Clinical utility of computed tomography Hounsfield characterization for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: Computed Tomography (CT) is considered the gold-standard for the pre-operative evaluation of urolithiasis. However, no Hounsfield (HU) variable capable of differentiating stone types has been clearly identified. The aim of this study is to assess the predictive value of HU parameters on CT for determining stone composition and outcomes in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).Seventy seven consecutive cases of PCNL between 2011 and 2016 were divided into 4 groups: 40 (52%) calcium, 26 (34%) uric acid, 5 (6%) struvite and 6 (8%) cystine stones. All images were reviewed by a single urologist using abdomen/bone windows to evaluate: stone volume, core (HUC), periphery HU and their absolute difference. HU density (HUD) was defined as the ratio between mean HU and the stone's largest diameter. ROC curves assessed the predictive power of HU for determining stone composition/stone-free rate (SFR).No differences were found based on the viewing window (abdomen vs bone). Struvite stones had values halfway between hyperdense (calcium) and low-density (cystine/uric acid) calculi for all parameters except HUD, which was the lowest. All HU variables for medium-high density stones were greater than low-density stones (p?
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing stone-free rates following retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) treatments of renal stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Clinical trials comparing RIRS, SWL, and PCNL for treatment of renal stones were identified from electronic databases. Stone-free rates for the procedures were compared by qualitative and quantitative syntheses (meta-analyses). Outcome variables are shown as risk ratios (ORs) with 95% credible intervals (CIs). RESULTS:A total of 35 studies were included in this network meta-analysis of success and stone-free rates following three different treatments of renal stones. Six studies compared PCNL versus SWL, ten studies compared PCNL versus RIRS, fourteen studies compared RIRS versus SWL, and five studies compared PCNL, SWL, and RIRS. The quality scores within subscales were relatively low-risk. Network meta-analyses indicated that stone-free rates of RIRS (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.22-0.64) and SWL (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.067-0.19) were lower than that of PCNL. In addition, stone-free rate of SWL was lower than that of RIRS (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.20-0.47). Stone free rate of PCNL was also superior to RIRS in subgroup analyses including ? 2 cm stone (OR 4.680; 95% CI 2.873-8.106), lower pole stone (OR 1.984; 95% CI 1.043-2.849), and randomized studies (OR 2.219; 95% CI 1.348-4.009). In rank-probability test, PCNL was ranked as No. 1 and SWL was ranked as No. 3. CONCLUSIONS:PCNL showed the highest success and stone-free rate in the surgical treatment of renal stones. In contrast, SWL had the lowest success and stone-free rate.
Project description:PURPOSE:The miniaturization of instruments has had an impact on stone management. The aims of this study were to highlight surgeon preferences among Retrograde Intra Renal Surgery (RIRS), Regular, Mini-, UltraMini- and Micro- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for urolithiasis and to compare the effectiveness and safety of these techniques in a real-life setting. METHODS:A 12-item survey regarding endourological techniques was conducted through Survey Monkey among attendees of the 2013 European Association of Urology Section of Urolithiasis meeting. We asked responders to share data from the last 5 cases they performed for each technique. Procedures were stratified according to stone size and the centres' surgical volume. Techniques were compared in terms of effectiveness and safety. Analyses were performed on the overall group and a subgroup of 1-2 cm stones. RESULTS:We collected data from a total of 420 procedures by 30, out of 78, urologists who received the survey (response rate 38%): 140 RIRS, 141 Regular-PCNL (>20 Ch), 67 Mini-PCNL (14-20 Ch), 28 UltraMini-PCNL (11-13 Ch) and 44 Micro-PCNL (4,8-8 Ch). Techniques choice was influenced by stone size and the centre's surgical volume. Effectiveness and safety outcomes were influenced by stone size, independently of the technique. The stone-free rate was significantly lower in Micro-PCNL compared to Regular-PCNL. This was not confirmed for 1-2 cm stones. All techniques presented a lower complication rate than Regular-PCNL, with Mini-PCNL being the most protective technique compared to Regular-PCNL. CONCLUSIONS:Stone size seems to drive treatment choice. Miniaturized PCNL techniques are widely employed for 1-2 cm stones, in particular in higher surgical volume centres. Mini-PCNL and RIRS are growing in popularity for stones > 2 cm. Mini-PCNL seems to be a good compromise, being the most effective and safe procedure among PCNL techniques. RIRS is characterized by satisfactory stone-free and low complication rates.