Serum and Extracellular Vesicle MicroRNAs miR-423, miR-199, and miR-93* As Biomarkers for Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.
ABSTRACT: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major cause of adverse outcome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high incidence (20-50%). A novel, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict for prevalence and severity would enable improved prophylaxis and reduce morbidity. Circulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-423, miR-199, miR-93*, and miR-377 have previously been associated with aGvHD in post-HSCT patient plasma, but validation is lacking and their expression within extracellular vesicles (EVs) has not been explored. This study replicated elevated serum expression of miR-423 (p?
Project description:Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Approximately 35% to 50% of HCT recipients develop aGVHD; however, there are no validated diagnostic and predictive blood biomarkers for aGVHD in clinical use. Here, we show that plasma samples from aGVHD patients have a distinct microRNA (miRNA) expression profile. We found that 6 miRNAs (miR-423, miR-199a-3p, miR-93*, miR-377, miR-155, and miR-30a) were significantly upregulated in the plasma of aGVHD patients (n = 116) when compared with non-GVHD patients (n = 52) in training and validation phases. We have developed a model including 4 miRNAs (miR-423, miR-199a-3p, miR-93*, and miR-377) that can predict the probability of aGVHD with an area under the curve of 0.80. Moreover, these elevated miRNAs were detected before the onset of aGVHD (median = 16 days before diagnosis). In addition, the levels of these miRNAs were positively associated with aGVHD severity, and high expression of the miRNA panel was associated with poor overall survival. Furthermore, the miRNA signature for aGVHD was not detected in the plasma of lung transplant or nontransplant sepsis patients. Our results have identified a specific plasma miRNA signature that may serve as an independent biomarker for the prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis of aGVHD.
Project description:Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) continues to be a frequent and devastating complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), posing as a significant barrier against the widespread use of HSCTs as a curative modality. Recent studies suggested serum/plasma microRNAs (miRs) may predict aGVHD onset. However, little is known about the functional role of circulating miRs in aGVHD. In this article, we show in two independent cohorts that miR-29a expression is significantly upregulated in the serum of allogeneic HSCT patients at aGVHD onset compared with non-aGVHD patients. Serum miR-29a is also elevated as early as 2 wk before time of diagnosis of aGVHD compared with time-matched control subjects. We demonstrate novel functional significance of serum miR-29a by showing that miR-29a binds and activates dendritic cells via TLR7 and TLR8, resulting in the activation of the NF-?B pathway and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6. Treatment with locked nucleic acid anti-miR-29a significantly improved survival in a mouse model of aGVHD while retaining graft-versus-leukemia effects, unveiling a novel therapeutic target in aGVHD treatment or prevention.
Project description:Early complications post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) such as sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) and graft versus host disease (GVHD) can be life threatening. Although several biomarkers have been identified to correlate with these complications and their response to treatment, these are yet to be used in clinical practice. Here, we evaluated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) (n = 26) and plasma biomarkers (ST2, REG3?, VCAM1, ICAM1, TIM3) (N = 210) at early time points, to determine their association with early complications post-HSCT. Elevated CEC counts at the end of conditioning was associated with GVHD, indicating endothelial damage during HSCT. Plasma levels of REG3?, VCAM1, ICAM1, and TIM3 on day 14 (D14) and D14 ICAM1 and D28 ST2 were significantly higher in patients with SOS and aGVHD, respectively. Upon sub-group analysis, D28 ST2, D14/D28 REG3?, and D14ICAM1 levels were significantly higher in patients with gastrointestinal GVHD, while D28ST2 was higher in those with skin/liver GVHD. High ST2 levels on D28 was significantly associated with non-relapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival. Our results suggest that elevated ST2 levels on D28 could predict the likelihood of developing aGVHD and could influence NRM and OS.
