Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status Predicts Health After Hospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndromes: Findings From TRACE-CORE (Transitions, Risks, and Actions in Coronary Events-Center for Outcomes Research and Education).
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To explore the influence of contextual factors on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is sometimes used as an indicator of quality of care, we examined the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and trajectories of HRQoL after hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS:We studied 1481 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes in Massachusetts and Georgia querying HRQoL via the mental and physical components of the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) (MCS and PCS) and the physical limitations and angina-related HRQoL subscales of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) during hospitalization and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month postdischarge. We categorized participants by tertiles of the neighborhood deprivation index (a residence-census tract-based measure) to examine the association of NSES with trajectories of HRQoL after adjusting for individual socioeconomic status (SES) and clinical characteristics. RESULTS:Participants had mean age 61.3 (SD, 11.4) years; 33% were female; 76%, non-Hispanic white; 11.2% had household income below the federal poverty level. During 6 months postdischarge, living in lower NSES neighborhoods was associated with lower mean PCS scores (1.5 points for intermediate NSES; 1.8 for low) and SAQ scores (2.4 and 4.2 points) versus living in high NSES neighborhoods. NSES was more consequential for patients with lower individual SES. Individuals living below the federal poverty level had lower average MCS and SAQ physical scores (3.7 and 7.7 points, respectively) than those above. CONCLUSIONS:Neighborhood deprivation was associated with worse health status. Using HRQoL to assess quality of care without accounting for individual SES and NSES may unfairly penalize safety-net hospitals.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>The relationships between neighborhood factors (i.e., neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and ethnic enclave) and histologic subtypes of lung cancer for racial/ethnic groups, particularly Hispanics and Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), are poorly understood.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We conducted a population-based study of 75,631 Californians diagnosed with lung cancer from 2008 through2012. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for lung cancer histologic cell-types by nSES among racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, NH Blacks, Hispanics and AAPIs) and according to Hispanic or Asian neighborhood ethnic enclave status among Hispanics and AAPIs, respectively. In addition, we examined incidence jointly by nSES and ethnic enclave.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Patterns of lung cancer incidence by nSES and ethnic enclave differed across race/ethnicity, sex, and histologic cell-type. For adenocarcinoma, Hispanic males and females, residing in both low nSES and high nSES neighborhoods that were low enclave, had higher incidence rates compared to those residing in low nSES, high enclave neighborhoods; males (IRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04-1.32] and IRR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.02-1.29], respectively) and females (IRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.15-1.44] and IRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). However, AAPI males residing in both low and high SES neighborhoods that were also low enclave had lower adenocarcinoma incidence.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Neighborhood factors differentially influence the incidence of lung cancer histologic cell-types with heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity and sex. For Hispanic males and females and AAPI males, neighborhood ethnic enclave status is strongly associated with lung adenocarcinoma incidence.
Project description:Long-term fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is linked with cardiovascular disease, and disadvantaged status may increase susceptibility to air pollution-related health effects. In addition, there are concerns that this association may be partially explained by confounding by socioeconomic status (SES).We examined the roles that individual- and neighborhood-level SES (NSES) play in the association between PM2.5 exposure and cardiovascular disease.The study population comprised 51,754 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. PM2.5 concentrations were predicted at participant residences using fine-scale regionalized universal kriging models. We assessed individual-level SES and NSES (Census-tract level) across several SES domains including education, occupation, and income/wealth, as well as through an NSES score, which captures several important dimensions of SES. Cox proportional-hazards regression adjusted for SES factors and other covariates to determine the risk of a first cardiovascular event.A 5 ?g/m3 higher exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of cardiovascular event [hazard ratio (HR) 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.26]. Adjustment for SES factors did not meaningfully affect the risk estimate. Higher risk estimates were observed among participants living in low-SES neighborhoods. The most and least disadvantaged quartiles of the NSES score had HRs of 1.39 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.61) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.07), respectively.Women with lower NSES may be more susceptible to air pollution-related health effects. The association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease was not explained by confounding from individual-level SES or NSES. Citation: Chi GC, Hajat A, Bird CE, Cullen MR, Griffin BA, Miller KA, Shih RA, Stefanick ML, Vedal S, Whitsel EA, Kaufman JD. 2016. Individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status and the association between air pollution and cardiovascular disease. Environ Health Perspect 124:1840-1847;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP199.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We addressed the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with social and built environment factors to influence overall survival for men with prostate cancer and contribute to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic (SES) survival disparities. METHODS:We analyzed multi-level data, combining (1) individual-level data from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based study of non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and African American prostate cancer cases (N?