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical studies assessing the feasibility and accuracy of three stone scoring systems's (SSSs: Guy's stone score, CROES nomogram and S.T.O.N.E nephrolithometry scoring system) have reported contradictory outcomes. This systematic evaluation was performed to obtain comprehensive evidence with regard to the feasibility and accuracy of three SSSs. METHODS:A systematic search of Embase, Pubmed, Medline, and the Cochrane Library was conducted to identify studies that compared three SSSs up to Mar 2018. Patients were categorized according to stone free (SF) and no-stone free (NSF), Outcomes of interest included perioperative variables, stone-free rate (SFR), and complications. RESULTS:Ten studies estimating three SSSs were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that SF patients had a significantly lower proportion of male (OR?=?1.48, P?=?0.0007), lower stone burden (WMD?=?-504.28, P?<?0.0001), fewer No of involved calyces (OR?=?-1.23, P?=?0.0007) and lower proportion of staghorn stone (OR?=?0.33, P?<?0.0001). Moreover, SF patients had significantly lower score of Guy score (WMD?=?-0.64, P?<?0.0001), but, S.T.O.N.E. score (WMD?=?-1.23, P?<?0.0001) and a higher score of CROES nomogram (WMD?=?29.48, P?=?0.003). However, the comparison of area under curves (AUC) of predicting SFR indicated that there was no remarkable difference between three SSSs. Nonetheless, Guy score was the only stone scoring system that predicted complications after PCNL (WMD?=?-0.29, 95% CI: -?0.57 to -?0.02, P?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis indicated that the three SSSs were equally, feasible and accurate for predicting SFR after PCNL. However, Guy score was the only stone scoring system that predicted complications after PCNL.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare the efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and open surgery (OS) for surgical treatment of patients with staghorn stones based on published literatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A comprehensive literature search of Pubmed, Embase, CNKI and Cochrane Library was conducted to identify studies comparing outcomes of PCNL and OS for treating patients with staghorn stones up to Jan 2018. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in final-SFR between PCNL and OS (odds ratio[OR]: 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 2.15; p = 0.61), while PCNL provided a significantly lower immediate-SFR compared with OS (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.51; P < 0.0001). PCNL provided significantly lower overall complication rate, shorter operative times, hospitalization times, less blood loss and blood transfusion compared with OS (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.84; P = 0.004), (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -59.01mins; 95% CI: -81.09, -36.93; p < 0.00001), (WMD: -5.77days; 95% CI: -7.80, -3.74; p < 0.00001), (WMD: -138.29ml; 95% CI: -244.98, -31.6; p = 0.01) and (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68; P = 0.00002), respectively. No significant differences were found in minor complications (Clavien I-II) (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.09; p = 0.12) and major complications (Clavien III-V) (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.23, 1.08; P = 0.08). In subgroup analysis, there were no significant differences for overall complications and operative times between mini-PCNL and OS. In sensitivity analysis, there was no significant difference for overall complications between PCNL and OS. CONCLUSION:Our analysis suggested that standard PCNL turns out to be a safe and feasible alternative for patients with staghorn stones compared to OS or mini-PCNL. Because of the inherent limitations of the included studies, further large sample, prospective, multi-centric and randomized control trials should be undertaken to confirm our findings.