Project description:Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the most frequent and serious complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high mortality rate. A clearer understanding of the molecular pathogenesis may allow for improved therapeutic options or guide personalized prophylactic protocols. Circulating microRNAs are expressed in body fluids and have recently been associated with the etiology of aGvHD, but global expression profiling in a HSCT setting is lacking. This study profiled expression of n?=?799 mature microRNAs in patient serum, using the NanoString platform, to identify microRNAs that showed altered expression at aGvHD diagnosis. Selected microRNAs (n?=?10) were replicated in independent cohorts of serum samples taken at aGvHD diagnosis (n?=?42) and prior to disease onset (day 14 post-HSCT, n?=?47) to assess their prognostic potential. Sera from patients without aGvHD were used as controls. Differential microRNAs were investigated in silico for predicted networks and mRNA targets. Expression analysis identified 61 microRNAs that were differentially expressed at aGvHD diagnosis. miR-146a (p?=?0.03), miR-30b-5p (p?=?0.007), miR-374-5p (p?=?0.02), miR-181a (p?=?0.03), miR-20a (p?=?0.03), and miR-15a (p?=?0.03) were significantly verified in an independent cohort (n?=?42). miR-146a (p?=?0.01), miR-20a (p?=?0.03), miR-18 (p?=?0.03), miR-19a (p?=?0.03), miR-19b (p?=?0.01), and miR-451 (p?=?0.01) were differentially expressed 14?days post-HSCT in patients who later developed aGvHD (n?=?47). High miR-19b expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (p?=?0.008), whereas high miR-20a and miR-30b-5p were associated with lower rates of non-relapse mortality (p?=?0.05 and p?=?0.008) and improved OS (p?=?0.016 and p?=?0.021). Pathway analysis associated the candidate microRNAs with hematological and inflammatory disease. Circulating biofluid microRNAs show altered expression at aGvHD onset and have the capacity to act as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers. Their differential expression in serum suggests a role for circulatory microRNAs in aGvHD pathology, which warrants further investigation.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment for numerous hematological malignancies. However, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is a major complication affecting 40-70% of all transplant patients, whereby the earliest and most frequent presentation is in the skin. MicroRNAs play a role in varied biological process and have been reported as potential biomarkers for aGvHD. More recently, microRNAs have received added attention as circulatory biomarkers that can be detected in biofluids. In this study, we performed global microRNA expression profiling using a discovery cohort of diagnostic cutaneous aGvHD biopsies (n?=?5, stages 1-3) and healthy volunteers (n?=?4), in order to identify a signature list of microRNAs that could be used as diagnostic biomarkers for cutaneous aGvHD. Candidate microRNAs (n?=?8) were then further investigated in a validation cohort of post-HSCT skin biopsies (n?=?17), pre-HSCT skin biopsies (n?=?6) and normal controls (n?=?6) for their association with aGvHD. Expression of let-7c (p?=?0.014), miR-503-5p (p?=?0.003), miR-365a-3p (p?=?0.02), miR-34a-5p (p?<?0.001) and miR-34a-3p (p?=?0.006) were significantly differentially expressed between groups and significantly associated with survival outcome in post-HSCT patients (miR-503-5p ROC AUC?=?0.83 p?=?0.021, Log Rank p?=?0.003; miR-34a-3p ROC AUC?=?0.93, p?=?0.003, Log Rank p?=?0.004). There was no association with relapse. A statistical interaction between miR-34a-3p and miR-503-5p (p?=?0.016) was diagnostic for aGvHD. Expression levels of the miR-34a-5p protein target p53 were assessed in the epidermis of the skin, and an inverse correlation was identified (r2?=?0.44, p?=?0.039). Expression of the validated candidate microRNAs was also assessed at day 28 post-HSCT in the sera of transplant recipients, in order to investigate their potential as circulatory microRNA biomarkers. Expression of miR-503-5p (p?=?0.001), miR-34a-5p (p?=?0.005), and miR-34a-3p (p?=?0.004) was significantly elevated in the sera of patients who developed aGvHD versus no-aGvHD (n?=?30) and miR-503-5p was associated with overall survival (OS) (ROC AUC?=?0.80, p?=?0.04, Log Rank p?=?0.041). In conclusion, this investigation reports that microRNA expression levels in clinical skin biopsies, obtained at the time of cutaneous aGvHD onset, show potential as diagnostic biomarkers for aGvHD and as predictive biomarkers for OS. In addition, the same microRNAs can be detected in the circulation and show predictive association with post-HSCT outcomes.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as central regulators of diverse biological processes and contribute to driving pathology in several diseases. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) represents a major complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, caused by alloreactive donor T cells attacking host tissues leading to inflammation and tissue destruction. Changes in miRNA expression patterns occur during aGvHD, and we hypothesized that we could identify miRNA signatures in target tissues of aGvHD that may potentially help understand the underlying molecular pathology of the disease. We utilized a rat model of aGvHD with transplantation of fully MHC-mismatched T cell depleted bone marrow, followed by infusion of donor T cells. The expression pattern of 423 rat miRNAs was investigated in skin, gut, and lung tissues and intestinal T cells with the NanoString hybridization platform, in combination with validation by quantitative PCR. MHC-matched transplanted rats were included as controls. In the skin, upregulation of miR-34b and downregulation of miR-326 was observed, while in the intestines, we detected downregulation of miR-743b and a trend toward downregulation of miR-345-5p. Thus, tissue-specific expression patterns of miRNAs were observed. Neither miR-326 nor miR-743b has previously been associated with aGvHD. Moreover, we identified upregulation of miR-146a and miR-155 in skin tissue of rats suffering from aGvHD. Analysis of intestinal T cells indicated 23 miRNAs differentially regulated between aGvHD and controls. Two of these miRNAs were differentially expressed either in skin (miR-326) or in intestinal (miR-345-5p) tissue. Comparison of intestinal and peripheral blood T cells indicated common dysregulated expression of miR-99a, miR-223, miR-326, and miR-345-5p. Analysis of predicted gene targets for these miRNAs indicated potential targeting of an inflammatory network both in skin and in the intestines that may further regulate inflammatory cytokine production. In conclusion, comprehensive miRNA profiling in rats suffering from aGvHD demonstrate tissue-specific differences in the expression patterns of miRNA that may not be detected by profiling of peripheral blood T cells alone. These tissue-specific miRNAs may contribute to distinct pathologic mechanisms and could represent potential targets for therapy.
