The crystal structure of the Yersinia pestis iron chaperone YiuA reveals a basic triad binding motif for the chelated metal.
ABSTRACT: Biological chelating molecules called siderophores are used to sequester iron and maintain its ferric state. Bacterial substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) bind iron-siderophore complexes and deliver these complexes to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters for import into the cytoplasm, where the iron can be transferred from the siderophore to catalytic enzymes. In Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, the Yersinia iron-uptake (Yiu) ABC transporter has been shown to improve iron acquisition under iron-chelated conditions. The Yiu transporter has been proposed to be an iron-siderophore transporter; however, the precise siderophore substrate is unknown. Therefore, the precise role of the Yiu transporter in Y. pestis survival remains uncharacterized. To better understand the function of the Yiu transporter, the crystal structure of YiuA (YPO1310/y2875), an SBP which functions to present the iron-siderophore substrate to the transporter for import into the cytoplasm, was determined. The 2.20 and 1.77?Å resolution X-ray crystal structures reveal a basic triad binding motif at the YiuA canonical substrate-binding site, indicative of a metal-chelate binding site. Structural alignment and computational docking studies support the function of YiuA in binding chelated metal. Additionally, YiuA contains two mobile helices, helix 5 and helix 10, that undergo 2-3?Å shifts across crystal forms and demonstrate structural breathing of the c-clamp architecture. The flexibility in both c-clamp lobes suggest that YiuA substrate transfer resembles the Venus flytrap mechanism that has been proposed for other SBPs.
Project description:Iron is an essential element for all organisms, and microorganisms produce small molecule iron-chelators, siderophores, to efficiently acquire Fe(III). Gram-positive bacteria possess lipoprotein siderophore-binding proteins (SBPs) on the membrane. Some of the SBPs bind both apo-siderophores (iron-free) and Fe-siderophore (iron-chelated) and only import Fe-siderophores. When the SBP initially binds an apo-siderophore, the SBP uses the Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle mechanism (the SBPs exchange Fe(III) from a Fe-siderophore to the apo-siderophore bound to the protein) and/or displacement mechanism (the apo-siderophore bound to the SBP is released and a Fe-siderophore is then bound to the protein) to import the Fe-siderophore. Previously, we reported that the Bacillus cereus SBP, YxeB, exchanges Fe(III) from a ferrioxamine B (FO) to a desferrioxamine B (DFO) bound to YxeB using the siderophore-shuttle mechanism although the iron exchange was indirectly elucidated. Synthetic Cr-DFO (inert metal FO analog) and Ga-DFO (nonreducible FO analog) are bound to YxeB and imported via YxeB and the corresponding permeases and ATPase. YxeB exchanges Fe(III) from FO and Ga(III) from Ga-DFO to DFO bound to the protein, indicating that the metal-exchange occurs without metal reduction. YxeB also binds DFO derivatives including acetylated DFO (apo-siderophore) and acetylated FO (AcFO, Fe-siderophore). The iron from AcFO is transferred to DFO when bound to YxeB, giving direct evidence of iron exchange. Moreover, YxeB also uses the displacement mechanism when ferrichrome (Fch) is added to the DFO:YxeB complex. Uptake by the displacement mechanism is a minor pathway compared to the shuttle mechanism.
Project description:Siderophores are small-molecule high-affinity multidentate chelators selective for ferric iron that are produced by pathogenic microbes to aid in nutrient sequestration and enhance virulence. In Gram-positive bacteria, the currently accepted paradigm in siderophore-mediated iron acquisition is that effluxed metal-free siderophores extract ferric iron from biological sources and the resulting ferric siderophore complex undergoes diffusion-controlled association with a surface-displayed siderophore-binding protein (SBP) followed by ABC permease-mediated translocation across the cell envelope powered by ATP hydrolysis. Here we show that a more efficient paradigm is possible in Gram-positive bacteria where extracellular metal-free siderophores associate directly with apo-SBPs on the cell surface and serve as non-covalent cofactors that enable the holo-SBPs to non-reductively extract ferric iron directly from host metalloproteins with so-called "ferrichelatase" activity. The resulting SBP-bound ferric siderophore complex is ready for import through an associated membrane permease and enzymatic turnover is achieved through cofactor replacement from the readily available pool of extracellular siderophores. This new "iron shuttle" model closes a major knowledge gap in microbial iron acquisition and defines new roles of the siderophore and SBP as cofactor and enzyme, respectively, in addition to the classically accepted roles as a transport substrate and receptor pair. We propose the formal name "siderophore-dependent ferrichelatases" for this new class of catalytic SBPs.
