Investigating the genetic relationship between Alzheimer's disease and cancer using GWAS summary statistics.
ABSTRACT: Growing evidence from both epidemiology and basic science suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. We examined the genetic relationship between AD and various cancer types using GWAS summary statistics from the IGAP and GAME-ON consortia. Sample size ranged from 9931 to 54,162; SNPs were imputed to the 1000 Genomes European panel. Our results based on cross-trait LD Score regression showed a significant positive genetic correlation between AD and five cancers combined (colon, breast, prostate, ovarian, lung; r g = 0.17, P = 0.04), and specifically with breast cancer (ER-negative and overall; r g = 0.21 and 0.18, P = 0.035 and 0.034) and lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and overall; r g = 0.31, 0.38 and 0.30, P = 0.029, 0.016, and 0.006). Estimating the genetic correlation in specific functional categories revealed mixed positive and negative signals, notably stronger at annotations associated with increased enhancer activity. This suggests a role of gene expression regulators in the shared genetic etiology between AD and cancer, and that some shared variants modulate disease risk concordantly while others have effects in opposite directions. Due to power issues, we did not detect cross-phenotype associations at individual SNPs. This genetic overlap is not likely driven by a handful of major loci. Our study is the first to examine the co-heritability of AD and cancer leveraging large-scale GWAS results. The functional categories highlighted in this study need further investigation to illustrate the details of the genetic sharing and to bridge between different levels of associations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Increasing evidence suggests epidemiological and pathological links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Ischaemic Stroke (IS). We investigated the evidence that shared genetic factors underpin the two diseases. METHODS:Using genome wide association study (GWAS) data from METASTROKE+ (15,916 IS cases and 68,826 controls) and IGAP (17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls), we evaluated known associations with AD and IS. On the subset of data for which we could obtain compatible genotype-level data (4,610 IS cases, 1,281 AD cases and 14,320 controls), we estimated the genome-wide genetic correlation (rG) between AD and IS, and the three subtypes (cardioembolic, small vessel, large vessel), using genome-wide SNP data. We then performed a meta-analysis and pathway analysis in the combined AD and small vessel stroke datasets to identify the SNPs and molecular pathways through which disease risk may be conferred. RESULTS:We found evidence of a shared genetic contribution between AD and small vessel stroke (rG(SE)=0.37(0.17); p=0.011). Conversely, there was no evidence to support shared genetic factors in AD and IS overall, or with the other stroke subtypes. Of the known GWAS associations with IS or AD, none reached significance for association with the other trait (or stroke subtypes). A meta-analysis of AD IGAP and METASTROKE+ small vessel stroke GWAS data highlighted a region (ATP5H/KCTD2/ICT1), associated with both diseases (p=1.8x10-8 ). A pathway analysis identified four associated pathways, involving cholesterol transport and immune response. INTERPRETATION:Our findings indicate shared genetic susceptibility to AD and small vessel stroke and highlight potential causal pathways and loci. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Both type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) occur commonly in the aging populations and T2D has been considered as an important risk factor for AD. The heritability of both diseases is estimated to be over 50%. However, common pleiotropic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/loci have not been well-defined. The aim of this study is to analyze two large public accessible GWAS datasets to identify novel common genetic loci for T2D and/or AD. METHODS AND MATERIALS:The recently developed novel conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) approach was used to analyze the summary GWAS datasets from International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) and Diabetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) to identify novel susceptibility genes for AD and T2D. RESULTS:We identified 78 SNPs (including 58 novel SNPs) that were associated with AD in Europeans conditional on T2D (cFDR<0.05). 66 T2D SNPs (including 40 novel SNPs) were identified by conditioning on SNPs association with AD (cFDR<0.05). A conjunction-cFDR (ccFDR) analysis detected 8 pleiotropic SNPs with a significance threshold of ccFDR<0.05 for both AD and T2D, of which 5 SNPs (rs6982393, rs4734295, rs7812465, rs10510109, rs2421016) were novel findings. Furthermore, among the 8 SNPs annotated at 6 different genes, 3 corresponding genes TP53INP1, TOMM40 and C8orf38 were related to mitochondrial dysfunction, critically involved in oxidative stress, which potentially contribute to the etiology of both AD and T2D. CONCLUSION:Our study provided evidence for shared genetic loci between T2D and AD in European subjects by using cFDR and ccFDR analyses. These results may provide novel insight into the etiology and potential therapeutic targets of T2D and/or AD.
