Therapeutic efficacy of pentoxifylline on proteinuria and renal progression: an update.
ABSTRACT: Blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has remained the gold standard for treating patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to date. Nevertheless, RAS blockade slows but does not halt the progression of kidney disease, thus highlighting the need to search for additional therapeutic approaches. The nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) is an old drug that exhibits prominent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic activities both in vitro and in vivo. Studies in human subjects have shown that PTX monotherapy decreases urinary protein excretion, and add-on therapy of PTX to background RAS blockade additively reduces proteinuria in patients with CKD of various etiology. More recent studies find that PTX combined with RAS blockade delays the decline of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD, and reduces the risk of end-stage renal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients in late stage of CKD with high proteinuria levels. In this review, we update the clinical trial results of PTX as monotherapy, or in conjunction or in comparison with RAS blockade on patients with proteinuria and CKD, and propose a mechanistic scheme explaining the renoprotective activities of this drug.
Project description:Dual renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade using angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is reported to improve proteinuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, its renoprotective effect and safety remain uncertain in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). From January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2009, we enrolled 14,117 pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients with serum creatinine >6mg/dL and hematocrit <28% under the treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents and RAS blockade. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) against the commencement of long-term dialysis and all-cause mortality for ACEI/ARB users. Over a median follow-up of 7 months, 9,867 patients (69.9%) required long-term dialysis and 2,805 (19.9%) died before progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. In comparison with the ARB-only users, dual blockade with ACEIs and ARBs was associated with a significantly higher risk of (1) death in all CKD patients (HR = 1.49, [95%CI, 1.30-1.71]; P = 0.02) and in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.58, [95%CI, 1.34-1.86]; P = 0.02); (2) composite endpoint of long-term dialysis or death in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.10, [95%CI, 1.01-1.20]; P = 0.04); (3) hyperkalemia-associated hospitalization in non-diabetic subgroup (HR, 2.74, [95%CI, 1.05-7.15]; P = 0.04). However, ACEIs users were associated with higher mortality than ARBs users in all CKD patients (HR = 1.17, [95%CI, 1.07-1.27]; P = 0.03) and in diabetic subgroup (HR = 1.32, [95%CI, 1.18-1.48]; P = 0.03). Monotherapy of RAS blockade, especially ARB, is more effective and safer than dual RAS blockade in pre-dialytic stage 5 CKD patients.
Project description:Reduction of proteinuria and blood pressure (BP) with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) impairs the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aldosterone antagonist spironolactone has an antiproteinuric effect, but its use is limited by side effects. The present study evaluated the short-term antiproteinuric effect and safety of the selective aldosterone antagonist eplerenone in non-diabetic CKD.Open randomized cross-over trial.Forty patients with non-diabetic CKD and urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 hours.Eight weeks of once-daily administration of add-on 25-50 mg eplerenone to stable standard antihypertensive treatment including RAS-blockade.24 hour urinary albumin excretion, BP, p-potassium, and creatinine clearance.The mean urinary albumin excretion was 22% [CI: 14,28], P < 0.001, lower during treatment with eplerenone. Mean systolic BP was 4 mmHg [CI: 2,6], P = 0.002, diastolic BP was 2 mmHg [CI: 0,4], P = 0.02, creatinine clearance was 5% [CI: 2,8], P = 0.005, lower during eplerenone treatment. After correction for BP and creatinine clearance differences between the study periods, the mean urinary albumin excretion was 14% [CI: 4,24], P = 0.008 lower during treatment. Mean p-potassium was 0.1 mEq/L [CI: 0.1,0.2] higher during eplerenone treatment, P<0.001. Eplerenone was thus well tolerated and no patients were withdrawn due to hyperkalaemia.Open label, no wash-out period and a moderate sample size.In non-diabetic CKD patients, the addition of eplerenone to standard antihypertensive treatment including RAS-blockade caused a moderate BP independent fall in albuminuria, a minor fall in creatinine clearance and a 0.1 mEq/L increase in p-potassium.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00430924.
Project description:Numerous pre-clinical studies have implicated endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal endothelin-1 production is almost universally increased in kidney disease. The pathologic effects of endothelin-1, including vasoconstriction, proteinuria, inflammation, cellular injury and fibrosis, are likely mediated by the endothelin A (ETA) receptor. ETA antagonism alone, and/or combined ETA/B blockade, reduces CKD progression. Based on the strong pre-clinical data, several clinical trials using ETA antagonists were conducted. Small trials involving acute intravenous endothelin receptor blockade suggest that ETA, but not ETB, blockade exerts protective renal and vascular effects in CKD patients. A large phase 3 trial (ASCEND) examined the effects of avosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, on renal disease progression in diabetic nephropathy. Proteinuria was reduced after 3-6 months of treatment. However the study was terminated due to increased morbidity and mortality associated with avosentan-induced fluid retention. Several phase 2 trials using avosentan at lower doses than in ASCEND, atrasentan or sitaxsentan (the latter two being highly ETA-selective) showed reductions in proteinuria on top of renin-angiotensin system blockade. Infrequent and clinically insignificant fluid retention was observed at the most effective doses. Additional trials using ETA blockers are ongoing or being planned in patients with diabetic nephropathy or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Moving forward, such studies must be conducted with careful patient selection and attention to dosing in order to minimize adverse side effects. Nonetheless, there is cause for optimism that this class of agents will ultimately prove to be effective for the treatment of CKD.
