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Coadministration of the Campylobacter jejuni N-Glycan-Based Vaccine with Probiotics Improves Vaccine Performance in Broiler Chickens.
ABSTRACT: Source attribution studies report that the consumption of contaminated poultry is the primary source for acquiring human campylobacteriosis. Oral administration of an engineered Escherichia coli strain expressing the Campylobacter jejuni N-glycan reduces bacterial colonization in specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens, but only a fraction of birds respond to vaccination. Optimization of the vaccine for commercial broiler chickens has great potential to prevent the entry of the pathogen into the food chain. Here, we tested the same vaccination approach in broiler chickens and observed similar efficacies in pathogen load reduction, stimulation of the host IgY response, the lack of C. jejuni resistance development, uniformity in microbial gut composition, and the bimodal response to treatment. Gut microbiota analysis of leghorn and broiler vaccine responders identified one member of Clostridiales cluster XIVa, Anaerosporobacter mobilis, that was significantly more abundant in responder birds. In broiler chickens, coadministration of the live vaccine with A. mobilis or Lactobacillus reuteri, a commonly used probiotic, resulted in increased vaccine efficacy, antibody responses, and weight gain. To investigate whether the responder-nonresponder effect was due to the selection of a C. jejuni "supercolonizer mutant" with altered phase-variable genes, we analyzed all poly(G)-containing loci of the input strain compared to nonresponder colony isolates and found no evidence of phase state selection. However, untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics identified a potential biomarker negatively correlated with C. jejuni colonization levels that is possibly linked to increased microbial diversity in this subgroup. The comprehensive methods used to examine the bimodality of the vaccine response provide several opportunities to improve the C. jejuni vaccine and the efficacy of any vaccination strategy.IMPORTANCE Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human diarrheal disease worldwide and is listed by the World Health Organization as a high-priority pathogen. C. jejuni infection typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated chicken meat, so many efforts are targeted at reducing C. jejuni levels at the source. We previously developed a vaccine that reduces C. jejuni levels in egg-laying chickens. In this study, we improved vaccine performance in meat birds by supplementing the vaccine with probiotics. In addition, we demonstrated that C. jejuni colonization levels in chickens are negatively correlated with the abundance of clostridia, another group of common gut microbes. We describe new methods for vaccine optimization that will assist in improving the C. jejuni vaccine and other vaccines under development.
Project description:Colonization of broiler chickens by the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is widespread and difficult to prevent. Bacteriophage therapy is one possible means by which this colonization could be controlled, thus limiting the entry of campylobacters into the human food chain. Prior to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, experimental models of Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens were established by using low-passage C. jejuni isolates HPC5 and GIIC8 from United Kingdom broiler flocks. The screening of 53 lytic bacteriophage isolates against a panel of 50 Campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens and 80 strains isolated after human infection identified two phage candidates with broad host lysis. These phages, CP8 and CP34, were orally administered in antacid suspension, at different dosages, to 25-day-old broiler chickens experimentally colonized with the C. jejuni broiler isolates. Phage treatment of C. jejuni-colonized birds resulted in Campylobacter counts falling between 0.5 and 5 log10 CFU/g of cecal contents compared to untreated controls over a 5-day period postadministration. These reductions were dependent on the phage-Campylobacter combination, the dose of phage applied, and the time elapsed after administration. Campylobacters resistant to bacteriophage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of <4%. These resistant types were compromised in their ability to colonize experimental chickens and rapidly reverted to a phage-sensitive phenotype in vivo. The selection of appropriate phage and their dose optimization are key elements for the success of phage therapy to reduce campylobacters in broiler chickens.
Project description:Despite reducing the prevalent foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in chickens decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product bile acids to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed with deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anaero) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). The birds were infected with human clinical isolate C. jejuni 81-176 or chicken isolate C. jejuni AR101. Notably, C. jejuni 81-176 was readily colonized intestinal tract at d16 and reached an almost plateau at d21. Remarkably, DCA excluded C. jejuni cecal colonization below the limit of detection at 16 and 28 days of age. Neither chicken ages of infection nor LCA or UDCA altered C. jejuni AR101 chicken colonization level, while DCA reduced 91% of the bacterium in chickens at d28. Notably, DCA diet reduced phylum Firmicutes but increased Bacteroidetes compared to infected control birds. Importantly, DCA-Anaero attenuated 93% of C. jejuni colonization at d28 compared to control infected birds. In conclusion, DCA shapes microbiota composition against C. jejuni colonization in chickens, suggesting a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and microbial metabolites.