Project description:The International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) is a consortium for characterizing the genetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The identified and/or confirmed 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AD are located on non-coding DNA regions, and their functional impacts on AD are as yet poorly understood. We evaluated the roles of the IGAP SNPs by integrating data from many resources, based on whether the IGAP SNP was (1) a proxy for a coding SNP or (2) associated with altered mRNA transcript levels. For (1), we confirmed that 12 AD-associated coding common SNPs and five nonsynonymous rare variants are in linkage disequilibrium with the IGAP SNPs. For (2), the IGAP SNPs in CELF1 and MS4A6A were associated with expression of their neighboring genes, MYBPC3 and MS4A6A, respectively, in blood. The IGAP SNP in DSG2 was an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for DLGAP1 and NETO1 in the human frontal cortex. The IGAP SNPs in ABCA7, CD2AP, and CD33 each acted as eQTL for AD-associated genes in brain. Our approach for identifying proxies and examining eQTL highlighted potentially impactful, novel gene regulatory phenomena pertinent to the AD phenotype.
Project description:Objective:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 30 susceptibility loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using AD GWAS data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) was successfully applied to predict life time risk of AD development. A recently introduced Polygenic Hazard Score (PHS) is able to quantify individuals with age-specific genetic risk for AD. The aim of this study was to quantify the age-specific genetic risk for AD with PRS and compare the results generated by PRS with those from PHS. Methods:Quantification of individual differences in age-specific genetic risk for AD identified by the PRS, was performed with Cox Regression on 9903 (2626 cases and 7277 controls) individuals from the Genetic and Environmental Risk in Alzheimer's Disease consortium (GERAD). Polygenic Hazard Scores were generated for the same individuals. The age-specific genetic risk for AD identified by the PRS was compared with that generated by the PHS. This was repeated using varying SNPs P-value thresholds for disease association. Results:Polygenic Risk Score significantly predicted the risk associated with age at AD onset when SNPs were preselected for association to AD at P ? 0.001. The strongest effect (B = 0.28, SE = 0.04, P = 2.5 × 10-12) was observed for PRS based upon genome-wide significant SNPs (P ? 5 × 10-8). The strength of association was weaker with less stringent SNP selection thresholds. Interpretation:Both PRS and PHS can be used to predict an age-specific risk for developing AD. The PHS approach uses SNP effect sizes derived with the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model. When SNPs were selected based upon AD GWAS case/control P ? 10-3, we found no advantage of using SNP effects sizes calculated with the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model in our study. When SNPs are selected for association with AD risk at P > 10-3, the age-specific risk prediction results are not significant for either PRS or PHS. However PHS could be more advantageous than PRS of age specific AD risk predictions when SNPs are prioritized for association with AD age at onset (i.e., powerful Cox Regression GWAS study).
