Altered Patterns of Early Metabolic Decompensation in Type 1 Diabetes During Treatment with a SGLT2 Inhibitor: An Insulin Pump Suspension Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Enthusiasm for the benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) as an adjunctive treatment in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been offset by the possible increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Since pump-treated T1D patients are susceptible to DKA due to infusion site problems, this study was undertaken to assess how treatment with SGLT2i affects patterns of early metabolic decompensation following suspension of basal insulin. METHODS:Ten T1D participants (age 19-35 years, duration 10?±?8 years, A1c 7.4%?±?0.8%) underwent overnight pump suspension studies before and after treatment with canagliflozin (CANA). On both nights, basal insulin was suspended at 3 AM and plasma glucose (PG), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), free fatty acids (FFA), plasma insulin (PI), and glucagon were measured. Studies were terminated 6?h after suspension or if PG rose to >350?mg/dL or BHB >2.5?mmol/L. RESULTS:PI levels at the start of suspension were reduced by 30% after CANA treatment (44?±?11?uU/mL vs. 31?±?10?uU/mL, P?
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We have shown that "euglycemic DKA" in patients with type 1 diabetes receiving a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2-inhibitor (SGLT2i) is due to normal increases in rates of ketogenesis but blunted increases in plasma glucose levels. In this analysis, we assessed whether rescue treatment of early ketoacidosis with insulin is altered by SGLT2i use. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Participants received 0.2?U/kg of aspart insulin after two 6-h interruptions of basal insulin that increased beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) by 1.2?±?0.7?mmol/L before and by 1.5?±?0.2?mmol/L during canagliflozin treatment. BHB and free fatty acid (FFA) were monitored every 30?min for 120?min after receiving a 0.2?U/kg subcutaneous injection of aspart insulin. RESULTS:Ten adults (23?±?5 years) were studied. During the 120?min after rescue therapy with insulin, the reductions in BHB and FFA were nearly identical between the pre- and during canagliflozin treatment studies, respectively (-1.27?±?0.76 and -1.13?±?0.69, P?=?0.671 for BHB and -0.50?±?0.35 vs. -0.41?±?0.41, P?=?0.603 for FFA). CONCLUSION:These data indicate that turning ketogenesis off, as well as on, does not appear to be affected by SGLT2i use.
Project description:Pharmacologic inhibition of the renal sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 induces glycosuria and reduces glycemia. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce mortality and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes, improved understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating these metabolic effects is required. Treatment of obese but nondiabetic mice with the SGLT2i canagliflozin (CANA) reduces adiposity, improves glucose tolerance despite reduced plasma insulin, increases plasma ketones, and improves plasma lipid profiles. Utilizing an integrated transcriptomic-metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that CANA modulates key nutrient-sensing pathways, with activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), independent of insulin or glucagon sensitivity or signaling. Moreover, CANA induces transcriptional reprogramming to activate catabolic pathways, increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerol content, and increase hepatic and plasma levels of FGF21. Given that these phenotypes mirror the effects of FGF21 to promote lipid oxidation, ketogenesis, and reduction in adiposity, we hypothesized that FGF21 is required for CANA action. Using FGF21-null mice, we demonstrate that FGF21 is not required for SGLT2i-mediated induction of lipid oxidation and ketogenesis but is required for reduction in fat mass and activation of lipolysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SGLT2 inhibition triggers a fasting-like transcriptional and metabolic paradigm but requires FGF21 for reduction in adiposity.
