Two-step process for disassembly mechanism of proteasome ?7 homo-tetradecamer by ?6 revealed by high-speed atomic force microscopy.
ABSTRACT: The 20S proteasome is a core particle of the eukaryotic proteasome responsible for proteolysis and is composed of layered ? and ? hetero-heptameric rings. The ?7 subunit, which is one of components of the ? ring, is known to self-assemble into a double-ringed homo-tetradecamer composed of two layers of the ?7 heptameric ring. The ?7 tetradecamer is known to disassemble upon the addition of ?6 subunit, producing a 1:7 hetero-octameric ?6-?7 complex. However, the detailed disassembly mechanism remains unclear. Here, we applied high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to dissect the disassembly process of the ?7 double ring caused by interaction with the ?6. HS-AFM movies clearly demonstrated two different modes of interaction in which the ?6 monomer initially cracks at the interface between the stacked two ?7 single rings and the subsequent intercalation of the ?6 monomer in the open pore of the ?7 single ring blocks the re-association of the single rings into the double ring. This result provides a mechanistic insight about the disassembly process of non-native homo-oligomers formed by proteasome components which is crucial for the initial process for assembly of 20S proteasome.
Project description:The 20S core particle of the eukaryotic proteasome is composed of two ?- and two ?-rings, each of which is a hetero-heptamer composed of seven homologous but distinct subunits. Although formation of the eukaryotic proteasome is a highly ordered process assisted by assembly chaperones, ?7, an ?-ring component, has the unique property of self-assembling into a homo-tetradecamer. We used biophysical methods to characterize the oligomeric states of this proteasome subunit and its interaction with ?6, which makes direct contacts with ?7 in the proteasome ?-ring. We determined a crystal structure of the ?7 tetradecamer, which has a double-ring structure. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation and mass spectrometric analysis under non-denaturing conditions revealed that ?7 exclusively exists as homo-tetradecamer in solution and that its double-ring structure is disassembled upon the addition of ?6, resulting in a 1:7 hetero-octameric ?6-?7 complex. Our findings suggest that proteasome formation involves the disassembly of non-native oligomers, which are assembly intermediates.
Project description:Eukaryotic proteasomes harbor heteroheptameric ?-rings, each composed of seven different but homologous subunits ?1-?7, which are correctly assembled via interactions with assembly chaperones. The human proteasome ?7 subunit is reportedly spontaneously assembled into a homotetradecameric double ring, which can be disassembled into single rings via interaction with monomeric ?6. We comprehensively characterized the oligomeric state of human proteasome ? subunits and demonstrated that only the ?7 subunit exhibits this unique, self-assembling property and that not only ?6 but also ?4 can disrupt the ?7 double ring. We also demonstrated that mutationally monomerized ?7 subunits can interact with the intrinsically monomeric ?4 and ?6 subunits, thereby forming heterotetradecameric complexes with a double-ring structure. The results of this study provide additional insights into the mechanisms underlying the assembly and disassembly of proteasomal subunits, thereby offering clues for the design and creation of circularly assembled hetero-oligomers based on homo-oligomeric structural frameworks.
Project description:Native mass spectrometry (MS) and surface induced dissociation (SID) have been applied to study the stoichiometry and quaternary structure of non-covalent protein complexes. In this study, Methanosarcina thermophila 20S proteasome, which consists of four stacked heptameric rings (?7?7?7?7 symmetry), has been selected to explore the SID dissociation pattern of a complicated stacked ring protein complex. SID produces both ? and ? subunits while collision induced dissociation (CID) produces only highly charged ? subunit. In addition, the charge reduced 20S proteasome produces the ?7?7 fragment, reflecting the stacked ring topology of the complex. The combination of SID and charge reduction is shown to be a powerful tool for the study of protein complex structure.
Project description:ATP-dependent proteases maintain protein quality control and regulate diverse intracellular functions. Proteasomes are primarily responsible for these tasks in the archaeal and eukaryotic domains of life. Even the simplest of these proteases function as large complexes, consisting of the 20S peptidase, a barrel-like structure composed of four heptameric rings, and one or two AAA+ (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) ring hexamers, which use cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold and translocate substrates into the 20S proteolytic chamber. Understanding how the AAA+ and 20S components of these enzymes interact and collaborate to execute protein degradation is important, but the highly dynamic nature of prokaryotic proteasomes has hampered structural characterization. Here, we use electron microscopy to determine the architecture of an archaeal Cdc48 ? 20S proteasome, which we stabilized by site-specific cross-linking. This complex displays coaxial alignment of Cdc48 and 20S and is enzymatically active, demonstrating that AAA+ unfoldase wobbling with respect to 20S is not required for function. In the complex, the N-terminal domain of Cdc48, which regulates ATP hydrolysis and degradation, packs against the D1 ring of Cdc48 in a coplanar fashion, constraining mechanisms by which the N-terminal domain alters 20S affinity and degradation activity.
Project description:Chaperonins are a family of chaperones that encapsulate their substrates and assist their folding in an ATP-dependent manner. The ubiquitous eukaryotic chaperonin, TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC), is a hetero-oligomeric complex composed of two rings, each formed from eight different CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1) subunits. Each CCT subunit may have distinct substrate recognition and ATP hydrolysis properties. We have expressed each human CCT subunit individually in Escherichia coli to investigate whether they form chaperonin-like double ring complexes. CCT4 and CCT5, but not the other six CCT subunits, formed high molecular weight complexes within the E. coli cells that sedimented about 20S in sucrose gradients. When CCT4 and CCT5 were purified, they were both organized as two back-to-back rings of eight subunits each, as seen by negative stain and cryo-electron microscopy. This morphology is consistent with that of the hetero-oligomeric double-ring TRiC purified from bovine testes and HeLa cells. Both CCT4 and CCT5 homo-oligomers hydrolyzed ATP at a rate similar to human TRiC and were active as assayed by luciferase refolding and human ?D-crystallin aggregation suppression and refolding. Thus, both CCT4 and CCT5 homo-oligomers have the property of forming 8-fold double rings absent the other subunits, and these complexes carry out chaperonin reactions without other partner subunits.