Project description:In the structural biology of bacterial substrate-binding proteins (SBPs), a growing number of comparisons between substrate-bound and substrate-free forms of metal atom-binding (cluster A-I) SBPs have revealed minimal structural differences between forms. These observations contrast with SBPs that bind substrates such as amino acids or nucleic acids and may undergo >60° rigid-body rotations. Substrate transfer in these SBPs is described by a Venus flytrap model, although this model may not apply to all SBPs. In this report, structures are presented of substrate-free (apo) and reconstituted substrate-bound (holo) YfeA, a polyspecific cluster A-I SBP from Yersinia pestis. It is demonstrated that an apo cluster A-I SBP can be purified by fractionation when co-expressed with its cognate transporter, adding an alternative strategy to the mutagenesis or biochemical treatment used to generate other apo cluster A-I SBPs. The apo YfeA structure contains 111 disordered protein atoms in a mobile helix located in the flexible carboxy-terminal lobe. Metal binding triggers a 15-fold reduction in the solvent-accessible surface area of the metal-binding site and reordering of the 111 protein atoms in the mobile helix. The flexible lobe undergoes a 13.6° rigid-body rotation that is driven by a spring-hammer metal-binding mechanism. This asymmetric rigid-body rotation may be unique to metal atom-binding SBPs (i.e. clusters A-I, A-II and D-IV).
Project description:During growth under iron limitation, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis, two human pathogens from the Bacillus cereus group of Gram-positive bacteria, secrete two siderophores, bacillibactin (BB) and petrobactin (PB), for iron acquisition via membrane-associated substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) and other ABC transporter components. Since PB is associated with virulence traits in B. anthracis, the PB-mediated iron uptake system presents a potential target for antimicrobial therapies; its characterization in B. cereus is described here. Separate transporters for BB, PB, and several xenosiderophores are suggested by (55)Fe-siderophore uptake studies. The PB precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), and the photoproduct of FePB (FePB(nu)) also mediate iron delivery into iron-deprived cells. Putative SBPs were recombinantly expressed, and their ligand specificity and binding affinity were assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy. The noncovalent complexes of the SBPs with their respective siderophores were characterized using ESI-MS. The differences between solution phase behavior and gas phase measurements are indicative of noncovalent interactions between the siderophores and the binding sites of their respective SBPs. These studies combined with bioinformatics sequence comparison identify SBPs from five putative transporters specific for BB and enterobactin (FeuA), 3,4-DHB and PB (FatB), PB (FpuA), schizokinen (YfiY), and desferrioxamine and ferrichrome (YxeB). The two PB receptors show different substrate ranges: FatB has the highest affinity for ferric 3,4-DHB, iron-free PB, FePB, and FePB(nu), whereas FpuA is specific to only apo- and ferric PB. The biochemical characterization of these SBPs provides the first identification of the transporter candidates that most likely play a role in the B. cereus group pathogenicity.
Project description:The Yfe/Sit and Feo transport systems are important for the growth of a variety of bacteria. In Yersinia pestis, single mutations in either yfe or feo result in reduced growth under static (limited aeration), iron-chelated conditions, while a yfe feo double mutant has a more severe growth defect. These growth defects were not observed when bacteria were grown under aerobic conditions or in strains capable of producing the siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) and the putative ferrous transporter FetMP. Both fetP and a downstream locus (flp for fet linked phenotype) were required for growth of a yfe feo ybt mutant under static, iron-limiting conditions. An feoB mutation alone had no effect on the virulence of Y. pestis in either bubonic or pneumonic plague models. An feo yfe double mutant was still fully virulent in a pneumonic plague model but had an ?90-fold increase in the 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) relative to the Yfe(+) Feo(+) parent strain in a bubonic plague model. Thus, Yfe and Feo, in addition to Ybt, play an important role in the progression of bubonic plague. Finally, we examined the factors affecting the expression of the feo operon in Y. pestis. Under static growth conditions, the Y. pestis feo::lacZ fusion was repressed by iron in a Fur-dependent manner but not in cells grown aerobically. Mutations in feoC, fnr, arcA, oxyR, or rstAB had no significant effect on transcription of the Y. pestis feo promoter. Thus, the factor(s) that prevents repression by Fur under aerobic growth conditions remains to be identified.
Project description:We have sequenced a region from the pgm locus of Yersinia pestis KIM6+ that confers sensitivity to the bacteriocin pesticin to certain strains of Escherichia coli and Y. pestis. The Y. pestis sequence is 98% identical to the pesticin receptor from Yersinia enterocolitica and is homologous to other TonB-dependent outer membrane proteins. Y. pestis strains with an in-frame deletion in the pesticin receptor gene (psn) were pesticin resistant and no longer expressed a group of iron-regulated outer membrane proteins, IrpB to IrpD. In addition, this strain as well as a Y. pestis strain with a mutation constructed in the gene (irp2) encoding the 190-kDa iron-regulated protein HMWP2 could not grow at 37 degrees C in a defined, iron-deficient medium. However, the irp2 mutant but not the psn mutant could be cross-fed by supernatants from various Yersinia cultures grown under iron-deficient conditions. An analysis of the proteins synthesized by the irp2 mutant suggests that HMWP2 may be indirectly required for maximal expression of the pesticin receptor. HMWP2 likely participates in synthesis of a siderophore which may induce expression of the receptor for pesticin and the siderophore.
