Homology Modeling and Virtual Screening to Discover Potent Inhibitors Targeting the Imidazole Glycerophosphate Dehydratase Protein in Staphylococcus xylosus.
ABSTRACT: The imidazole glycerophosphate dehydratase (IGPD) protein is a therapeutic target for herbicide discovery. It is also regarded as a possible target in Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus) for solving mastitis in the dairy cow. The 3D structure of IGPD protein is essential for discovering novel inhibitors during high-throughput virtual screening. However, to date, the 3D structure of IGPD protein of S. xylosus has not been solved. In this study, a series of computational techniques including homology modeling, Ramachandran Plots, and Verify 3D were performed in order to construct an appropriate 3D model of IGPD protein of S. xylosus. Nine hits were identified from 2,500 compounds by docking studies. Then, these nine compounds were first tested in vitro in S. xylosus biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. One of the potential compounds, baicalin was shown to significantly inhibit S. xylosus biofilm formation. Finally, the baicalin was further evaluated, which showed better inhibition of biofilm formation capability in S. xylosus by scanning electron microscopy. Hence, we have predicted the structure of IGPD protein of S. xylosus using computational techniques. We further discovered the IGPD protein was targeted by baicalin compound which inhibited the biofilm formation in S. xylosus. Our findings here would provide implications for the further development of novel IGPD inhibitors for the treatment of dairy mastitis.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus) is an AT-rich and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS). It is normally regarded as non-pathogenic, however, recent studies have demonstrated that it is related to human opportunistic infections and bovine mastitis. In addition, S. xylosus strains have the ability to form biofilm. Biofilms are also involved in chronic infections and antibiotic resistance, there are only a few reports about cefquinome inhibiting S. xylosus biofilm formation and the protein targets of cefquinome. In our study, we found that sub-MICs of cefquinome were sufficient to inhibit biofilm formation. To investigate the potential protein targets of cefquinome, we used iTRAQ for the analyses of cells at two different conditions: 1/2-MIC (0.125 ?g/mL) cefquinome treatment and no treatment. Using iTRAQ technique and KEGG database analysis, we found that proteins differently expression in histidine metabolism pathway may play a role in the process by which 1/2-MIC (0.125 ?g/mL) cefquinome inhibits S. xylosus biofilm formation. Interestingly, we found a sharply down-regulated enzyme [A0A068E9J3 imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (IGPD)] involved in histidine metabolism pathway in cefquinome-treated cells. We demonstrated the important role of IGPD in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibiting biofilm formation of S. xylosus by gene (hisB) knockout, IGPD enzyme activity and histidine content assays. Thus, our data sheds light on important role of histidine metabolism in S. xylosus biofilm formation; especially, IGPD involved in histidine metabolism might play a crucial role in sub-MICs cefquinome inhibition of biofilm formation of S. xylosus, and we propose IGPD as an attractive protein target of cefquinome.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus) is a type of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, which was previously considered as non-pathogenic. However, recent studies have linked it with cases of mastitis in cows. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a bioactive compound with pharmacological functions including antibacterial activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ISL on S. xylosus in vitro and in vivo. The MIC of ISL against S. xylosus was 80 ?g/mL. It was observed that sub-MICs of ISL (1/2MIC, 1/4MIC, 1/8MIC) significantly inhibited the formation of S. xylosus biofilm in vitro. Previous studies have observed that inhibiting imidazole glycerol phosphate dehydratase (IGPD) concomitantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. xylosus. So, we designed experiments to target the formation of IGPD or inhibits its activities in S. xylosus ATCC 700404. The results indicated that the activity of IGPD and its histidine content decreased significantly under 1/2 MIC (40 ?g/mL) ISL, and the expression of IGPD gene (hisB) and IGPD protein was significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, Bio-layer interferometry experiments showed that ISL directly interacted with IGPD protein (with strong affinity; KD = 234 ?M). In addition, molecular docking was used to predict the binding mode of ISL and IGPD. In vivo tests revealed that, ISL significantly reduced TNF-? and IL-6 levels, mitigated the destruction of the mammary glands and reversed the production of inflammatory cells in mice. The results of the study suggest that, ISL may inhibit S. xylosus growth by acting on IGPD, which can be used as a target protein to treat infections caused by S. xylosus.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus, a coagulase-negative, non-pathogenic bacterium, responsible for opportunistic infections in humans and bovine mastitis, has the ability to form biofilms, which are responsible for persistent infections and antibiotic resistance. In our study, azithromycin significantly inhibited biofilm formation by altering protein expression. Of the 1764 proteins measured by the isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) technique, only 148 proteins showed significantly different expression between the azithromycin-treated and untreated cells. Most ribosomal proteins were markedly up-regulated, and the expression of the proteins involved in histidine biosynthesis, which, in turn, influence biofilm formation, was down-regulated, particularly imidazole glycerophosphate dehydratase (IGPD). Previously, we had observed that IGPD plays an important role in biofilm formation by S. xylosus. Therefore, hisB expression was studied by real-time PCR, and the interactions between azithromycin and IGPD were predicted by molecular docking analysis. hisB was found to be significantly down-regulated, and six bond interactions were observed between azithromycin and IGPD. Many active atoms of azithromycin did not interact with the biologically active site of IGPD. Surface plasmon resonance analysis used to further study the relationship between IGPD and azithromycin showed minimum interaction between them. Histidine content in the azithromycin-treated and untreated groups was determined. We noted a slight difference, which was not consistent with the expression of the proteins involved in histidine biosynthesis. Therefore, histidine degradation into glutamate was also studied, and we found that all proteins were down-regulated. This could be the reason why histidine content showed little change between the treated and untreated groups. In summary, we found that azithromycin is a potential inhibitor of S. xylosus biofilm formation, and the underlying mechanism was preliminarily elucidated in this study.