Project description:Purpose: The goal of this study is to generate NGS-derived transcriptome profiles (RNA-seq) from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) exposed to extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing the miR-17 family (miR-17 and miR-93). Methods: BMDMs were isolated from mouse bone and were exposed to lung epithelial Beas2B cell-derived EVs transfected with scrambled control RNAs, miR-17 mimics or miR-93 mimics. Whole transcriptome profiles of the exposed BMDMs (n = 4 biological replicates were pooled) were then generated using the Ion Proton™ System. Results: A wide range of transcript expressions were regulated by the EV-containing miR-17 and/or miR-93 in BMDMs. AC118255.2, Phox2a, 1700066J24Rik, and Gm20412 were effectively downregulated by both MV-miR-17 and MV-miR-93. Conclusions: Our study provides potential target transcripts of EV-containing miR-17/93 in macrophages. Overall design: Examination of BMDM transcriptome profiles modulated by EV-containing miR-17 and/or -93.
Project description:Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) upregulation has been observed in acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the role of EMPs remains unclear. We found that EMPs derived from TNF-?-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926) concentrated more microRNA-155 (miR-155) compared with maternal cells. The miR-155 levels in MPs from peripheral blood of aGVHD patients and mice were remarkably elevated and significantly higher than the levels in plasma. Moreover, the rising peak of miR-155 in MPs occurred significantly prior to the peak in T lymphocytes. Additionally, we observed fluorescently-labeled miR-155 in EMPs actively transported into recipient T lymphocytes. Inhibition of miR-155 in EMPs by antagomir-155 did not influence the proliferation and apoptosis of T lymphocytes, but induced defective differentiation toward Th1, Th9 and Th17 cells and skewed differentiation toward Th2 and Treg cells. Furthermore, intravenous injection of miR-155-deficient-EMPs into aGVHD mice significantly attenuated the exacerbation of aGVHD manifestations and abnormal T lymphocytes differentiation induced by high concentration EMPs. Taken together, these data provide a mechanistic framework in which miR-155 delivered by EMPs is involved in aGVHD pathogenesis by activating specific T lymphocytes functions. The results may provide new therapeutic approaches for aGVHD while preserving graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect.
Project description:Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Therefore, seeking reliable biomarkers and delineating the potential biological mechanism are important for optimizing treatment strategies and improving their curative effect. In this study, using a microRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based chip assay, microRNA-153-3p (miR-153-3p) was screened and selected as a potential biomarker of aGVHD. The elevated plasma miR-153-3p levels at +7 d after transplant could be used to predict the upcoming aGVHD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for aGVHD+/aGVHD- patients receiving haploidentical transplant was 0.808 (95% confidence interval, 0.686-0.930) in a training set and 0.809 (95% confidence interval, 0.694-0.923) in a validation set. Interestingly, bioinformatics analysis indicated that indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a potential target of miR-153-3p. In vitro study confirmed that IDO could be directly inhibited by miR-153-3p. In a GVHD model, recipient mice injected with a miR-153-3p antagomir exhibited higher IDO expression levels at the early stage after transplantation, as well as delayed aGVHD and longer survival, indicating that the miR-153-3p level at +7 d post-transplant is a good predictor of aGVHD. miR-153-3p participates in aGVHD development by inhibiting IDO expression and might be a novel bio-target for aGVHD intervention.