Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) displays variable levels of immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. The quantity and localization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), specific functional TIL subsets (e.g., CD8+), and biomarker-expressing cells (e.g., PD-L1+) may have prognostic and predictive value. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness and utility of computer-assisted image analysis tools to quantify and localize immunohistochemistry-based biomarkers within the tumor microenvironment on a tissue microarray (TMA). We stained a 91-patient OTSCC TMA with antibodies targeting CD3, CD4, CD8, FOXP3, IDO, and PD-L1. Cell populations were segmented into epithelial (tumor) or stromal compartments according to a mask derived from a pan-cytokeratin stain. Definiens Tissue Studio was used to enumerate marker-positive cells or to quantify the staining intensity. Automated methods were validated against manual tissue segmentation, cell count, and stain intensity quantification. Univariate associations of cell count and stain intensity with smoking status, stage, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were determined. Our results revealed that the accuracy of automated tissue segmentation was dependent on the distance of the tissue section from the cytokeratin mask and the proportion of the tissue containing tumor vs. stroma. Automated and manual cell counts and stain intensities were highly correlated (Pearson coefficient range: 0.46-0.90; p < 0.001). Within this OTSCC cohort, smokers had significantly stronger PD-L1 stain intensity and higher numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and FOXP3+ TILs. In the subset of patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy, a higher number of CD8+ TILs was associated with inferior OS and DFS. Taken together, this proof-of-principle study demonstrates the robustness and utility of computer-assisted image analysis for high-throughput assessment of multiple IHC markers on TMAs, with potential implications for studies on prognostic and predictive biomarkers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are thought to be necessary to PD-1/PD-L1 axis blockades in many tumors. The aim of the study was to explore the variation of PD-L1 expression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its clinical implications. METHODS:A total of 142 paired SCC specimens before and after platinum-based NAC were obtained from cervical cancer patients. The expression of PD-L1 and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was detected by immunohistochemistry and the association between TILs, chemotherapy response, clinical outcome and PD-L1 expression was evaluated. RESULTS:The fraction of patients with high PD-L1 expression was significantly increased from 32.4 to 46.5% after NAC (?2?=?5.897, p?=?0.015), while the increase of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs was not significant. High PD-L1 expression was not associated with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs before NAC, however CD8+ TILs infiltration was positively associated with high PD-L1 expression after NAC (r?=?0.205, p?=?0.014). The decreased PD-L1 expression was more observed in patients with clinical response to NAC (?2?=?6.890, p?=?0.009). A longer DFS was seen in patients with decreased PD-L1 expression than those with elevated or stable PD-L1 expression (p?=?0.048, 95% CI: 0.091-0.987), while the difference was not significant in multivariate analysis (p?=?0.113, 95% CI: 0.108-1.266). CONCLUSIONS:Cisplatin based chemotherapy can increase PD-L1 expression in cervical cancer. The increased PD-L1 expression and a lymphocyte predominant microenvironment after chemotherapy provide a rational for use of PD-1/PD-L1 axis-inhibitor in the neoadjuvant setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We recently reported a 56% objective response rate in patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) receiving pembrolizumab. However, a biomarker predicting clinical response was not identified. METHODS:Pretreatment FFPE tumor specimens (n?=?26) were stained for CD8, PD-L1, and PD-1 by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence (IHC/IF), and the density and distribution of positive cells was quantified to determine the associations with anti-PD-1 response. Multiplex IF was used to test a separate cohort of MCC archival specimens (n?=?16), to identify cell types expressing PD-1. RESULTS:Tumors from patients who responded to anti-PD-1 showed higher densities of PD-1+ and PD-L1+ cells when compared to non-responders (median cells/mm2, 70.7 vs. 6.7, p?=?0.03; and 855.4 vs. 245.0, p?=?0.02, respectively). There was no significant association of CD8+ cell density with clinical response. Quantification of PD-1+ cells located within 20 ?m of a PD-L1+ cell showed that PD-1/PD-L1 proximity was associated with clinical response (p?