Project description:Staphylococcus xylosus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes infection in humans and cow mastitis. And S. xylosus possesses a strong ability to form biofilms in vitro. As biofilm formation facilitates resistance to antimicrobial agents, the discovery of new medicinal properties for classic drugs is highly desired. Aspirin, which is the most common active component of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compounds, affects the biofilm-forming capacity of various bacterial species. We have found that aspirin effectively inhibits biofilm formation of S. xylosus by Crystal violet (CV) staining and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The present study sought to elucidate possible targets of aspirin in suppressing S. xylosus biofilm formation. Based on an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) fold-change of >1.2 or <0.8 (P-value < 0.05), 178 differentially expressed proteins, 111 down-regulated and 67 up-regulated, were identified after application of aspirin to cells at a 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration. Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment in metabolic processes for the majority of the differentially expressed proteins. We then used the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database to analyze a large number of differentially expressed proteins and identified genes involved in biosynthesis of amino acids pathway, carbon metabolism (pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways, tricarboxylic acid cycle) and nitrogen metabolism (histidine metabolism). These novel proteins represent candidate targets in aspirin-mediated inhibition of S. xylosus biofilm formation at sub-MIC levels. The findings lay the foundation for further studies to identify potential aspirin targets.
Project description:Background:Mastitis is an inflammatory reaction of the mammary gland tissue, which causes huge losses to dairy farms throughout the world. Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent agent associated with this disease. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which have the ability to form biofilms, usually lead to chronic mastitis in dairy cows. Moreover, methicillin resistance of the bacteria further complicates the treatment of this disease. Stigmata maydis (corn silk), a traditional Chinese medicine, possess many biological activities. Methods:In this study, we performed antibacterial activity assays, biofilm formation assays and real-time reverse transcription PCR experiments to investigate the effect of stigmata maydis (corn silk) on biofilm formation and vancomycin susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from dairy cows with mastitis. Results:In this study, the aqueous extracts of stigmata maydis inhibited the biofilm formation ability of MRSA strains and increased the vancomycin susceptibility of the strains under biofilm-cultured conditions. Conclusion:This study proves that the aqueous extracts of stigmata maydis inhibit the biofilm formation ability of MRSA strains and increase the vancomycin susceptibility of the MRSA strains under biofilm-cultured conditions.
Project description:Background:Escherichia coli is an important opportunistic pathogen that could cause inflammation of the udder in dairy cows resulting in reduced milk production and changes in milk composition and quality, and even death of dairy cows. Therefore, mastitis is the main health issue which leads to major economic losses on dairy farms. Antibiotics are routinely used for the treatment of bovine mastitis. The ability to form biofilm increases the antibiotic resistance of E. coli. Nanoparticles (NPs), a nanosized, safe, and highly cost-effective antibacterial agent, are potential biomedical tools. Given their antibacterial activities, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have a broad range of applications. Methods:In this study, we performed antibacterial activity assays, biofilm formation assays, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experiments, and real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) experiments to investigate the antibacterial and anti-biofilm effect of quercetin, Ag NPs, and Silver-nanoparticle-decorated quercetin nanoparticles (QA NPs) in E. coli strain ECDCM1. Results:In this study, QA NPs, a composite material combining Ag NPs and the plant-derived drug component quercetin, exhibited stronger antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties in a multi-drug resistant E. coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis, compared to Ag NPs and Qe. Discussion:This study provides evidence that QA NPs possess high antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. They proved to be more effective than Ag NPs and Qe against the biofilm formation of a multi-drug resistant E. coli isolated from cows with mastitis. This suggests that QA NPs might be used as a potential antimicrobial agent in the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by E. coli.