Project description:Restriction of dietary sodium is recommended at a population level as well as for groups at high cardiovascular risk, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review addresses recent evidence for the protective effect of dietary sodium restriction in CKD patients specifically.Sodium intake in CKD populations is generally high, and often above population average. Recent data demonstrated that moderately lower sodium intake in CKD patients is associated with substantially better long-term outcome of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-blockade, in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD, related to better effects of RAAS-blockade on proteinuria, independent of blood pressure. This is in line with better short-term efficacy of RAAS-blockade during moderate sodium restriction in diabetic and nondiabetic CKD. This effect of sodium restriction is likely mediated by its effects on volume status. Sustainable sodium restriction can be achieved by approaches on the basis of behavioral sciences.Moderate restriction of dietary sodium can substantially improve the protective effects of RAAS-blockade in CKD, by specific renal effects apparent from proteinuria reduction. The latter precludes straightforward extrapolation of data from nonrenal populations to CKD. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of a very low sodium intake should not distract from the protective effects of moderate sodium restriction. Prospective studies should assess the efficacy and sustainability of different strategies to target high sodium intake in CKD, along with measures at population level.http://links.lww.com/CONH/A14.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inhibition of the renin-angiotensinsystem (RAS) in hypertension causes differential effects on central and brachial blood pressure (BP), which has been translated into improved outcome. The objective was to examine if a more complete inhibition of RAS by combining an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and an angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB) compared to monotherapy has an additive effect on central BP and pulse-wave velocity (PWV), which are known markers of CVD.Sixty-seven CKD patients (mean GFR 30, range 13-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) participated in an open randomized study of 16 weeks of monotherapy with either enalapril or candesartan followed by 8 weeks of dual blockade aiming at a total dose of 16 mg candesartan and 20 mg enalapril o.d. Pulse-wave measurements were performed at week 0, 8, 16 and 24 by the SphygmoCor device.Significant additive BP independent reductions were found after dual blockade in aortic PWV (-0.3 m/s, P<0.05) and in augmentation index (-2%, P<0.01) compared to monotherapy. Furthermore pulse pressure amplification was improved (P<0.05) and central systolic BP reduced (-6 mmHg, P<0.01).Dual blockade of the RAS resulted in an additive BP independent reduction in pulse-wave reflection and arterial stiffness compared to monotherapy in CKD patients.Clinical trial.gov NCT00235287.
Project description:Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a promising therapeutic approach for reducing inflammation and improving anemia associated to various systemic disorders. However, whether this agent may be helpful for anemia management also in CKD patients is still object of debate.Systematic review and meta-analysis.Adults with CKD (any KDOQI stage, including ESKD patients on regular dialysis) and anemia (Hb<13 g/dL in men or < 12 g/dL in women).Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Ovid-MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for studies providing data on the effects of PTX on anemia parameters in CKD patients without design or follow-up restriction.PTX derivatives at any dose regimen.Hemoglobin, hematocrit, ESAs dosage and resistance (ERI), iron indexes (ferritin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin and serum hepcidin) and adverse events.We retrieved 11 studies (377 patients) including seven randomized controlled trials (all comparing PTX to placebo or standard therapy) one retrospective case-control study and three prospective uncontrolled studies. Overall, PTX increased hemoglobin in three uncontrolled studies but such improvement was not confirmed in a meta-analysis of seven studies (299 patients) (MD 0.12 g/dL, 95% CI -0.22 to 0.47). Similarly, there were no conclusive effects of PTX on hematocrit, ESAs dose, ferritin and TSAT in pooled analyses. Data on serum iron, ERI, TIBC and hepcidin were based on single studies. No evidence of increased rate of adverse events was also noticed.Small sample size and limited number of studies. High heterogeneity among studies with respect to CKD and anemia severity, duration of intervention and responsiveness/current therapy with iron or ESAs.There is currently no conclusive evidence supporting the utility of pentoxifylline for improving anemia control in CKD patients. Future trials designed on hard, patient-centered outcomes with larger sample size and longer follow-up are advocated.