Project description:Introduction: American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines recommend percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for total stone burden greater than 20?mm, yet it is unclear if the number of stones affects adherence to this guideline. We aim to assess the impact of stone multiplicity on the choice of ureteroscopy (URS) vs PCNL as a first-line therapy for patients with high burden (>20?mm), and examine whether the AUA guideline-discordant care impacts patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the Registry for Stones of the Kidney and Ureter (ReSKU) database, a prospectively collected registry of patients with stone disease. Multivariate logistic regression (MLR) was used to estimate the association between stone multiplicity and the decision to perform URS for high stone burden (>20?mm) patients. MLR was further used to estimate the association between performing URS and the following outcomes: stone-free rate, need for a second operation, and complications. Postoperative hospital stay was compared between patients receiving URS vs PCNL using Student's t-test. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients were included in this analysis. For patients with total stone burden exceeding 20?mm, those with more than three stones had roughly nine times the likelihood of undergoing URS over PCNL compared with patients with a single stone (adjusted odds ratio 9.21, confidence interval [95% CI] 2.55-40.58, p?=?0.001). Stone-free rates, Clavien-Dindo scores, and frequency of second-look operations did not differ significantly between URS and PCNL patients. URS patients were discharged an average of 1.26 days earlier than patients who received PCNL (95% CI 0.72-1.81, p?<?0.001). Discussion: Stone multiplicity strongly predicts which patients with stone burden >20?mm will undergo URS and who will undergo PCNL. These deviations from AUA guidelines do not appear to worsen patient outcomes. These results suggest that careful consideration of each patient may warrant deviation from guidelines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that, compared with non-stone formers, stone formers have a higher papillary density measured with computer tomography (CT) scan. The effect of increased hydration on such papillary density in idiopathic calcium stone formers is not known. METHODS:Patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones undergoing endourological procedures for renal stones at our Institution from June 2013 to June 2014 were considered eligible for enrolment. Enrolled patients underwent a baseline unenhanced CT scan before the urological procedure; after endoscopic removal of their stones, the patients were instructed to drink at least 2 L/day of a hypotonic, oligomineral water low in sodium and minerals (fixed residue at 180 °C?<?200 mg/L) for at least 12 months. Finally, the patients underwent a follow-up unenhanced CT scan during hydration regimen. RESULTS:Twenty-five patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent baseline and follow-up CT scans. At baseline, mean papillary density was 43.2?±?6.6 Hounsfield Units (HU) (43.2?±?6.7 for the left kidney and 42.8?±?7.1 HU for the right kidney). At follow-up and after at least 12 months of hydration regimen, mean papillary density was significantly reduced at 35.4?±?4.2 HU (35.8?±?5.0 for the left kidney and 35.1?±?4.2 HU for the right kidney); the mean difference between baseline and follow-up was -?7.8 HU (95% confidence interval?-?10.6 to -?5.1 HU, p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Increased fluid intake in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones was associated with a significant reduction in renal papillary density. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03343743 , 15/11/2017 (Retrospectively registered).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and minimally invasive PCNL are currently therapeutic options for lower-pole renal stones (LPS). However, the optimal treatment for LPS remains unclear. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of each intervention is needed to inform clinical decision-making. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of different interventions for LPS. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched from inception to December 6th 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including the patients treated for LPS were included. The frequentist models of network meta-analysis were used to compare the effect sizes. The primary outcome was stone free rate, and the secondary outcomes were overall complication rate, major complication rate, retreatment rate, and auxiliary procedure rate. RESULTS:This study included 13 RCTs comprising 1832 participants undergoing 6 different interventions, including RIRS, PCNL, Mini-PCNL, Micro-PCNL, SWL, and conservative observation. PCNL had the best stone free rate (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.30-9.12), followed by Mini-PCNL (OR?=?2.90, 95% CI?=?1.13-7.46). Meta-regression did not find any association of the treatment effect with age, sex, and stone size. Although PCNL tended to exhibit a higher complication rate, the difference of complication rate among various interventions did not achieve a statistical significance. SWL was the less effective and associated with higher retreatment rate compared with PCNL, Mini-PNCL, and RIRS. CONCLUSIONS:PCNL was associated with the best stone free rate for LPS regardless of age, sex, and stone size. Each treatment achieved a similar complication rate compared with the others. Future large-scale RCTs are warranted to identify the most beneficial management for renal stones at a more complicated location.