=?1800) diagnosed from 1997 to 2003, with (2) data on neighborhood SES (nSES) and social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System, and (3) data on tumor characteristics, treatment and follow-up through 2009 from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariable, stage-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models with cluster adjustments were used to assess education and nSES main and joint effects on overall survival, before and after adjustment for social and built environment factors. RESULTS:African American men had worse survival than NHW men, which was attenuated by nSES. Increased risk of death was associated with residence in lower SES neighborhoods (quintile 1 (lowest nSES) vs. 5: HR?=?1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19) and lower education (<high school vs. college: HR?=?1.32, 95% CI: 1.05-1.67), and a joint association of low education and low nSES was observed. Adjustment for behavioral, hospital, and restaurant and food environment characteristics only slightly attenuated these associations between SES and survival. CONCLUSION:Both individual- and contextual-level SES influence overall survival of men with prostate cancer. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying these robust associations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Neighborhood characteristics are increasingly recognized as important determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, longitudinal studies on the health impacts of neighborhood characteristics are rare. We sought to investigate whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) during birth, childhood and adulthood is associated with CVD risk factors in adulthood. METHODS:Using longitudinal data from the New England Family Study (n?=?671) with 46-years of follow-up, participants' home addresses were geocoded at birth (mean age?=?1.6 months), childhood (mean age?=?7.1 years), and adulthood (mean age?=?44.2 years) across Massachusetts and Rhode Island in the US from 1961 to 2007. We used multilevel models to evaluate associations of NSES across the life-course with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, mother's race, individual SES, and parental SES. RESULTS:In fully adjusted models, one standard deviation higher NSES at birth was associated with a 1.9?mmHg lower SBP (95% CI: 3.8, -0.1) and 1.3?mmHg lower DBP (95%CI: 2.6,-0.03) in adulthood; while one standard deviation of higher NSES at adulthood was associated with 0.87?kg/m2 lower BMI (95%CI: 1.7, -0.1). CONCLUSIONS:We found that living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood early in life and in adulthood was associated with blood pressure and BMI, respectively, two established risk factors for CVD. Our findings support a longitudinal association between exposure to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in early life and CVD risk factors in adulthood.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The VHA is the largest integrated US health system and is increasingly moving care into the communities where veterans reside. Veterans who utilize the VA for their care have worse health status than the general population. However, there is limited evidence about the association of neighborhood environment and health outcomes among veterans. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study is to assess the relative contribution of neighborhood environment, health system, and individual characteristics to health status and mortality of veterans. METHODS: Information on personal socio-economic indicators, existing medical conditions and health status were obtained from baseline data from a multi-site, randomized trial of primary care patients (n = 15,889). The physical component scale (PCS) and mental component scale (MCS) summarized health status. Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods. A summary score based on census tract data characterized the neighborhood socio-economic environment and walkability. Data were analyzed with multilevel hierarchical models. Analyses of health status were cross-sectional. Mortality analyses were longitudinal as participants were followed for an average of 722.5 days to ascertain vital status. RESULTS: Neighborhood SES was associated with PCS and MCS scores, controlling for individual socio-economic status, self-reported co-morbid disease, smoking status, and health care access. In the lowest versus highest quartiles of neighborhood SES, adjusted PCS scores were 34.4 vs. 35.4 (p?<?0.05) and adjusted MCS scores were 46.2 versus 47.0 (p?<?0.05). PCS score was also significantly associated with neighborhood walkability (p?<?0.05). Mortality was lower for veterans living in neighborhoods with the highest decile neighborhood SES (HR 0.78, highest vs. lowest decile 95% CI 0.63, 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Veterans living in lower SES neighborhoods have poorer health status and a higher risk of mortality, independent of individual characteristics and health care access. Neighborhood walkability was associated with higher PCS scores.
Project description:Young blacks receiving dialysis have an increased risk of death compared with whites in the United States. Factors influencing this disparity among the young adult dialysis population have not been well explored. Our study examined the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and racial differences in mortality in United States young adults receiving dialysis. We merged US Renal Data System patient-level data from 11,027 black and white patients ages 18-30 years old initiating dialysis between 2006 and 2009 with US Census data to obtain neighborhood poverty information for each patient. We defined low SES neighborhoods as those neighborhoods in U.S. Census zip codes with ?20% of residents living below the federal poverty level and quantified race differences in mortality risk by level of neighborhood SES. Among patients residing in low SES neighborhoods, blacks had greater mortality than whites after adjusting for baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, rurality, and access to care factors. This difference in mortality between blacks and whites was significantly attenuated in higher SES neighborhoods. In the United States, survival between young adult blacks and whites receiving dialysis differs by neighborhood SES. Additional studies are needed to identify modifiable factors contributing to the greater mortality among young adult black dialysis patients residing in low SES neighborhoods.
