Binding interaction of phosphorus heterocycles with bovine serum albumin: A biochemical study.
ABSTRACT: Interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and phosphorus heterocycles (PHs) was studied using multi-spectroscopic techniques. The results indicated the high binding affinity of PHs to BSA as it quenches the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The experimental data suggested the fluorescence quenching mechanism between PHs and BSA as a dynamic quenching. From the UV-vis studies, the apparent association constant (Kapp) was found to be 9.25×102, 1.27×104 and 9.01×102 L/mol for the interaction of BSA with PH-1, PH-2 and PH-3 respectively. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer (FRET) theory, the binding distances between BSA and PHs were calculated. The binding distances (r) of PH-1, PH-2 and PH-3 were found to be 2.86, 3.03, and 5.12 nm, respectively, indicating energy transfer occurs between BSA and PHs. The binding constants of the PHs obtained from the fluorescence quenching data were found to be decreased with increase of temperature. The negative values of the thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?S and ?G at different temperatures revealed that the binding process is spontaneous; hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interaction were the main force to stabilize the complex. The microenvironment of the protein-binding site was studied by synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) techniques and data indicated that the conformation of BSA changed in the presence of PHs. Finally, we studied the BSA-PHs docking using Autodock and results suggest that PHs is located in the cleft between the domains of BSA.
Project description:The interaction between fosfomycin (FOS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated effectively by multi-spectroscopic techniques under physiological pH 7.4. FOS quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via static quenching. The number of binding sites n and observed binding constant KA were measured by the fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters ?G0, ?H0 and ?S0 were calculated at different temperatures according to the van't Hoff equation. The site of binding of FOS in the protein was proposed to be Sudlow's site I based on displacement experiments using site markers viz. warfarin, ibuprofen and digitoxin. The distance r between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (FOS) molecules was obtained according to the Förster theory. The effect of FOS on the conformation of BSA was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS), circular dichroism (CD) and 3D fluorescence spectra. A molecular modeling study further confirmed the binding mode obtained by the experimental studies.
Project description:Repaglinide (RPG) regulates the amount of glucose by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin in the blood. In view of its biological importance, we have examined the interaction between RPG and a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) employing various spectroscopic, electrochemical and molecular docking methods. Fluorescence spectra of BSA were recorded in the presence and absence of RPG in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4. Fluorescence intensity of BSA was decreased upon the addition of increased concentrations of RPG, indicating the interaction between RPG and BSA. Stern-Volmer quenching analysis results revealed that RPG quenched the intensity of BSA through dynamic quenching mechanism. This was further confirmed from the time-resolved fluorescence measurements. The binding constant as calculated from the spectroscopic and voltammetric results was observed to be in the order of 104?M-1?at 298?K, suggesting the moderate binding affinity between RPG and BSA. Competitive experimental results revealed that the primary binding site for RPG on BSA was site II. Absorption and circular dichroism studies indicated the changes in the secondary structure of BSA upon its interaction with RPG. Molecular simulation studies pointed out that RPG was bound to BSA in the hydrophobic pocket of site II.
Project description:This study investigated the interaction between eupatorin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling at pH 7.4. Results of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies illustrated that BSA fluorescence was quenched by eupatorin via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played major roles in the interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the distance between BSA and acceptor eupatorin, were calculated. The effects of eupatorin on the BSA conformation were analyzed using UV-vis, CD, and synchronous fluorescence. Finally, the binding of eupatorin to BSA was modeled using the molecular docking method.