Project description:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) effectively lower plasma glucose (PG) concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes, but studies have suggested that circulating glucagon concentrations and endogenous glucose production (EGP) are increased by SGLT2i, possibly compromising their glucose-lowering ability. To tease out whether and how glucagon may influence the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibition, we subjected 12 patients with type 2 diabetes to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover, double-dummy study comprising, on 4 separate days, a liquid mixed-meal test preceded by single-dose administration of either <i>1</i>) placebo, <i>2</i>) the SGLT2i empagliflozin (25 mg), <i>3</i>) the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 (300 mg), or <i>4</i>) the combination empagliflozin + LY2409021. Empagliflozin and LY2409021 individually lowered fasting PG compared with placebo, and the combination further decreased fasting PG. Previous findings of increased glucagon concentrations and EGP during acute administration of SGLT2i were not replicated in this study. Empagliflozin reduced postprandial PG through increased urinary glucose excretion. LY2409021 reduced EGP significantly but gave rise to a paradoxical increase in postprandial PG excursion, which was annulled by empagliflozin during their combination (empagliflozin + LY2409021). In conclusion, our findings do not support that an SGLT2i-induced glucagonotropic effect is of importance for the glucose-lowering property of SGLT2 inhibition.
Project description:The mechanism by which leptin reverses diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unknown. We examined the acute insulin-independent effects of leptin replacement therapy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of DKA. Leptin infusion reduced rates of lipolysis, hepatic glucose production (HGP), and hepatic ketogenesis by 50% within 6 hours and were independent of any changes in plasma glucagon concentrations; these effects were abrogated by coinfusion of corticosterone. Treating leptin- and corticosterone-infused rats with an adipose triglyceride lipase inhibitor blocked corticosterone-induced increases in plasma glucose concentrations and rates of HGP and ketogenesis. Similarly, adrenalectomized type 1 diabetic (T1D) rats exhibited decreased rates of lipolysis, HGP, and ketogenesis; these effects were reversed by corticosterone infusion. Leptin-induced decreases in lipolysis, HGP, and ketogenesis in DKA were also nullified by relatively small increases (15 to 70 pM) in plasma insulin concentrations. In contrast, the chronic glucose-lowering effect of leptin in a STZ-induced mouse model of poorly controlled T1D was associated with decreased food intake, reduced plasma glucagon and corticosterone concentrations, and decreased ectopic lipid (triacylglycerol/diacylglycerol) content in liver and muscle. Collectively, these studies demonstrate marked differences in the acute insulin-independent effects by which leptin reverses fasting hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis in a rodent model of DKA versus the chronic pleotropic effects by which leptin reverses hyperglycemia in a non-DKA rodent model of T1D.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (SGLT2i) constitute a novel class of glucose-lowering (type 2) kidney-targeted agents. We recently reported that the SGLT2i empagliflozin (EMPA) reduced cardiac cytosolic Na<sup>+</sup> ([Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub>) and cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup> ([Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>c</sub>) concentrations through inhibition of Na<sup>+</sup>/H<sup>+</sup> exchanger (NHE). Here, we examine (1) whether the SGLT2i dapagliflozin (DAPA) and canagliflozin (CANA) also inhibit NHE and reduce [Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub>; (2) a structural model for the interaction of SGLT2i to NHE; (3) to what extent SGLT2i affect the haemodynamic and metabolic performance of isolated hearts of healthy mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Cardiac NHE activity and [Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub> in mouse cardiomyocytes were measured in the presence of clinically relevant concentrations of EMPA (1 μmol/l), DAPA (1 μmol/l), CANA (3 μmol/l) or vehicle. NHE docking simulation studies were applied to explore potential binding sites for SGTL2i. Constant-flow Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts were subjected to SGLT2i for 30 min, and cardiovascular function, O<sub>2</sub> consumption and energetics (phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP) were determined.