variables such as affective commitment, emotional attachment investment, and emotional attachment dividend to predict the credibility that members of amateur sporting organizations perceive, as well as their degree of identification and loyalty. The opinions of 203 members of Chilean amateur football teams [169 men and 34 women, with ages between 18 and 68 years (mean = 32.75 years, DT = 9.92)] have been analyzed through a self-completed questionnaire. To reach the objectives, two types of differential but complementary analyses, in the form of hierarchical regression models (from hereon, HRMs) and qualitative comparative analysis (from hereon, QCA), were performed. The results obtained suggest that the organizational variables are better predictors than the emotional variables in all of the cases. In the same way, the inclusion of the emotional variables improves the predictive capacity of the proposed models to explain identification and loyalty, but not in the case of credibility. In general, the variables considered seem to explain 37% of the credibility, 56% of loyalty, and 65% of identification. On the other hand, considering the results of the QCA, no variable turned out to be necessary. However, different combinations of variables (conditions) were observed that were able to explain between 47 and 91% of the cases of the variables analyzed. In general, based on these results, it was observed that the emotional variables were important in interaction with other organizational ones since they are present in the three combinations that most explain identification and loyalty and are also present in the three combinations that most explain credibility. This study contributes to the literature by supporting the importance of managing emotions in order for sporting organizations to be more successful.
Project description:Black and Hispanic women with early-stage breast cancer are more likely than white women to experience fragmented care and less likely to see medical oncologists to get effective adjuvant treatment. We implemented a tracking and feedback registry to close the referral loop between surgeons and oncologists.We compared completed oncology consultations and use of adjuvant treatment among a group of 639 women with newly diagnosed stage I or II breast cancer who had undergone surgery at one of six New York City hospitals from 1999 to 2000 with the same outcomes for a different group of 300 women with breast cancer whose surgeries occurred in 2004-2006, after the implementation of the tracking registry. Underuse of adjuvant treatment was defined as no radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery, no chemotherapy for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors, or no hormonal therapy for ER-positive tumors 1 cm or larger. We used hierarchical modeling to adjust for clustering within hospital and surgeon practice. Odds ratios were converted to adjusted relative risks (aRRs). All statistical tests were two-sided.Implementation of the tracking and feedback registry was accompanied by a statistically significant increase in oncology consultations (83% before vs 97% after the intervention; difference = 14%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11% to 18%; P < .001) and decrease in underuse of adjuvant treatment (23% before vs 14% after the intervention; difference = -9%, 95% CI = -12% to -6%; P < .001). Underuse declined from 34% to 14% among black women, from 23% to 13% among Hispanic women, and from 17% to 14% among white women (chi-square of change in underuse from before to after among the three racial groups; P = .001). In multivariable models adjusting for clustering by hospital and surgeon, the intervention was associated with increased rates of oncology consultation (aRR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3 to 1.8), and reduced underuse of adjuvant treatment (aRR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9). Compared with the preintervention findings, minority race was no longer a risk factor for low rates of oncology consultation (aRR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.7 to 1.3) or for underuse of adjuvant therapy (aRR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8 to 1.3).A tracking and feedback registry that enhances completed oncology consultations between surgeons and oncologists also appears to reduce rates of adjuvant treatment underuse and to eliminate the racial disparity in treatment.
Project description:Background:Safety net hospitals, which serve vulnerable and underserved populations and often operate on smaller budgets than non-safety net hospitals, may experience unique implementation challenges. We sought to describe common barriers and facilitators that affect the implementation of improvement initiatives in a safety net hospital, and identify potentially transferable lessons to enhance implementation efforts in similar settings. Methods:We interviewed leaders within five inpatient departments and asked them to identify the priority inpatient improvement initiative from the last year. We then conducted individual, semi-structured interviews with 25 stakeholders across the five settings. Interviewees included individuals serving in implementation oversight, champion, and frontline implementer roles. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research informed the discussion guide and a priori codes for directed content analysis. Results:Despite pursuing diverse initiatives in different clinical departments, safety net hospital improvement stakeholders described common barriers and facilitators related to inner and outer setting dynamics, characteristics of individuals involved, and implementation processes. Implementation barriers included (1) limited staffing resources, (2) organizational recognition without financial investment, and (3) the use of implementation strategies that did not adequately address patients' biopsychosocial complexities. Facilitators included (1) implementation approaches that combined passive and active communication styles, (2) knowledge of patient needs and competitive pressure to perform well against non-SNHs, (3) stakeholders' personal commitment to reduce health inequities, and (4) the use of multidisciplinary task forces to drive implementation activities. Conclusion:Inner and outer setting dynamics, individual's characteristics, and process factors served as implementation barriers and facilitators within the safety net. Future work should seek to leverage findings from this study toward efforts to enact positive change within safety net hospitals.