Project description:Intracellular replication of the deadly pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis relies on the production of small organic molecules called siderophores that scavenge iron from host proteins1. M. tuberculosis produces two classes of siderophore, lipid-bound mycobactin and water-soluble carboxymycobactin2,3. Functional studies have revealed that iron-loaded carboxymycobactin is imported into the cytoplasm by the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter IrtAB4, which features an additional cytoplasmic siderophore interaction domain5. However, the predicted ABC exporter fold of IrtAB is seemingly contradictory to its import function. Here we show that membrane-reconstituted IrtAB is sufficient to import mycobactins, which are then reduced by the siderophore interaction domain to facilitate iron release. Structure determination by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy not only confirms that IrtAB has an ABC exporter fold, but also reveals structural peculiarities at the transmembrane region of IrtAB that result in a partially collapsed inward-facing substrate-binding cavity. The siderophore interaction domain is positioned in close proximity to the inner membrane leaflet, enabling the reduction of membrane-inserted mycobactin. Enzymatic ATPase activity and in vivo growth assays show that IrtAB has a preference for mycobactin over carboxymycobactin as its substrate. Our study provides insights into an unusual ABC exporter that evolved as highly specialized siderophore-import machinery in mycobacteria.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria use siderophores, outer membrane receptors, inner membrane transporters and substrate-binding proteins (SBPs) to transport transition metals through the periplasm. The SBPs share a similar protein fold that has undergone significant structural evolution to communicate with a variety of differentially regulated transporters in the cell. In Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, YfeA (YPO2439, y1897), an SBP, is important for full virulence during mammalian infection. To better understand the role of YfeA in infection, crystal structures were determined under several environmental conditions with respect to transition-metal levels. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and anomalous X-ray scattering data show that YfeA is polyspecific and can alter its substrate specificity. In minimal-media experiments, YfeA crystals grown after iron supplementation showed a threefold increase in iron fluorescence emission over the iron fluorescence emission from YfeA crystals grown from nutrient-rich conditions, and YfeA crystals grown after manganese supplementation during overexpression showed a fivefold increase in manganese fluorescence emission over the manganese fluorescence emission from YfeA crystals grown from nutrient-rich conditions. In all experiments, the YfeA crystals produced the strongest fluorescence emission from zinc and could not be manipulated otherwise. Additionally, this report documents the discovery of a novel surface metal-binding site that prefers to chelate zinc but can also bind manganese. Flexibility across YfeA crystal forms in three loops and a helix near the buried metal-binding site suggest that a structural rearrangement is required for metal loading and unloading.
Project description:The acquisition of iron is an essential component in the pathogenesis of Yersinia pestis, the agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. A cosmid library derived from the genomic DNA of Y. pestis KIM6+ was used for transduction of an Escherichia coli mutant (SAB11) defective in the biosynthesis of the siderophore enterobactin. Recombinant plasmids which had a common 13-kb BamHI fragment were isolated from SAB11 transductants in which growth but not enterobactin synthesis was restored on media containing the iron chelator EDDA [ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid)]. Subcloning and transposon mutagenesis revealed a 5.6-kb region, designated yfe, essential for SAB11 growth stimulation. In vitro transcription-translation analysis identified polypeptides of 18, 29.5, 32, and 33 kDa encoded by the yfe locus. Sequence analysis shows this locus to be comprised of five genes in two separate operons which have potential Fur-binding sequences in both promoters. A putative polycistronic operon, yfeABCD, is Fur regulated and responds to iron and manganese. A functional Fur protein is required for the observed manganese repression of this operon. This operon encodes polypeptides which have strong similarity to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters and include a periplasmic binding protein (YfeA), an ATP-binding protein (YfeB), and two integral membrane proteins (YfeC and -D), which likely function in the acquisition of inorganic iron and possibly other ions. The approximately 21-kDa protein encoded by the separately transcribed yfeE gene may be located in the cell envelope, since a yfeE::TnphoA fusion is PhoA+. Mutations in this gene abrogate growth of SAB11 on iron-chelated media.
Project description:Using the energy of ATP hydrolysis, ABC transporters catalyze the trans-membrane transport of molecules. In bacteria, these transporters partner with a high-affinity substrate-binding protein (SBP) to import essential micronutrients. ATP binding by Type I ABC transporters (importers of amino acids, sugars, peptides, and small ions) stabilizes the interaction between the transporter and the SBP, thus allowing transfer of the substrate from the latter to the former. In Type II ABC transporters (importers of trace elements, e.g. vitamin B12, heme, and iron-siderophores) the role of ATP remains debatable. Here we studied the interaction between the Yersinia pestis ABC heme importer (HmuUV) and its partner substrate-binding protein (HmuT). Using real-time surface plasmon resonance experiments and interaction studies in membrane vesicles, we find that in the absence of ATP the transporter and the SBP tightly bind. Substrate in excess inhibits this interaction, and ATP binding by the transporter completely abolishes it. To release the stable docked SBP from the transporter hydrolysis of ATP is required. Based on these results we propose a mechanism for heme acquisition by HmuUV-T where the substrate-loaded SBP docks to the nucleotide-free outward-facing conformation of the transporter. ATP binding leads to formation of an occluded state with the substrate trapped in the trans-membrane translocation cavity. Subsequent ATP hydrolysis leads to substrate delivery to the cytoplasm, release of the SBP, and resetting of the system. We propose that other Type II ABC transporters likely share the fundamentals of this mechanism.