Project description:Epidemiological evidence supports the observation that subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how these two conditions are causally linked is unknown. Possible mechanisms include shared genetic risk factors, which were investigated in this study based on recent genome wide association study (GWAS) findings. In order to achieve our goal, we retrieved single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with T2D and AD from large-scale GWAS meta-analysis consortia and tested for overlap among the T2D- and AD-associated SNPs at various p-value thresholds. We then explored the function of the shared T2D/AD GWAS SNPs by leveraging expressional quantitative trait loci, pathways, gene ontology data, and co-expression networks. We found 927 SNPs associated with both AD and T2D with p-value??0.01, an overlap significantly larger than random chance (overlapping p-value?of?6.93E-28). Among these, 395 of the shared GWAS SNPs have the same risk allele for AD and T2D, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of both AD and T2D. Genes influenced by shared T2D/AD SNPs with the same risk allele were first identified using a SNP annotation variation (ANNOVAR) software, followed by using Association Protein-Protein Link Evaluator (DAPPLE) software to identify additional proteins that are known to physically interact with the ANNOVAR gene annotations. We found that gene annotations from ANNOVAR and DAPPLE significantly enriched specific KEGG pathways pertaining to immune responses, cell signaling and neuronal plasticity, cellular processes in which abnormalities are known to contribute to both T2D and AD pathogenesis. Thus, our observation suggests that among T2D subjects with common genetic predispositions (e.g., SNPs with consistent risk alleles for T2D and AD), dysregulation of these pathogenic pathways could contribute to the elevated risks for AD in subjects. Interestingly, we found that 532 of the shared T2D/AD GWAS SNPs had divergent risk alleles in the two diseases. For individual shared T2D/AD SNPs with divergent alleles, one of the allelic forms may contribute to one of the diseases (e.g., T2D), but not necessarily to the other (e.g., AD), or vice versa. Collectively, our GWAS studies tentatively support the epidemiological observation of disease concordance between T2D and AD. Moreover, the studies provide the much needed information for the design of future novel therapeutic approaches, for a subpopulation of T2D subjects with genetic disposition to AD, that could benefit T2D and reduce the risk for subsequent development of AD.
Project description:Observational studies have linked increased adult height with better cognitive performance and reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear whether the associations are due to shared biological processes that influence height and AD or due to confounding by early life exposures or environmental factors.To use a genetic approach to investigate the association between adult height and AD.We selected 682 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with height at genome-wide significance (p?<?5×10-8) in the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium. Summary statistics for each of these SNPs on AD were obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) of 17,008 individuals with AD and 37,154 controls. The estimate of the association between genetically predicted height and AD was calculated using the inverse-variance weighted method.The odds ratio of AD was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.95; p?=?9.8×10-5) per one standard deviation increase (about 6.5?cm) in genetically predicted height based on 682 SNPs, which were clustered in 419 loci. In an analysis restricted to one SNP from each height-associated locus (n?=?419 SNPs), the corresponding OR was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.97; p?=?4.8×10-3).This finding suggests that biological processes that influence adult height may have a role in the etiology of AD.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke (IS) are an immense socioeconomic burden worldwide. There is a possibility that shared genetic factors lead to their links at epidemiological and pathophysiological levels. Although recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided profound insights into the genetics of AD and IS, no shared genetic variants have been identified to date. This prompted us to initiate this study, which sought to identify shared pathways linking AD and IS. We took advantage of large-scale GWAS summary data of AD (17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls) and IS (10,307 cases and 19,326 controls) to conduct pathway analyses using genetic pathways from multiple well-studied databases, including GO, KEGG, PANTHER, Reactome, and Wikipathways. Collectively, we discovered that AD and IS shared 179 GO categories (56 biological processes, 95 cellular components, and 28 molecular functions); and the following pathways: six KEGG pathways; two PANTHER pathways; four Reactome pathways; and one in Wikipathways pathway. The more fine-grained GO terms were mainly summarized into different functional categories: transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, synapse, endocytic membrane traffic through the endosomal system, signaling transduction, immune process, multi-organism process, protein catabolic metabolism, and cell adhesion. The shared pathways were roughly classified into three categories: immune system; cancer (NSCLC and glioma); and signal transduction pathways involving the cadherin signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, G-protein signaling and downstream signaling mediated by phosphoinositides (PIPs). The majority of these common pathways linked to both AD and IS were supported by convincing evidence from the literature. In conclusion, our findings contribute to a better understanding of common biological mechanisms underlying AD and IS and serve as a guide to direct future research.