=?0.03), but CD8/PD-L1 proximity was not. CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the TME expressed similar amounts of PD-1. CONCLUSIONS:While the binomial presence or absence of PD-L1 expression in the TME was not sufficient to predict response to anti-PD-1 in patients with MCC, we show that quantitative assessments of PD-1+ and PD-L1+ cell densities as well as the geographic interactions between these two cell populations correlate with clinical response. Cell types expressing PD-1 in the TME include CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells, Tregs, and CD20+ B-cells, supporting the notion that multiple cell types may potentiate tumor regression following PD-1 blockade.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor microenvironment (TME) including the immune checkpoint system impacts prognosis in some types of malignancy. The aim of our study was to investigate the precise prognostic significance of the TME profile in endometrial carcinoma. METHODS:We performed immunohistochemistry of the TME proteins, PD-L1, PD-1, CD4, CD8, CD68, and VEGF in endometrial carcinomas from 221 patients. RESULTS:High PD-L1 in tumor cells (TCs) was associated with better OS (p?=?0.004), whereas high PD-L1 in tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TICs) was associated with worse OS (p?=?0.02). High PD-L1 in TICs correlated with high densities of CD8+ TICs and CD68+ TICs, as well as microsatellite instability (p?=?0.00000064, 0.00078, and 0.0056), while high PD-L1 in TCs correlated with longer treatment-free interval (TFI) after primary chemotherapy in recurrent cases (p?=?0.000043). High density of CD4+ TICs correlated with better OS and longer TFI (p?=?0.0008 and 0.014). Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors revealed that high PD-L1 in TCs and high density of CD4+ TICs were significant and independent for favorable OS (p?=?0.014 and 0.0025). CONCLUSION:The current findings indicate that PD-L1 and CD4+ helper T cells may be reasonable targets for improving survival through manipulating chemosensitivity, providing significant implications for combining immunotherapies into the therapeutic strategy for endometrial carcinoma.
Project description:We investigated the clinicopathological role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system (PCNS-DLBCL) arising in the immune-privileged site. PD-L1 immunostaining of ?30% of tumor cells was defined as tPD-L1+, and PD-L1 immunostaining of ?30% of total cellularity, including tumor and non-tumoral cells, as tmPD-L1+ . PD-1+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were enumerated. Thirty-five cases (35.7%) were tPD-L1+ and 47 cases (48%) were tmPD-L1+ . The number of TILs was greater in tmPD-L1+ cases than in tmPD-L1- cases (CD8+, P= .050; PD-1+, P= .019). tPD-L1+ and tmPD-L1+ cases tended to have a poor performance status. In contrast, the numbers of CD8+ and PD-1+ TILs tended to be higher in patients with a good performance status and MYC/BCL2 negativity. Patients with tPD-L1+ had a worse overall survival (P= .026), and those with increased CD8+ or PD-1+ TILs tended to have a better overall survival (P= .081 and 0.044, respectively). Tumoral PD-L1 expression and the number of PD-1+ TILs were independent prognostic factors. tPD-L1+ patients with a small number of CD8+ or PD-1+ TILs had the worst prognosis, and tPD-L1- patients with a large number of CD8+ or PD-1+ TILs had the best prognosis. In validation group, increased CD8+ or PD-1+ TILs were significantly associated with a prolonged survival, but PD-L1 had no prognostic significance. In conclusion, PD-L1 is frequently expressed in tumor cells and the immune microenvironment of PCNS-DLBCL and is correlated with increased TILs. PD-L1 and CD8+ and PD-1+ TILs have potential as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in PCNS-DLBCL.
Project description:EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that developed acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase (TKI) are potential candidates for programmed death 1 (PD1) inhibitor.TPS?1% for PD-L1 and low CD8 + TIL in post-TKI tumor showed a trend for a lower PFS of EGFR-TKIs (14.2 vs 9.9 months; P = 0.060) (cohort A). Only 2 of 22 specimens (9.1%) with an acquired EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation exhibited in post-TKI TPS?50% for PD-L1. The degree in post-TKI tumor of PD-L1 expression was varied in 19 patients (40.5%), with 10 (21.2%) showing higher levels in the resistant biopsy (cohort B). Among the post-TKI high TPS groups, median PFS with low post- TKI CD8 + TIL scores treated with EGFR-TKIs (6.6 months) was significantly lower than that for the other patients (14.2 months; P = 0.015).The change of PD-L1 expression was accompanied by dynamic change in CD8 + TILs and might reflect diverse mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKI therapy.We identified 69 patients (cohort A) with sufficient post-TKI tumor tissues and 47 patients (cohort B) with paired tumor tissues available. TPS for PD-L1 expression of tumor cells and CD8 + TILs score in tumor specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry.