Project description:Worldwide Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease. Contamination of chicken meat with digesta from C. jejuni-positive birds during slaughter and processing is a key route of transmission to humans through the food chain. Colonization of chickens with C. jejuni elicits host innate immune responses that may be modulated by dietary additives to provide a reduction in the number of campylobacters colonizing the gastrointestinal tract and thereby reduce the likelihood of human exposure to an infectious dose. Here we report the effects of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on broiler chickens colonized with C. jejuni when challenged at either an early stage in development at 6 days of age or 20 days old when campylobacters are frequently detected in commercial flocks. GOS-fed birds had increased growth performance, but the levels of C. jejuni colonizing the cecal pouches were unchanged irrespective of the age of challenge. Dietary GOS modulated the immune response to C. jejuni by increasing cytokine IL-17A expression at colonization. Correspondingly, reduced diversity of the cecal microbiota was associated with Campylobacter colonization in GOS-fed birds. In birds challenged at 6 days-old the reduction in microbial diversity was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of Escherichia spp. Whilst immuno-modulation of the Th17 pro-inflammatory response did not prevent C. jejuni colonization of the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, the study highlights the potential for combinations of prebiotics, and specific competitors (synbiotics) to engage with the host innate immunity to reduce pathogen burdens.
Project description:Using laboratory challenge experiments, we examined whether Campylobacter-specific maternal antibody (MAB) plays a protective role in young chickens, which are usually free of Campylobacter under natural production conditions. Kinetics of C. jejuni colonization were compared by infecting 3-day-old broiler chicks, which were naturally positive for Campylobacter-specific MAB, and 21-day-old broilers, which were negative for Campylobacter-specific MAB. The onset of colonization occurred much sooner in birds challenged at the age of 21 days than it did in the birds inoculated at 3 days of age, which suggested a possible involvement of specific MAB in the delay of colonization. To further examine this possibility, specific-pathogen-free layer chickens were raised under laboratory conditions with or without Campylobacter infection, and their 3-day-old progenies with (MAB(+)) or without (MAB(-)) Campylobacter-specific MAB were orally challenged with C. jejuni. Significant decreases in the percentage of colonized chickens were observed in the MAB(+) group during the first week compared with the MAB(-) group. These results indicate that Campylobacter-specific MAB plays a partial role in protecting young chickens against colonization by C. jejuni. Presence of MAB in young chickens did not seem to affect the development of systemic immune response following infection with C. jejuni. However, active immune responses to Campylobacter occurred earlier and more strongly in birds infected at 21 days of age than those infected at 3 days of age. Clearance of Campylobacter infection was also observed in chickens infected at 21 days of age. Taken together, these findings (i) indicate that anti-Campylobacter MAB contributes to the lack of Campylobacter infection in young broiler chickens in natural environments and (ii) provide further evidence supporting the feasibility of development of immunization-based approaches for control of Campylobacter infection in poultry.
Project description:Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in the developed world and consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat is the principal source of infection. Strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter are urgently required and are predicted to limit the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Towards this aim, a purified recombinant subunit vaccine based on the superoxide dismutase (SodB) protein of C. jejuni M1 was developed and tested in White Leghorn birds. Birds were vaccinated on the day of hatch and 14 days later with SodB fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or purified GST alone. Birds were challenged with C. jejuni M1 at 28 days of age and caecal Campylobacter counts determined at weekly intervals. Across three independent trials, the vaccine induced a statistically significant 1 log10 reduction in caecal Campylobacter numbers in vaccinated birds compared to age-matched GST-vaccinated controls. Significant induction of antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in all vaccinated birds, however the magnitude and timing of SodB-specific IgY did not correlate with lower numbers of C. jejuni. Antibodies from SodB-vaccinated chickens detected the protein in the periplasm and not membrane fractions or on the bacterial surface, suggesting that the protection observed may not be strictly antibody-mediated. SodB may be useful as a constituent of vaccines for control of C. jejuni infection in broiler birds, however modest protection was observed late relative to the life of broiler birds and further studies are required to potentiate the magnitude and timing of protection.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common causes of human bacterial enteritis worldwide primarily due to contaminated poultry products. Previously, we found a significant difference in C. jejuni colonization in the ceca between two genetically distinct broiler lines (Line A (resistant) has less colony than line B (susceptible) on day 7 post inoculation). We hypothesize that different mechanisms between these two genetic lines may affect their ability to resist C. jejuni colonization in chickens. The molecular mechanisms of the local host response to C. jejuni colonization in chickens have not been well understood. In the present study, to profile the cecal gene expression in the response to C. jejuni colonization and to compare differences between two lines at the molecular level, RNA of ceca from two genetic lines of chickens (A and B) were applied to a chicken whole genome microarray for a pair-comparison between inoculated (I) and non-inoculated (N) chickens within each line and between lines. Our results demonstrated that metabolism process and insulin receptor signaling pathways are key contributors to the different response to C. jejuni colonization between lines A and B. With C. jejuni inoculation, lymphocyte activation and lymphoid organ development functions are important for line A host defenses, while cell differentiation, communication and signaling pathways are important for line B. Interestingly, circadian rhythm appears play a critical role in host response of the more resistant A line to C. jejuni colonization. A dramatic differential host response was observed between these two lines of chickens. The more susceptible line B chickens responded to C. jejuni inoculation with a dramatic up-regulation in lipid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism, which is undoubtedly for use in the response to the colonization with little or no change in immune host defenses. However, in more resistant line A birds the host defense responses were characterized by an up-regulation lymphocyte activation, probably by regulatory T cells and an increased expression of the NLR recognition receptor NALP1. To our knowledge, this is the first time each of these responses has been observed in the avian response to an intestinal bacterial pathogen.