Project description:Interaction of the iminium and alkanolamine forms of sanguinarine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was characterized by spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques.Formation of strong complexes of BSA with both iminium and alkanolamine forms was revealed from fluorescence quenching of sanguinarine. Binding parameters calculated from Stern-Volmer quenching method revealed that the neutral alkanolamine had higher affinity to BSA compared to the charged iminium form. Specific binding distances of 3.37 and 2.38 nm between Trp 212 (donor) and iminium and alkanolamine forms (acceptor), respectively, were obtained from Forster resonance energy transfer studies. Competitive binding using the site markers warfarin and ibuprofen, having definite binding sites, demonstrated that both forms of sanguinarine bind to site I (subdomain IIA) on BSA. Sanguinarine binding alters protein conformation by reducing the ?-helical organization and increasing the coiled structure, indicating a small but definitive partial unfolding of the protein. Thermodynamic parameters evaluated from isothermal titration calorimetry suggested that the binding was enthalpy driven for the iminium form but favoured by negative enthalpy and strong favourable entropy contributions for the alkanolamine form, revealing the involvement of different molecular forces in the complexation.The results suggest that the neutral alkanolamine form binds to the protein more favourably compared to the charged iminium, in stark contrast to the reported DNA binding preference of sanguinarine.
Project description:The effect of a naphthalimide pharmacophore coupled with diverse substituents on the interaction between naphthalimide-polyamine conjugates 1-4 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under physiological conditions (pH = 7.4). The observed spectral quenching of BSA by the compounds indicated that they could bind to BSA. Furthermore, caloric fluorescent tests revealed that the quenching mechanisms of compounds 1-3 were basically static type, but that of compound 4 was closer to a classical type. The Ksv values at room temperature for compound-BSA complexes-1-BSA, 2-BSA, 3-BSA and 4-BSA were 1.438 × 10?, 3.190 × 10?, 5.700 × 10? and 4.745 × 10?, respectively, compared with the value of MINS, 2.863 × 10? at Ex = 280 nm. The obtained quenching constant, binding constant and thermodynamic parameter suggested that the binding between compounds 1-4 with BSA protein, significantly affected by the substituted groups on the naphthalene backbone, was formed by hydrogen bonds, and other principle forces mainly consisting of charged and hydrophobic interactions. Based on results from the analysis of synchronous three-dimensional ?uorescence and CD spectra, we can conclude that the interaction between compounds 1-4 and BSA protein has little impact on the BSA conformation. Calculated results obtained from in silico molecular simulation showed that compound 1 did not prefer either enzymatic drug sites I or II over the other. However, DSII in BSA was more beneficial than DSI for the binding between compounds 2-4 and BSA protein. The binding between compounds 1-3 and BSA was hydrophobic in nature, compared with the electrostatic interaction between compound 4 and BSA.
Project description:The drug, di-2-pyridylketone-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (DPPCAH) and its copper complex (DPPCAH-Cu) exhibit significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of their pharmacological interaction with the biological molecule bovine serum albumin (BSA) remains poorly understood. The present study elucidates the interactions between the drug and BSA through MTT assays, spectroscopic methods and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicate that BSA could attenuate effect on the cytotoxicity of DPPCAH, but not DPPCAH-Cu. Data from fluorescence quenching measurements demonstrated that both DPPCAH and DPPCAH-Cu could bind to BSA, with a reversed effect on the environment of tryptophan residues in polarity. CD spectra revealed that the DPPCAH-Cu exerted a slightly stronger effect on the secondary structure of BSA than DPPCAH. The association constant of DPPCAH with BSA was greater than that of DPPCAH-Cu. Docking studies indicated that the binding of DPPCAH to BSA involved a greater number of hydrogen bonds compared to DPPCAH-Cu. The calculated distances between bound ligands and tryptophans in BSA were in agreement with fluorescence resonance energy transfer results. Thus, the binding affinity of the drug (DPPCAH or DPPCAH-Cu) with BSA partially contributes to its antitumor activity; the greater the drug affinity is to BSA, the less is its antitumor activity.