<h4>Results</h4>EMPA, DAPA and CANA inhibited NHE activity (measured through low pH recovery after NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> pulse: EMPA 6.69 ± 0.09, DAPA 6.77 ± 0.12 and CANA 6.80 ± 0.18 vs vehicle 7.09 ± 0.09; p < 0.001 for all three comparisons) and reduced [Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub> (in mmol/l: EMPA 10.0 ± 0.5, DAPA 10.7 ± 0.7 and CANA 11.0 ± 0.9 vs vehicle 12.7 ± 0.7; p < 0.001). Docking studies provided high binding affinity of all three SGLT2i with the extracellular Na<sup>+</sup>-binding site of NHE. EMPA and CANA, but not DAPA, induced coronary vasodilation of the intact heart. PCr/ATP remained unaffected.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>EMPA, DAPA and CANA directly inhibit cardiac NHE flux and reduce [Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub>, possibly by binding with the Na<sup>+</sup>-binding site of NHE-1. Furthermore, EMPA and CANA affect the healthy heart by inducing vasodilation. The [Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub>-lowering class effect of SGLT2i is a potential approach to combat elevated [Na<sup>+</sup>]<sub>c</sub> that is known to occur in heart failure and diabetes.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To compare the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were new users of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) versus other classes of antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients were identified from four large US claims databases using broad (all T2DM patients) and narrow (intended to exclude patients with type 1 diabetes or secondary diabetes misclassified as T2DM) definitions of T2DM. New users of SGLT2i and seven groups of comparator AHAs were matched (1:1) on exposure propensity scores to adjust for imbalances in baseline covariates. Cox proportional hazards regression models, conditioned on propensity score-matched pairs, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of DKA for new users of SGLT2i versus other AHAs. When I<sup>2</sup> <40%, a combined HR across the four databases was estimated.<h4>Results</h4>Using the broad definition of T2DM, new users of SGLT2i had an increased risk of DKA versus sulfonylureas (HR [95% CI]: 1.53 [1.31-1.79]), DPP-4i (1.28 [1.11-1.47]), GLP-1 receptor agonists (1.34 [1.12-1.60]), metformin (1.31 [1.11-1.54]), and insulinotropic AHAs (1.38 [1.15-1.66]). Using the narrow definition of T2DM, new users of SGLT2i had an increased risk of DKA versus sulfonylureas (1.43 [1.01-2.01]). New users of SGLT2i had a lower risk of DKA versus insulin and a similar risk as thiazolidinediones, regardless of T2DM definition.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Increased risk of DKA was observed for new users of SGLT2i versus several non-SGLT2i AHAs when T2DM was defined broadly. When T2DM was defined narrowly to exclude possible misclassified patients, an increased risk of DKA with SGLT2i was observed compared with sulfonylureas.
Project description:We assessed the change in hepatic transciptional pattern after treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors canagliflozin in a mice model of diet-induced obesity. Pharmacologic inhibition of the renal sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 induces glycosuria and reduces glycemia. Given that SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce mortality and CV risk in T2D, improved understanding of molecular mechanisms mediating these metabolic effects is required. Treatment of obese but nondiabetic mice with the SGLT2i canagliflozin (CANA) reduces adiposity, improves glucose tolerance despite reduced plasma insulin, increases plasma ketones, and improves plasma lipid profiles. We utilized an integrated transcriptomic-metabolomics approach to demonstrate that CANA modulates key nutrient-sensing pathways, with activation of AMPK and inhibition of mTOR, independent of insulin or glucagon sensitivity or signaling. Moreover, CANA induces transcriptional reprogramming to activate catabolic pathways, increase fatty acid oxidation, reduce hepatic steatosis and diacylglycerol content, and increase hepatic and plasma levels of FGF21. Taken together, these data demonstrate that SGLT-2 inhibition triggers a fasting-like transcriptional and metabolic paradigm.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and related adverse events (AEs) in adults with type 1 diabetes treated with sotagliflozin adjunctive to insulin.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Data from two identically designed, 52-week, randomized studies were pooled and analyzed for DKA, changes in β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and percentage of patients with BHB >0.6 and >1.5 mmol/L. The patients were administered placebo, sotagliflozin 200 mg, or sotagliflozin 400 mg once daily.