Project description:Proteinuria is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and a good predictor of clinical outcome. Selective endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist used with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors prevents development of proteinuria in CKD. However, whether the improvement in proteinuria would have beneficial effects on CVD, independent of RAS inhibition, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether atrasentan, an ETA receptor antagonist, has renal and cardiovascular effects independent of RAS inhibition. Male Dahl salt sensitive (DSS) rats, at six weeks of age, received water with or without different doses of atrasentan and/or enalapril under high salt (HS) diet or normal diet (ND) for 6 weeks. At the end of 12th week, atrasentan at a moderate dose significantly attenuated proteinuria and serum creatinine without reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), thereby preventing cardiac hypertrophy and improving cardiac function. ACE inhibitor enalapril at a dose that did not significantly lowered BP, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy while moderately improving cardiac function without reducing proteinuria and serum creatinine level. Nonetheless, combined therapy of atrasentan and enalapril that does not altering BP exerted additional cardioprotective effect. Based on these findings, we conclude that BP independent monotherapy of ETA receptor antagonist attenuates the progression of CKD and significantly mitigates CVD independent of RAS inhibition.
Project description:Residual proteinuria, the amount of proteinuria that remains during optimally dosed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade, is an independent risk factor for progressive renal function loss and cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Dual RAAS blockade may reduce residual proteinuria but without translating into improved cardiorenal outcomes at least in diabetic nephropathy; rather, dual RAAS blockade may increase the risk of adverse events. These findings have challenged the concept of residual proteinuria as an absolute treatment target. Therefore, new strategies must be explored to address whether by further reduction of residual proteinuria using interventions not primarily targeting the RAAS benefit in terms of cardiorenal risk reduction would accrue. Both clinical and experimental intervention studies have demonstrated that vitamin D can reduce residual proteinuria through both RAAS-dependent and RAAS-independent pathways. Future research should prospectively explore vitamin D treatment as an adjunct to RAAS blockade in an interventional trial exploring clinically relevant cardiorenal end points.
Project description:Background:Both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are blood pressure-lowering agents, but they are also being used to control proteinuria in early chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However, clinically, some patients present merely proteinuria without hypertension. No guidelines pointed out how to select treatments for proteinuria in normotensive patients. Thus, we conducted a Bayesian network analysis to evaluate the relative effects of different kinds of ACEI or ARB or their combination on proteinuria and blood pressure reduction. Methods:The protocol was registered in PROSPERO with ID CRD42017073721. A comprehensive literature database query was carried out systematically according to PICOS strategies. The primary outcome was reduction in proteinuria, and the secondary outcomes were eGFR reduction and blood pressure reduction. Random-effects pairwise and Bayesian network meta-analyses were used to estimate the effect of different regimens. Results:A total of 14 RCTs with 1,098 patients were included in the analysis. All treatment strategies of ACEI, ARB or their combination had significantly greater efficacy in reducing proteinuria than placebo in normotensive CKD patients. The combination therapy of olmesartan+temocapril had the highest probability (22%) of being the most effective treatment to reduce proteinuria in normotensive CKD patients. Olmesartan and lisinopril ranked second (12%), and temocapril ranked third (15%) but reduced blood pressure less than placebo. For IgA nephropathy, the combination therapy of olmesartan+temocapril also had the highest probability (43%) of being the best antiproteinuric treatment, while enalapril had the highest probability (58%) of being the best antiproteinuric therapy for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusions:The combination therapy of olmesartan plus temocapril appeared to be the most efficacious for reducing proteinuria in normotensive CKD patients and IgA nephropathy, but the clinical application should be balanced against potential harms. Temocapril can be an option when practitioners are searching for more proteinuria reduction but less blood pressure variation. In normotensive diabetic nephropathy, monotherapy with the ACEI enalapril seems to be the most efficacious intervention for reducing albuminuria. Future studies are required to give a more definitive recommendation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative with significant anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and anti-proliferative properties. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline may have renoprotective effects in patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, most of these studies were limited by small sample sizes. Therefore, we investigated whether pentoxifylline could reduce proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy and residual proteinuria who received an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). We also studied the effects of pentoxifylline on glycemic control, insulin resistance, and inflammatory parameters. METHODS:This was a prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center study. A total of 174 patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria (>30 mg/g of creatinine) who were taking the recommended dosage of ACEI or ARB for?>?6 months and receiving conventional therapy for diabetes were randomly assigned to receive pentoxifylline (1200 mg, daily; n?=?87) or a placebo (n?=?87) for 6 months. The endpoints were the effects of pentoxifylline on proteinuria, renal function, glucose control, and inflammatory parameters. RESULTS:The percentage changes in proteinuria from baseline in the pentoxifylline and placebo groups were a decrease of 23 % and 4 %, respectively (p?=?0.012). In addition, significant reductions in fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin resistance according to the homeostasis model assessment were observed in the pentoxifylline group compared to those in the placebo group. However there was no significant difference in serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:Pentoxifylline therapy reduced proteinuria and improved glucose control and insulin resistance without significant change of serum TNF-? in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, pentoxifylline is a potential therapeutic alternative for treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01382303.