Project description:Marine phlorotannins (PhT) from Laminaria digitata might protect feed proteins from ruminal digestion by formation of insoluble non-covalent tannin-protein complexes at rumen pH (6-7). Formation and disintegration of PhT-protein complexes was studied with ?-casein (random coil) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, globular) at various pH. PhT had similar binding affinity for ?-casein and BSA as pentagalloyl glucose, as studied by fluorescence quenching. The affinity of PhT for both proteins was independent of pH (3.0, 6.0, and 8.0). In the presence of PhT, the pH range for precipitation of tannin-protein complexes widened to 0.5-1.5 pH units around the isoelectric point (pI) of the protein. Complete protein resolubilization from insoluble PhT-protein complexes was achieved at pH 7 and 2 for ?-casein and BSA, respectively. It was demonstrated that PhT modulate the solubility of proteins at neutral pH and that resolubilization of PhT-protein complexes at pH deviating from pI is mainly governed by the charge state of the protein.
Project description:A synthesized and promising biologically hypoglycemic compound 5,6-Dichloro-2-[2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethyl]isoindoline-1,3-dione (5e) was studied for its binding to a model protein (bovine serum albumin; BSA) by spectroscopic and molecular simulation approaches. Fluorescence studies revealed that 5e quenched BSA's intrinsic fluorescence by static quenching. The experiments were performed at three different temperatures and the quenching constants and binding constants were evaluated. Stern-Volmer constant (Ksv) values decreased from 1.36?×?104 to 1.20?×?104 as the temperature increased suggesting static quenching involvement in the interaction. Decreased binding constants from 1.70?×?104 to 4.57?×?103 at higher temperatures indicated instability of the complex at rising temperatures. Site I (subdomain IIA) of BSA was found to interact with 5e. The thermodynamic results showed the binding interaction was spontaneous and enthalpy driven. The secondary structure alterations in BSA due to interaction with 5e were studied by UV-visible, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. The results indicate the 5e binds effectively to the BSA and thus, this study can be useful in further exploring the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 5e.
Project description:The interaction of afatinib (AFB) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined via fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Spectrofluorimetric measurements revealed that AFB can strongly quench the BSA intrinsic fluorescence through producing a non-fluorescent complex. This quenching mechanism was thoroughly investigated with regard to the type of quenching, binding constant, number of binding locations and the fundamental thermodynamic parameters. Subsequently, the association constant of AFB with BSA was computed at three different temperatures and was found to range from 7.34 to 13.19 x10(5) L mol(-1). Thermodynamic parameters calculations demonstrated a positive ?S? value with both negative ?H? and ?G? values for AFB-BSA complex, which in turn infers that a spontaneous binding is taking place with both electrostatic bonding and hydrophobic interactions participating in the binding of AFB and BSA. Similarly, the UV absorption spectra of AFB-BSA system were studied and confirmed the interaction. Conformational alteration of the protein upon binding to AFB was elaborated with the aid of three dimensional fluorescence measurements as well as synchronous fluorescence spectra.
Project description:In this report, the interaction between a phenanthrene-pyrene-based fluorescent probe (PPI) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), a transport protein, has been explored by steady-state emission spectroscopy, fluorescence anisotropy, far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD), time-resolved spectral measurements, and molecular docking simulation study. The blue shift along with emission enhancement indicates the interaction between PPI and BSA. The binding of the probe causes quenching of BSA fluorescence through both static and dynamic quenching mechanisms, revealing a 1:1 interaction, as delineated from Benesi-Hildebrand plot, with a binding constant of ?105 M-1, which is in excellent agreement with the binding constant extracted from fluorescence anisotropy measurements. The thermodynamic parameters, ?H°, ?S°, and ?G°, as determined from van't Hoff relationship indicate the predominance of van der Waals/extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions for the binding phenomenon. The molecular docking and site-selective binding studies reveal the predominant binding of PPI in subdomain IIA of BSA. From the fluorescence resonance energy transfer study, the average distance between tryptophan 213 of the BSA donor and the PPI acceptor is found to be 3.04 nm. CD study demonstrates the reduction of ?-helical content of BSA protein on binding with PPI, clearly indicating the change of conformation of BSA.