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A Lipoylated Metabolic Protein Released by Staphylococcus aureus Suppresses Macrophage Activation.


ABSTRACT: The virulence factors of pathogenic microbes often have single functions that permit immune suppression. However, a proportion possess multiple activities and are considered moonlighting proteins. By examining secreted virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus, we determine that the bacterial lipoic acid synthetase LipA suppresses macrophage activation. LipA is known to modify the E2 subunit of the metabolic enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase (E2-PDH) with a fatty acid derivative, lipoic acid, yielding the metabolic protein lipoyl-E2-PDH. We demonstrate that lipoyl-E2-PDH is also released by S. aureus and moonlights as a macrophage immunosuppressant by reducing Toll-like receptor 1/2 (TLR1/2) activation by bacterial lipopeptides. A LipA-deficient strain induces heightened pro-inflammatory cytokine production, which is diminished in the absence of TLR2. During murine systemic infection, LipA suppresses pro-inflammatory macrophage activation, rendering these cells inefficient at controlling infection. These observations suggest that bacterial metabolism and immune evasion are linked by virtue of this moonlighting protein.

SUBMITTER: Grayczyk JP 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5683407 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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