Project description:The Hu RNA-binding protein family consists of four members: HuR/A, HuB, HuC and HuD. HuR expression is widespread. The other three neuron-specific Hu proteins play an important role in neuronal differentiation through modulating multiple processes of RNA metabolism. In the splicing events examined previously, Hu proteins promote skipping of the alternative exons. Here, we report the first example where Hu proteins promote inclusion of an alternative exon, exon 6 of the HuD pre-mRNA. Sequence alignment analysis indicates the presence of several conserved AU-rich sequences both upstream and downstream to this alternatively spliced exon. We generated a human HuD exon 6 mini-gene reporter construct that includes these conserved sequences. Hu protein over-expression led to significantly increased exon 6 inclusion from this reporter and endogenous HuD. Studies using truncated and mutant HuD exon 6 reporters demonstrate that two AU-rich sequences located downstream of exon 6 are important. RNAi knockdown of Hu proteins decreased exon 6 inclusion. An in vitro splicing assay indicates that Hu proteins promote HuD exon 6 inclusion directly at the level of splicing. Our studies demonstrate that Hu proteins can function as splicing enhancers and expand the functional role of Hu proteins as splicing regulators.
Project description:PURPOSE:Shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) is accepted as the first line treatment modality for uncomplicated upper urinary tract stones; however, validated prediction models with regards to stone-free rates (SFRs) are still needed. We aimed to develop nomograms predicting SFRs after the first and within the third session of SWL. Computed tomography (CT) information was also modeled for constructing nomograms. MATERIALS AND METHODS:From March 2006 to December 2013, 3028 patients were treated with SWL for ureter and renal stones at our three tertiary institutions. Four cohorts were constructed: Total-development, Total-validation, CT-development, and CT-validation cohorts. The nomograms were developed using multivariate logistic regression models with selected significant variables in a univariate logistic regression model. A C-index was used to assess the discrimination accuracy of nomograms and calibration plots were used to analyze the consistency of prediction. RESULTS:The SFR, after the first and within the third session, was 48.3% and 68.8%, respectively. Significant variables were sex, stone location, stone number, and maximal stone diameter in the Total-development cohort, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) and grade of hydronephrosis (HN) were additional parameters in the CT-development cohort. The C-indices were 0.712 and 0.723 for after the first and within the third session of SWL in the Total-development cohort, and 0.755 and 0.756, in the CT-development cohort, respectively. The calibration plots showed good correspondences. CONCLUSIONS:We constructed and validated nomograms to predict SFR after SWL. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first graphical nomograms to be modeled with CT information. These may be useful for patient counseling and treatment decision-making.
Project description:Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are widely used for pediatric upper tract stones; however, comparisons of their clinical efficacies are needed.Literature searches for relevant articles were performed using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the China CNKI database. Study quality was assessed by Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa Scales. Standard mean differences (SMDs) or odds ratios (OR), and 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) were pooled for meta-analysis. In addition, data was evaluated the quality of the body of evidence by means of grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE).Data from 4 studies (231 PCNL, 212 RIRS cases) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in operation time (SMD: 1.39; 95% CIs: -0.049 to 2.82; P?=?.058), overall stone-free rate (OR: 3.72; 95% CIs: 0.55-25.22; P?=?.18), or complication rate (OR: 1.92; 95% CIs: 0.90-4.07; P?=?.091). PCNL cases had longer hospital stays (SMD: 1.22; 95% CIs: 0.95-1.50; P?<?.001), but showed a higher stone-free rate for stones greater than 20 mm (OR: 6.38; 95% CIs: 1.83-22.22; P?=?.004). For stones less than 20 mm, however, no significant difference between PCNL and RIRS was found (OR: 0.92; 95% CIs: 0.33-2.55; P?=?.87). The quality of evidence based on the GRADE system was low.Results of our systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that, for the treatment of larger kidney stones (>20 mm) in pediatric patients, PCNL is a better option due to its higher stone-free rate, although RIRS may be associated with shorter hospital stays. A large-scale clinical trial is necessary to validate our findings.