Project description:Effective prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires the development of risk prediction tools permitting preclinical intervention. We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising common genetic variants associated with AD, evaluated its association with incident AD and assessed its capacity to improve risk prediction over traditional models based on age, sex, education, and APOE?4. In eight prospective cohorts included in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), we derived weighted sum of risk alleles from the 19 top SNPs reported by the IGAP GWAS in participants aged 65 and older without prevalent dementia. Hazard ratios (HR) of incident AD were estimated in Cox models. Improvement in risk prediction was measured by the difference in C-index (?-C), the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI>0). Overall, 19,687 participants at risk were included, of whom 2,782 developed AD. The GRS was associated with a 17% increase in AD risk (pooled HR?=?1.17; 95% CI?= ? [1.13-1.21] per standard deviation increase in GRS; p-value?= ?2.86×10-16). This association was stronger among persons with at least one APOE?4 allele (HRGRS?=?1.24; 95% CI?= ? [1.15-1.34]) than in others (HRGRS?=?1.13; 95% CI?= ? [1.08-1.18]; pinteraction?=?3.45×10-2). Risk prediction after seven years of follow-up showed a small improvement when adding the GRS to age, sex, APOE?4, and education (?-Cindex?= ?0.0043 [0.0019-0.0067]). Similar patterns were observed for IDI and NRI>0. In conclusion, a risk score incorporating common genetic variation outside the APOE?4 locus improved AD risk prediction and may facilitate risk stratification for prevention trials.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4> Until now, observational studies have explored the impact of vitamin C intake on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk, however, reported ambiguous findings. To develop effective therapies or prevention, the causal link between vitamin C levels and AD should be established. <h4>Methods</h4> Here, we selected 11 plasma vitamin C genetic variants from a large-scale plasma vitamin C GWAS dataset (N = 52,018) as the potential instrumental variables. We extracted their corresponding summary statistics from large-scale IGAP clinically diagnosed AD GWAS dataset (N = 63,926) and UK Biobank AD proxy phenotype GWAS dataset (N = 314,278), as well as two UK Biobank subgroups including the maternal AD group (27,696 cases of maternal AD and 260,980 controls) and paternal AD group (14,338 cases of paternal AD and 245,941 controls). We then performed a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to evaluate the causal association between plasma vitamin C levels and the risk of AD and AD proxy phenotype. Meanwhile, we further verified these findings using a large-scale cognitive performance GWAS dataset (N = 257,841). <h4>Results</h4> In IGAP, we found no significant causal association between plasma vitamin C levels and the risk of AD. In UK Biobank, we found that per 1 SD increase in plasma vitamin C levels (about 20.2 μmol/l) was significantly associated with the reduced risk of AD proxy phenotype (OR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98, P = 7.00E−03). A subgroup MR analysis in UK Biobank indicated that per 1 SD increase in plasma vitamin C levels could significantly reduce the risk of AD proxy phenotype in the maternal AD group (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.84–0.94, P = 7.29E−05), but not in the paternal AD group (OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.92–1.12, P = 7.59E−01). The leave-one-out permutation further showed that the SLC23A1 rs33972313 variant largely changed the precision of the overall MR estimates in all these four GWAS datasets. Meanwhile, we did not observe any significant causal effect of plasma vitamin C levels on the cognitive performance. <h4>Conclusion</h4> We demonstrated that there may be no causal association between plasma vitamin C levels and the risk of AD in people of European descent. The insistent findings in clinically diagnosed AD and AD proxy phenotype may be caused by the phenotypic heterogeneity. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12263-021-00700-9.
Project description:Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both common in older age and frequently co-occur. Numerous phenotypic studies based on clinical diagnoses suggest that a history of depression increases risk of subsequent AD, although the basis of this relationship is uncertain. Both illnesses are polygenic, and shared genetic risk factors could explain some of the observed association. We used genotype data to test whether MDD and AD have an overlapping polygenic architecture in two large population-based cohorts, Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS; N=19?889) and UK Biobank (N=25?118), and whether age of depression onset influences any relationship. Using two complementary techniques, we found no evidence that the disorders are influenced by common genetic variants. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression with genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project, we report no significant genetic correlation between AD and MDD (r<sub>G</sub>=-0.103, P=0.59). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) generated using summary data from International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were used to assess potential pleiotropy between the disorders. PRS for MDD were nominally associated with participant-recalled AD family history in GS:SFHS, although this association did not survive multiple comparison testing. AD PRS were not associated with depression status or late-onset depression, and a survival analysis showed no association between age of depression onset and genetic risk for AD. This study found no evidence to support a common polygenic structure for AD and MDD, suggesting that the comorbidity of these disorders is not explained by common genetic variants.