Project description:Glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the production of glutamine, plays essential roles in most biological growth and biofilm formation, suggesting that GS may be used as a promising target for antibacterial therapy. We asked whether a GS inhibitor could be found as an anti-infective agent of Staphylococcus xylosus (S. xylosus). Here, computational prediction followed by experimental testing was used to characterize GS. Sorafenib was finally determined through computational prediction. In vitro experiments showed that sorafenib has an inhibitory effect on the growth of S. xylosus by competitively occupying the active site of GS, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was 4 mg/L. In vivo experiments also proved that treatment with sorafenib significantly reduced the levels of TNF-? and IL-6 in breast tissue from mice mastitis, which was further confirmed by histopathology examination. These findings indicated that sorafenib could be utilized as an anti-infective agent for the treatment of infections caused by S. xylosus.
Project description:Background:Mastitis is one of the most common infectious diseases in dairy cattle and causes significant financial losses in the dairy industry worldwide. Antibiotic therapy has been used as the most effective strategy for clinical mastitis treatment. However, due to the extensive use of antibacterial agents, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is considered to be one of the reasons for low cure rates in bovine mastitis. In addition, biofilms could protect bacteria by restricting antibiotic access and shielding the bacterial pathogen from mammary gland immune defences. The functional mechanisms of quorum sensing E. coli regulators B an d C (QseBC) have been well studied in E. coli model strains; however, whether QseBC regulates antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation in clinical E. coli strain has not been reported. Methods:In this study, we performed construction of the qseBC gene mutant, complementation of the qseBC mutant, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, antibacterial activity assays, biofilm formation assays, real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) to investigate the role of qseBC in regulating biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility in the clinical E. coli strain ECDCM2. Results:We reported that inactivation of QseBC led to a decrease in biofilm formation capacity and an increase in antibiotic susceptibility of an E. coli strain isolated from a dairy cow that suffered from mastitis. In addition, this study indicated that QseBC increased biofilm formation by upregulating the transcription of the biofilm-associated genes bcsA, csgA, fliC, motA, wcaF and fimA and decreased antibiotic susceptibility by upregulating the transcription of the efflux-pump-associated genes marA, acrA, acrB, acrD, emrD and mdtH. We also performed EMSA assays, and the results showed that QseB can directly bind to the marA promoter. Conclusions:The QseBC two-component system affects antibiotic sensitivity by regulating the transcription of efflux-pump-associated genes. Further, biofilm-formation-associated genes were also regulated by QseBC TCS in E. coli ECDCM2. Hence, this study might provide new clues to the prevention and treatment of infections caused by the clinical E. coli strains.
Project description:Biofilm formation is of growing concern in human and animal health. However, it is still unclear how biofilms are related to mastitis infections in dairy cattle. In this study, a comparison between two tests for biofilm formation and the association between biofilm and the presence of genes associated with biofilm formation were investigated for 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical mastitis cases. Congo red agar (CRA) and microtitre test assay (MTA) in vitro phenotypic tests were used to evaluate biofilm formation. The presence of icaA, icaD, and bap genes associated with biofilm formation was confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction. Results show that most of the S. aureus isolates, though not possessing one of the biofilm-forming genes, were able to produce biofilms. MTA was more frequently positive in identifying biofilm-forming isolates than CRA.
Project description:The quorum sensing (QS) circuit plays a role in the precise regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical settings has remained controversial due to emerging drug resistance; therefore, screening diverse compounds for anti-biofilm or anti-QS activities is important. This study demonstrates the ability of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of baicalin, an active natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal Scutellaria baicalensis, to inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and enhance the bactericidal effects of various conventional antibiotics in vitro. In addition, baicalin exerted dose-dependent inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes (LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, motilities and exotoxin A) regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the expression levels of QS-regulatory genes, including lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, pqsR and pqsA, were repressed after sub-MIC baicalin treatment, resulting in significant decreases in the QS signaling molecules 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL, confirming the ability of baicalin-mediated QS inhibition to alter gene and protein expression. In vivo experiments indicated that baicalin treatment reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Greater worm survival in the baicalin-treated group manifested as an increase in the LT50 from 24 to 96 h. In a mouse peritoneal implant infection model, baicalin treatment enhanced the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the implants of mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with the control group. Moreover, the combination of baicalin and antibiotics significantly reduced the numbers of colony-forming units in the implants to a significantly greater degree than antibiotic treatment alone. Pathological and histological analyses revealed mitigation of the inflammatory response and reduced cell infiltration in the peritoneal tissue surrounding the implants after baicalin treatment. Measurement of the cytokine levels in the peritoneal lavage fluid of mice in the baicalin treatment group revealed a decrease in IL-4, an increase in interferon ? (IFN-?), and a reversed IFN-?/IL-4 ratio compared with the control group, indicating that baicalin treatment activated the Th1-induced immune response to expedite bacterial load clearance. Based on these results, baicalin might be a potent QS inhibitor and anti-biofilm agent for combating Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-related infections.