Project description:Research shows that married cancer patients have lower mortality than unmarried patients but few data exist for breast cancer. We assessed total mortality associated with marital status, with attention to differences by race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES). We included, from the population-based California Cancer Registry, women ages 18 and older with invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 with follow-up through December 2013. We estimated mortality rate ratios (MRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total mortality by nSES, race/ethnicity, and tumor subtype. Among 145,564 breast cancer cases, 42.7% were unmarried at the time of diagnosis. In multivariable-adjusted models, the MRR (95% CI) for unmarried compared to married women was 1.28 (1.24-1.32) for total mortality. Significant interactions were observed by race/ethnicity (P<0.001), tumor subtype (P<0.001), and nSES (P = 0.009). Higher MRRs were observed for non-Hispanic whites and Asians/Pacific Islanders than for blacks or Hispanics, and for HR+/HER2+ tumors than other subtypes. Assessment of interactive effect between marital status and nSES showed that unmarried women living in low SES neighborhoods had a higher risk of dying compared with married women in high SES neighborhoods (MRR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.53-1.67). Unmarried breast cancer patients have higher total mortality than married patients; the association varies by race/ethnicity, tumor subtype, and nSES. Unmarried status should be further evaluated as a breast cancer prognostic factor. Identification of underlying causes of the marital status associations is needed to design interventions that could improve survival for unmarried breast cancer patients.
Project description:As the largest integrated US health system, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides unique national data to expand knowledge about the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and health. Although living in areas of lower NSES has been associated with higher mortality, previous studies have been limited to higher-income, less diverse populations than those who receive VHA care.To describe the association between NSES and all-cause mortality in a national sample of veterans enrolled in VHA primary care.One-year observational cohort of veterans who were alive on December 31, 2011. Data on individual veterans (vital status, and clinical and demographic characteristics) were abstracted from the VHA Corporate Data Warehouse. Census tract information was obtained from the US Census Bureau American Community Survey. Logistic regression was used to model the association between NSES deciles and all-cause mortality during 2012, adjusting for individual-level income and demographics, and accounting for spatial autocorrelation.Veterans who had vital status, demographic, and NSES data, and who were both assigned a primary care physician and alive on December 31, 2011 (n?=?4,814,631).Census tracts were used as proxies for neighborhoods. A summary score based on census tract data characterized NSES. Veteran addresses were geocoded and linked to census tract NSES scores. Census tracts were divided into NSES deciles.In adjusted analysis, veterans living in the lowest-decile NSES tract were 10 % (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.07, 1.14) more likely to die than those living in the highest-decile NSES tract.Lower neighborhood SES is associated with all-cause mortality among veterans after adjusting for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics. NSES should be considered in risk adjustment models for veteran mortality, and may need to be incorporated into strategies aimed at improving veteran health.
Project description:To assess the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and incident stroke in a national cohort of black and white participants.The study comprised black (n = 10,274, 41%) and white (n = 14,601) stroke-free participants, aged 45 and older, enrolled in 2003-2007 in Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), a national population-based cohort. A neighborhood socioeconomic score (nSES) was constructed using 6 neighborhood variables. Incident stroke was defined as first occurrence of stroke over an average 7.5 (SD 3.0) years of follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations between nSES score and incident stroke, adjusted for demographics (age, race, sex, region), individual socioeconomic status (SES) (education, household income), and other risk factors for stroke.After adjustment for demographics, compared to the highest nSES quartile, stroke incidence increased with each decreasing nSES quartile. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) ranged from 1.28 (1.05-1.56) in quartile 3 to 1.38 (1.13-1.68) in quartile 2 to 1.56 (1.26-1.92) in quartile 1 (p < 0.0001 for linear trend). After adjustment for individual SES, the trend remained marginally significant (p = 0.085). Although there was no evidence of a differential effect by race or sex, adjustment for stroke risk factors attenuated the association between nSES and stroke in both black and white participants, with greater attenuation in black participants.Risk of incident stroke increased with decreasing nSES but the effect of nSES is attenuated through individual SES and stroke risk factors. The effect of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics that contribute to increased stroke risk is similar in black and white participants.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Residence in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community is associated with mortality, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We examined whether socioeconomic features of the residential neighborhood contribute to poststroke mortality and whether neighborhood influences are mediated by traditional behavioral and biologic risk factors.<h4>Methods</h4>We used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a multicenter, population-based, longitudinal study of adults ?65 years. Residential neighborhood disadvantage was measured using neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), a composite of 6 census tract variables representing income, education, employment, and wealth. Multilevel Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to determine the association of NSES to mortality after an incident stroke, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, stroke type, and behavioral and biologic risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 3,834 participants with no prior stroke at baseline, 806 had a stroke over a mean 11.5 years of follow-up, with 168 (20%) deaths 30 days after stroke and 276 (34%) deaths at 1 year. In models adjusted for demographic characteristics, stroke type, and behavioral and biologic risk factors, mortality hazard 1 year after stroke was significantly higher among residents of neighborhoods with the lowest NSES than those in the highest NSES neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.17-2.68).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with higher mortality hazard at 1 year following an incident stroke. Further work is needed to understand the structural and social characteristics of neighborhoods that may contribute to mortality in the year after a stroke and the pathways through which these characteristics operate.