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 191 ketosis-related AEs were reported, and 98 underwent adjudication. Of these, 37 events (36 patients) were adjudicated as DKA, with an exposure-adjusted incidence rate of 0.2, 3.1, and 4.2 events per 100 patient-years for placebo, sotagliflozin 200 mg, and sotagliflozin 400 mg, respectively. No patient died of a DKA event. From a baseline BHB of ∼0.13 mmol/L, sotagliflozin treatment led to a small median increase over 52 weeks (≤0.05 mmol/L at all time points). Of sotagliflozin-treated patients, approximately 47% and 7% had ≥1 BHB measurement >0.6 mmol/L and >1.5 mmol/L, respectively (vs. 20% and 2%, respectively, of placebo-treated patients). Subsequent to the implementation of a risk mitigation plan, annualized DKA incidence was lower versus preimplementation in both the sotagliflozin 200 and 400 mg groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with type 1 diabetes, confirmed DKA incidence increased when sotagliflozin was added to insulin compared with insulin alone. A lower incidence of DKA was observed following the implementation of an enhanced risk mitigation plan, suggesting that this risk can be managed with patient education.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: As of December 2017, 20 diabetic ketosis (DK)/diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) cases associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) had been reported to the Health Sciences Authority (HSA), Singapore. We aimed to provide a detailed analysis of the profile of these cases. METHODS:As part of the emerging safety issue monitoring, the HSA followed up on SGLT2i-associated DK/DKA cases with the reporters to obtain the missing and/or supplementary information. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarise the data collected, while the Mann-Whitney test was employed to evaluate the differences between typical and euglycaemic DKA cases as well as between genders. RESULTS:All cases led to hospitalisation but were non-fatal. Where reported, the majority (71-85%) of DK/DKA cases occurred within 180 days of SGLT2i therapy initiation and involved female patients and/or patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Apart from the difference in blood glucose levels, no differences in the profile between the typical and euglycaemic DKA cases were noted. Known precipitating factors were identified in all cases. Acute illnesses, particularly infections and abscesses, were the most commonly reported precipitating factors, followed by insulin dose reduction/cessation. CONCLUSIONS:Based on the profile of the reported cases, it is imperative to maintain clinical vigilance for DK/DKA, especially during the first 6 months of SGLT2i treatment and more so in female patients and/or patients with long-standing T2DM. Prompt evaluation and management of underlying precipitating factors is also important to assess and mitigate the risk of developing DK/DKA during treatment with SGLT2i.
Project description:To investigate the effect of exogenous as well as endogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on postprandial glucose excursions and to characterize the secretion of incretin hormones in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual ?-cell function.Eight type 1 diabetic patients with (T1D+), eight without (T1D-) residual ?-cell function, and eight healthy matched control subjects were studied during a mixed meal with concomitant infusion of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol/kg/min), saline, or exendin 9-39 (300 pmol/kg/min). Before the meal, half dose of usual fast-acting insulin was injected. Plasma glucose (PG), glucagon, C-peptide, total GLP-1, intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), free fatty acids, triglycerides, and gastric emptying rate (GE) by plasma acetaminophen were measured.Incretin responses did not differ between patients and control subjects. Infusion of GLP-1 decreased peak PG by 45% in both groups of type 1 diabetic patients. In T1D+ patients, postprandial PG decreased below fasting levels and was indistinguishable from control subjects infused with saline. In T1D- patients, postprandial PG remained at fasting levels. GLP-1 infusion reduced GE and glucagon levels in all groups and increased fasting C-peptide in T1D+ patients and control subjects. Blocking endogenous GLP-1 receptor action increased endogenous GLP-1 secretion in all groups and increased postprandial glucose, glucagon, and GE in T1D+ and T1D- patients. The insulinogenic index (the ratio of insulin to glucose) decreased in T1D+ patients during blockade of endogenous GLP-1 receptor action.Type 1 diabetic patients have normal incretin responses to meals. In type 1 diabetic patients, exogenous GLP-1 decreases peak postprandial glucose by 45% regardless of residual ?-cell function. Endogenous GLP-1 regulates postprandial glucose excursions by modulating glucagon levels, GE, and ?-cell responsiveness to glucose. Long-term effects of GLP-1 in type 1 diabetic patients should be investigated in future clinical trials.