Project description:Proteasomes are responsible for most intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes. The 20S proteasome comprises a dyad-symmetric stack of four heptameric rings made from 14 distinct subunits. How it assembles is not understood. Most subunits in the central pair of beta-subunit rings are synthesized in precursor form. Normally, the beta5 (Doa3) propeptide is essential for yeast proteasome biogenesis, but overproduction of beta7 (Pre4) bypasses this requirement. Bypass depends on a unique beta7 extension, which contacts the opposing beta ring. The resulting proteasomes appear normal but assemble inefficiently, facilitating identification of assembly intermediates. Assembly occurs stepwise into precursor dimers, and intermediates contain the Ump1 assembly factor and a novel complex, Pba1-Pba2. beta7 incorporation occurs late and is closely linked to the association of two half-proteasomes. We propose that dimerization is normally driven by the beta5 propeptide, an intramolecular chaperone, but beta7 addition overcomes an Ump1-dependent assembly checkpoint and stabilizes the precursor dimer.
Project description:The 20S proteasome is made up of four stacked heptameric rings, which in eucaryotes assemble from 14 different but related subunits. The rules governing subunit assembly and placement are not understood. We show that a different kind of proteasome forms in yeast when the Pre9/alpha3 subunit is deleted. Purified pre9Delta proteasomes show a two-fold enrichment for the Pre6/alpha4 subunit, consistent with the presence of an extra copy of Pre6 in each outer ring. Based on disulfide engineering and structure-guided suppressor analyses, Pre6 takes the position normally occupied by Pre9, a substitution that depends on a network of intersubunit salt bridges. When Arabidopsis PAD1/alpha4 is expressed in yeast, it complements not only pre6Delta but also pre6Delta pre9Delta mutants; therefore, the plant alpha4 subunit also can occupy multiple positions in a functional yeast proteasome. Importantly, biogenesis of proteasomes is delayed at an early stage in pre9Delta cells, suggesting an advantage for Pre9 over Pre6 incorporation at the alpha3 position that facilitates correct assembly.
Project description:In the eukaryotic 26S proteasome, the 20S particle is regulated by six AAA ATPase subunits and, in archaea, by a homologous ring complex, PAN. To clarify the role of ATP in proteolysis, we studied how nucleotides bind to PAN. Although PAN has six identical subunits, it binds ATPs in pairs, and its subunits exhibit three conformational states with high, low, or no affinity for ATP. When PAN binds two ATP?S molecules or two ATP?S plus two ADP molecules, it is maximally active in binding protein substrates, associating with the 20S particle, and promoting 20S gate opening. However, binding of four ATP?S molecules reduces these functions. The 26S proteasome shows similar nucleotide dependence. These findings imply an ordered cyclical mechanism in which two ATPase subunits bind ATP simultaneously and dock into the 20S. These results can explain how these hexameric ATPases interact with and "wobble" on top of the heptameric 20S proteasome.
Project description:The 20S proteasome core particle (20S CP) plays an integral role in cellular homeostasis by degrading proteins no longer required for function. The process is, in part, controlled via gating residues localized to the ends of the heptameric barrel-like CP structure that occlude substrate entry pores, preventing unregulated degradation of substrates that might otherwise enter the proteasome. Previously, we showed that the N-terminal residues of the ?-subunits of the CP from the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum are arranged such that, on average, two of the seven termini are localized inside the lumen of the proteasome, thereby plugging the entry pore and functioning as a gate. However, the mechanism of gating remains unclear. Using solution NMR and a labeling procedure in which a series of mixed proteasome rings are prepared such that the percentage of gate-containing subunits is varied, we address the energetics of gating and establish whether gating is a cooperative process involving the concerted action of residues from more than a single protomer. Our results establish that the intrinsic probability of a gate entering the lumen favors the in state by close to 20-fold, that entry of each gate is noncooperative, with the number of gates that can be accommodated inside the lumen a function of the substrate entry pore size and the bulkiness of the gating residues. Insight into the origin of the high affinity for the in state is obtained from spin-relaxation experiments. More generally, our approach provides an avenue for dissecting interactions of individual protomers in homo-oligomeric complexes.
Project description:20S proteasomes are large, multicatalytic proteases that play an important role in intracellular protein degradation. The barrel-like architecture of 20S proteasomes, formed by the stacking of four heptameric protein rings, is highly conserved from archaea to eukaryotes. The outer two rings are composed of alpha-type subunits, and the inner two rings are composed of beta-type subunits. The halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii synthesizes two different alpha-type proteins, alpha1 and alpha2, and one beta-type protein that assemble into at least two 20S proteasome subtypes. In this study, we demonstrate that all three of these 20S proteasomal proteins (alpha1, alpha2, and beta) are modified either post- or cotranslationally. Using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a phosphorylation site of the beta subunit was identified at Ser129 of the deduced protein sequence. In addition, alpha1 and alpha2 contained N-terminal acetyl groups. These findings represent the first evidence of acetylation and phosphorylation of archaeal proteasomes and are one of the limited examples of post- and/or cotranslational modification of proteins in this unusual group of organisms.