Project description:Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease in which birds have been suggested to play an important role as a reservoir. We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni in black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) in southern Sweden with the aim of examining the nature of C. jejuni infection in this bird species. Birds were sampled in four sampling series each year during 1999 (n = 419) and 2000 (n = 365). Longitudinally sampled C. jejuni isolates from individual gulls were subjected to macrorestriction profiling (MRP) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the genotypical stability during the natural course of infection. Furthermore, a subset (n = 76) of black-headed gull isolates was compared to isolates from broiler chickens (n = 38) and humans (n = 56) originating from the same geographic area. We found a pronounced seasonal variation in C. jejuni carriage, with the highest rates found in late autumn. MRP similarities were higher between isolates of human and broiler chicken origin, than between those of wild bird origin and either of the other two hosts. However, identical MRPs were found in two gull isolates and one human isolate after digestion with two restriction enzymes, strongly indicating that they may have been colonized by the same clone of C. jejuni. The MRPs most prevalent in gull isolates did not occur among isolates from humans and broiler chickens, suggesting the existence of a subpopulation of C. jejuni adapted to species-specific colonization or environmental survival.
Project description:Despite the importance of gut microbiota for broiler performance and health little is known about the composition of this ecosystem, its development and response towards bacterial infections. Therefore, the current study was conducted to address the composition and structure of the microbial community in broiler chickens in a longitudinal study from day 1 to day 28 of age in the gut content and on the mucosa. Additionally, the consequences of a Campylobacter (C.) jejuni infection on the microbial community were assessed. The composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene targeted Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Sequencing of 130 samples yielded 51,825,306 quality-controlled sequences, which clustered into 8285 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 0.03 distance level) representing 24 phyla. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Tenericutes were the main components of the gut microbiota, with Proteobacteria and Firmicutes being the most abundant phyla (between 95.0 and 99.7% of all sequences) at all gut sites. Microbial communities changed in an age-dependent manner. Whereas, young birds had more Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Tenericutes dominated in older birds (>14 days old). In addition, 28 day old birds had more diverse bacterial communities than young birds. Furthermore, numerous significant differences in microbial profiles between the mucosa and luminal content of the small and large intestine were detected, with some species being strongly associated with the mucosa whereas others remained within the luminal content of the gut. Following oral infection of 14 day old broiler chickens with 1 × 108 CFU of C. jejuni NCTC 12744, it was found that C. jejuni heavily colonized throughout the small and large intestine. Moreover, C. jejuni colonization was associated with an alteration of the gut microbiota with infected birds having a significantly lower abundance of Escherichia (E.) coli at different gut sites. On the contrary, the level of Clostridium spp. was higher in infected birds compared with birds from the negative controls. In conclusion, the obtained results demonstrate how the bacterial microbiome composition changed within the early life of broiler chickens in the gut lumen and on the mucosal surface. Furthermore, our findings confirmed that the Campylobacter carrier state in chicken is characterized by multiple changes in the intestinal ecology within the host.
Project description:Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, ?-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (?106 CFU/ml; 250 ?l/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ?2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for motility (motA, motB, fliA) and attachment (jlpA, ciaB) was down-regulated as compared to controls (P < 0.05). These results suggest that BR could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is considered as a chicken commensal. The gut microbiota and the immune status of the host may affect its colonization. Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens, which allows secondary pathogens to invade or exacerbates their pathogenesis. To investigate the effect of IBDV-induced immunosuppression on the pathogenesis of C. jejuni, broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv) strain of IBDV at 14 days post hatch followed by C. jejuni inoculation at 7 (Experiment A) or 9 (Experiment B) days post virus (IBDV) inoculation.vvIBDV-infection led to a depression in caecal lamina propria B lymphocytes and the anti-C. jejuni-antibody response starting at 14 days post C. jejuni inoculation (pbi). The C. jejuni-colonization pattern was comparable between mono-inoculated groups of both experiments, but it varied for vvIBDV?+?C. jejuni co-inoculated groups. In Experiment A significant higher numbers of colony forming units (CFU) of C. jejuni were detected in the caecum of co-inoculated birds compared to C. jejuni-mono-inoculated birds in the early phase after C. jejuni-inoculation. In Experiment B the clearance phase was affected in the co-inoculated group with significantly higher CFU at 21 days pbi compared to the mono-inoculated group (P?<?0.05). No major differences were seen in numbers local lamina propria T lymphocyte populations between C. jejuni-inoculated groups with or without vvIBDV-infection. Interestingly, both pathogens affected the microbiota composition. The consequences of these microflora changes for the host have to be elucidated further.Our data suggests that the timing between viral and bacterial infection might affect the outcome of C. jejuni colonization differently. Our results confirm previous studies that anti-Campylobacter-antibodies may specifically be important for the clearance phase of the bacteria. Therefore, as vvIBDV is widely distributed in the field, it may have a significant impact on the colonization and shedding rate of C. jejuni in commercial poultry flocks. Subsequently, successful IBDV-control strategies may indirectly also benefit the gut-health of chickens.