Project description:Abstract Objectives Lymphoepithelioma?like carcinoma (LELC) is an uncommon lung cancer, typically observed in young, non?smoking Asian populations. LELC is associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection of lung tumor cells of epithelial origin, suggesting a carcinogenic role of EBV as observed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we studied the antigen specificity and phenotype of EBV?specific CD8+ T cells in blood and tumor of one LELC patient positive for EBV infection in lung tumor cells. Methods Using multiplex MHC class I tetramers, mass cytometry and mRNA sequencing, we studied EBV?specific CD8+ T cells at the transcriptomic and phenotypic levels in blood and tumor tissues of the LELC patient. Results Lymphoepithelioma?like carcinoma lung tumor cells were positive for EBV infection. In both blood and tumor tissues, we detected two populations of EBV?specific CD8+ T cells targeting the EBV lytic cycle proteins: BRLF1 and BMLF1. Transcriptomic analyses of these two populations in the tumor, which can be considered as tumor?specific, revealed their distinct exhausted profile and polyclonal TCR repertoire. High?dimensional phenotypical analysis revealed the distinct phenotype of these cells between blood and tumor tissues. In tumor tissue, EBV?specific CD8+ TILs were phenotypically heterogeneous, but consistently expressed CD39. Unexpectedly, although the LELC tumor cells expressed abundant PD?L1, these tumor?specific CD8+ tumor?infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) mostly did not express PD?1. Conclusion Epstein–Barr virus?specific CD8+ TILs in EBV?driven tumor are heterogeneous and partially lack PD?1 expression, suggesting that anti?PD1/PD?L1 immunotherapy may not be an appropriate strategy for disinhibiting EBV?specific cells in the treatment of LELC patients. We studied the antigen specificity and phenotype of CD8+ tumor?infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in one LELC patient positive for EBV infection in lung tumor cells. Transcriptomic analyses of EBV?specific CD8+ TILs reveal their distinct exhausted profiles and polyclonal TCR repertoire. Although the LELC tumor cells expressed abundant PD?L1, EBV?specific CD8+ TILs mostly did not express PD?1, but express CD39.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the association between programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) coupled with CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) and the clinicopathological features, along with prognosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Methods:95 patients of CSCC received tumor resection at the Department of Pathology of the First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) from 2015 to 2020. Full-automatic immunohistochemistry was applied to measure PD-L1 expression and CD8+ TILS density. Our literature deeply assessed the links between PD-L1 expression, clinicopathological features, and the influences of combination of PD-L1 and CD8+ TILS (PD-L1+/CD8+ TILS) on the prognosis of CSCC. Results:64.21% of CSCC patients (61/95) expressed PD-L1, and PD-L1 expression was related to the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, tumor size, invasion depth, differentiation degree, metastasis of lymph node, and vascular invasion (P < 0.05). Dramatic correlation between PD-L1 expression and CD8+ TILS density was illustrated in CSCC patients (r = -0.461, P < 0.001). Obvious differences in differentiation degree, FIGO stage, infiltration depth, and lymph node metastasis were shown between patients with PD-L1 coupled with high-density of CD8+ TILS and those with PD-L1 coupled with low-density of CD8+ TILS (P < 0.05). Patients with PD-L1 negative expression exhibited better prognosis compared with those with PD-L1 positive expression (P < 0.05). Patients with PD-L1 coupled with high-density of CD8+ TILS showed better prognostic status, while those with PD-L1 coupled with low-density of CD8+ TILS had worse prognostic condition (P < 0.05). Differentiation, metastasis of lymph node, and FIGO stage were substantive impact elements of a CSCC patient's overall survival (OS) by Cox multivariate analysis. Conclusions:CD8+ TILS density is related to PD-L1 expression in carcinoma. PD-L1/CD8+ TILS density can be regarded as evaluation for the prognosis of patients with CSCC, providing a new therapeutic target in clinical application.