Mainstream Smoke Levels of Volatile Organic Compounds in 50 U.S. Domestic Cigarette Brands Smoked With the ISO and Canadian Intense Protocols.
ABSTRACT: A significant portion of the increased risk of cancer and respiratory disease from exposure to cigarette smoke is attributed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, 21 VOCs were quantified in mainstream cigarette smoke from 50U.S. domestic brand varieties that included high market share brands and 2 Kentucky research cigarettes (3R4F and 1R5F).Mainstream smoke was generated under ISO 3308 and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking protocols with linear smoking machines with a gas sampling bag collection followed by solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis.For both protocols, mainstream smoke VOC amounts among the different brand varieties were strongly correlated between the majority of the analytes. Overall, Pearson correlation (r) ranged from 0.68 to 0.99 for ISO and 0.36 to 0.95 for CI. However, monoaromatic compounds were found to increase disproportionately compared to unsaturated, nitro, and carbonyl compounds under the CI smoking protocol where filter ventilation is blocked.Overall, machine generated "vapor phase" amounts (µg/cigarette) are primarily attributed to smoking protocol (e.g., blocking of vent holes, puff volume, and puff duration) and filter ventilation. A possible cause for the disproportionate increase in monoaromatic compounds could be increased pyrolysis under low oxygen conditions associated with the CI protocol.This is the most comprehensive assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke to date, encompassing 21 toxic VOCs, 50 different cigarette brand varieties, and 2 different machine smoking protocols (ISO and CI). For most analytes relative proportions remain consistent among U.S. cigarette brand varieties regardless of smoking protocol, however the CI smoking protocol did cause up to a factor of 6 increase in the proportion of monoaromatic compounds. This study serves as a basis to assess VOC exposure as cigarette smoke is a principle source of overall population-level VOC exposure in the United States.
Project description:Tobacco-free electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which are currently not regulated by the FDA, have become widespread as a "safe" form of smoking. One approach to evaluate the potential toxicity of e-cigarettes and other types of potentially "reduced-harm" cigarettes is to compare their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including reactive organic electrophillic compounds such as acrolein, and particulate matter to those of conventional and reference cigarettes. Our newly designed fast-flow tube system enabled us to analyze VOC composition and particle number concentration in real-time by promptly diluting puffs of mainstream smoke obtained from different brands of combustion cigarettes and e-cigarettes. A proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTRMS) was used to analyze real-time cigarette VOC emissions with a 1 s time resolution. Particles were detected with a condensation particle counter (CPC). This technique offers real-time analysis of VOCs and particles in each puff without sample aging and does not require any sample pretreatment or extra handling. Several important determining factors in VOC and particle concentration were investigated: (1) puff frequency; (2) puff number; (3) tar content; (4) filter type. Results indicate that electronic cigarettes are not free from acrolein and acetaldehyde emissions and produce comparable particle number concentrations to those of combustion cigarettes, more specifically to the 1R5F reference cigarette. Unlike conventional cigarettes, which emit different amounts of particles and VOCs each puff, there was no significant puff dependence in the e-cigarette emissions. Charcoal filter cigarettes did not fully prevent the emission of acrolein and other VOCs.
Project description:Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke VOCs (i.e., carbonyls and volatiles, which historically have been measured by separate assays) for large exposure assessment studies. Our approach collects and maintains vapor-phase smoke in a gas sampling bag, where it is homogenized with isotopically labeled analogue internal standards and sampled using gas-phase SPME. High throughput is achieved by SPME automation using a CTC Analytics platform and custom bag tray. This method has successfully quantified 22 structurally diverse VOCs (e.g., benzene and associated monoaromatics, aldehydes and ketones, furans, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride, and nitromethane) in the microgram range in mainstream smoke from 1R5F and 3R4F research cigarettes smoked under ISO (Cambridge Filter or FTC) and Intense (Health Canada or Canadian Intense) conditions. Our results are comparable to previous studies with few exceptions. Method accuracy was evaluated with third-party reference samples (?15% error). Short-term diffusion losses from the gas sampling bag were minimal, with a 10% decrease in absolute response after 24 h. For most analytes, research cigarette inter- and intrarun precisions were ?20% relative standard deviation (RSD). This method provides an accurate and robust means to quantify VOCs in cigarette smoke spanning a range of yields that is sufficient to characterize smoke exposure estimates.
Project description:Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1?g to 23?g per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38?g to 67?g per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions.
Project description:We developed a high throughput method for estimating smoker's mainstream smoke intake on a per-cigarette basis by analyzing discarded cigarette butts. This new method utilizes ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric analysis of isopropanol-soluble smoke particulate matter extracted from discarded cigarette filters.When measured under a wide range of smoking conditions for a given brand variant, smoking machine delivery of nicotine, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines can be related to the overall filter extract absorbance at 360 nm. Once this relationship has been established, UV-Vis analysis of a discarded cigarette filter butt gives a quantitative measure of a smoker's exposure to these analytes.The measured mainstream smoke constituents correlated closely (correlation coefficients from 0.9303 to 0.9941) with the filter extract absorbance. These high correlations held over a wide range of smoking conditions for 2R4F research cigarettes as well as popular domestic cigarette brands sold in the United States.This low cost, high throughput method is suitable for high volume analyses (hundreds of samples per day) because UV-Vis spectrophotometry, rather than mass spectrometry, is used for the cigarette filter butt analysis. This method provides a stable and noninvasive means for estimating mouth-level delivery of many mainstream smoke constituents. The ability to gauge the mouth-level intake of harmful chemicals and total mainstream smoke for cigarette smokers in a natural setting on a cigarette-by-cigarette basis can provide insights on factors contributing to morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking, as well as insights on strategies related to smoking cessation.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco control recognizes the need for tobacco product regulation. In line with that, the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) proposed to regulate nine toxicants in mainstream cigarette smoke, including aldehydes, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO). We analyzed their relations in 50 commercially available cigarette brands, using two different smoking regimes, and their dependence on sugar and humectant concentrations in tobacco filler. METHODS:We measured sugar and humectant in tobacco filler and aldehydes, VOCs, and tar, nicotine, and CO (TNCO) in mainstream smoke. The general statistics, correlations between emission yields, and correlations between contents and emissions yields were determined for these data. RESULTS:For aldehydes, several significant correlations were found with precursor ingredients in unburnt tobacco when smoked with the Intense regime, most prominently for formaldehyde with sucrose, glucose, total sugars, and glycerol. For VOCs, 2,5-dimethylfuran significantly correlates with several sugars under both International Standards Organization (ISO) and Intense smoking conditions. A correlation network visualization shows connectivity between a sugar cluster, an ISO cluster, and an Intense cluster, with Intense formaldehyde as a central highest connected hub. CONCLUSIONS:Our multivariate analysis showed several strong connections between the compounds determined. The toxicants proposed by WHO, in particular, formaldehyde, can be used to monitor yields of other toxicants under Intense conditions. Emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and 2,5-dimethylfuran may decrease when sugar and humectants contents are lowered in tobacco filler. IMPLICATIONS:Our findings suggest that the aldehydes and VOCs proposed by TobReg are a representative selection for smoke component market monitoring purposes. In particular, formaldehyde yields may be useful to monitor emissions of other toxicants under Intense conditions. Since the most and strongest correlations were observed with the Intense regime, policymakers are advised to prescribe this regime for regulatory purposes. Policymakers should also consider sugars and humectants contents as targets for future tobacco product regulations, with the additional advantage that consumer acceptance of cigarette smoke is proportional to their concentrations in the tobacco blend.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Survey of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide (CO) smoke deliveries from 77 cigarette brands purchased in 35 countries was conducted using a standardised machine smoking method. The goal of this study was to determine regional variations and differences in the tar, nicotine, and CO smoke yields of a cigarette brand manufactured by a leading transnational corporation and of non-US locally popular cigarette brands. DESIGN: The majority of the cigarettes were purchased in each of the participating countries by delegate members of the World Health Organization and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for analysis. Smoke deliveries were determined using a standardised smoking machine method and subsequent gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis. RESULTS: The smoke deliveries varied widely. Mainstream smoke deliveries varied from 6.8 to 21.6 mg tar/cigarette, 0.5 to 1.6 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 5.9 to 17.4 mg CO/cigarette. In addition to the smoke deliveries, the cigarettes were examined to determine physical parameters such as filter composition, length, and ventilation levels. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the smoke deliveries suggested that cigarettes from the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific WHO regions tended to have higher tar, nicotine, and CO smoke deliveries than did brands from the European, American, or African WHO regions surveyed.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Youth may be attracted to menthol cigarettes because they are perceived as less harmful and harsh to smoke relative to non-menthol cigarettes. This study examined demographic factors and menthol cigarette smoking patterns as correlates of youth harm perceptions of cigarette smoking and ease of smoking menthol versus non-menthol cigarettes. METHODS:Data were from the Wave 1 (2013-2014) youth sample of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine correlations between demographic factors and menthol cigarette smoking patterns (menthol initiation, past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking, and menthol cigarette brand preference), with harm perceptions of cigarette smoking and ease of smoking a menthol cigarette. RESULTS:Nearly half of ever cigarette smoking youth (43%) first used a menthol cigarette; 21% reported past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking; and 42% of past 30-day smokers providing brand information used a menthol cigarette as their preferred brand. In bivariate analyses, initiation with a menthol cigarette and menthol brand preference (versus non-menthol) were correlated with black race, older age at initiation, and past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking. In adjusted models, past 30-day menthol cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette brand preference, but not menthol initiation, were correlated with the perception that menthol cigarettes are easier to smoke. CONCLUSIONS:Youth who smoke menthol cigarettes perceive them as easier to smoke, even after adjusting for other factors. Age of initiation and black race emerged as correlates of menthol cigarette initiation, brand preference, and cigarette harm perceptions, and may inform future prevention campaigns.
Project description:Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment. In the United States (U.S.), tobacco smoke is the major non-occupational source of exposure to many harmful VOCs. Exposure to VOCs can be assessed by measuring their urinary metabolites (VOCMs). The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study is a U.S. national longitudinal study of tobacco use in the adult and youth civilian non-institutionalized population. We measured 20 VOCMs in urine specimens from a subsample of adults in Wave 1 (W1) (2013-2014) to characterize VOC exposures among tobacco product users and non-users. We calculated weighted geometric means (GMs) and percentiles of each VOCM for exclusive combustible product users (smokers), exclusive electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, exclusive smokeless product users, and tobacco product never users. We produced linear regression models for six VOCMs with sex, age, race, and tobacco user group as predictor variables. Creatinine-ratioed levels of VOCMs from exposure to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, isoprene, acrylonitrile, and 1,3-butadiene were significantly higher in smokers than in never users. Small differences of VOCM levels among exclusive e-cigarette users and smokeless users were observed when compared to never users. Smokers showed higher VOCM concentrations than e-cigarette, smokeless, and never users. Urinary VOC metabolites are useful biomarkers of exposure to harmful VOCs.
Project description:Oxidative stress/damage resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke plays a critical role in the development of tobacco-caused diseases. Carbonyls and free radicals are two major classes of oxidants in tobacco smoke. There is little information on the combined delivery of these oxidants across different cigarette brands; thus, we set out to measure and compare their levels in mainstream smoke from popular US cigarettes. Mainstream smoke from 28 different cigarette brands produced by smoking (FTC protocol) was analyzed for five important, abundant carbonyls, and levels were compared to previously determined free radical for the same brands. Overall, there were large variations (3- to 6-fold) in carbonyl levels across brands with total carbonyl levels ranging from 275 to 804 ?g/cigarette, which persisted even after adjusting for ventilation. Individual carbonyl levels were highly correlated with each other (r2: 0.40-0.95, P < 0.003) except for formaldehyde. Both gas-phase (r2: 0.37, P = 0.006) and particulate-phase (r2: 0.27, P = 0.005) free radicals were correlated to total carbonyl content; however, this correlation disappeared after adjusting for ventilation. These data show that overall oxidant production varies widely by cigarette brand and the resulting difference in oxidant burden could potentially lead to differences in disease risk.
Project description:Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are classified as known or possible carcinogens, irritants, and toxicants, and VOC exposure has been associated with the onset and exacerbation of asthma. This study characterizes VOC levels in 126 homes of children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, USA. The total target VOC concentration ranged from 14 to 2274 ?g/m(3) (mean = 150 ?g/m(3); median = 91 ?g/m(3)); 56 VOCs were quantified; and d-limonene, toluene, p, m-xylene, and ethyl acetate had the highest concentrations. Based on the potential for adverse health effects, priority VOCs included naphthalene, benzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethylene. Concentrations varied mostly due to between-residence and seasonal variation. Identified emission sources included cigarette smoking, solvent-related emissions, renovations, household products, and pesticides. The effect of nearby traffic on indoor VOC levels was not distinguished. While concentrations in the Detroit homes were lower than levels found in other North American studies, many homes had elevated VOC levels, including compounds that are known health hazards. Thus, the identification and control of VOC sources are important and prudent, especially for vulnerable individuals. Actions and policies to reduce VOC exposures, for example, sales restrictions, improved product labeling, and consumer education, are recommended.Total target VOC concentrations in the Detroit homes ranged from 14 to 2274 lg/m3, generally lower than found in earlier studies. However, a subset of houses had elevated concentrations, and levels of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, and benzene reached levels commensurate with excess individual cancer risks of 10(-2), 10(-3), and 10(-4), respectively. VOC concentrations varied mostly due to between-residence and season effects. The most important sources included cigarette smoking, vehicle-related emissions, building renovation, solvents, household products, and pesticides.