Identifying Chloris Species from Cuban Citrus Orchards and Determining Their Glyphosate-Resistance Status.
ABSTRACT: The Chloris genus is a C4 photosynthetic species mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Populations of three Chloris species occurring in citrus orchards from central Cuba, under long history glyphosate-based weed management, were studied for glyphosate-resistant status by characterizing their herbicide resistance/tolerance mechanisms. Morphological and molecular analyses allowed these species to be identified as C. ciliata Sw., Chloris elata Desv., and Chloris barbata Sw. Based on the glyphosate rate that causes 50% mortality of the treated plants, glyphosate resistance (R) was confirmed only in C. elata, The R population was 6.1-fold more resistant compared to the susceptible (S) population. In addition, R plants of C. elata accumulated 4.6-fold less shikimate after glyphosate application than S plants. Meanwhile, populations of C. barbata and C. ciliata with or without glyphosate application histories showed similar LD50 values and shikimic acid accumulation rates, demonstrating that resistance to glyphosate have not evolved in these species. Plants of R and S populations of C. elata differed in 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation. The R population exhibited 27.3-fold greater 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity than the S population due to a target site mutation corresponding to a Pro-106-Ser substitution found in the EPSPS gene. These reports show the innate tolerance to glyphosate of C. barbata and C. ciliata, and confirm the resistance of C. elata to this herbicide, showing that both non-target site and target-site mechanisms are involved in its resistance to glyphosate. This is the first case of herbicide resistance in Cuba.
Project description:The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the aromatic amino acid (AAA) biosynthetic pathway, also known as the shikimate pathway. Amaranthus palmeri is a fast-growing weed, and several populations have evolved resistance to glyphosate through increased EPSPS gene copy number. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the regulation of the shikimate pathway and determine whether the regulatory mechanisms of glyphosate-sensitive and glyphosate-resistant plants were different. Leaf disks of sensitive and resistant (due to EPSPS gene amplification) A. palmeri plants were incubated for 24 h with glyphosate, AAA, glyphosate + AAA, or several intermediates of the pathway: shikimate, quinate, chorismate and anthranilate. In the sensitive population, glyphosate induced shikimate accumulation and induced the gene expression of the shikimate pathway. While AAA alone did not elicit any change, AAA applied with glyphosate abolished the effects of the herbicide on gene expression. It was not possible to fully mimic the effect of glyphosate by incubation with any of the intermediates, but shikimate was the intermediate that induced the highest increase (three-fold) in the expression level of the genes of the shikimate pathway of the sensitive population. These results suggest that, in this population, the lack of end products (AAA) of the shikimate pathway and shikimate accumulation would be the signals inducing gene expression in the AAA pathway after glyphosate application. In general, the effects on gene expression detected after the application of the intermediates were more severe in the sensitive population than in the resistant population. These results suggest that when EPSPS is overexpressed, as in the resistant population, the regulatory mechanisms of the AAA pathway are disrupted or buffered. The mechanisms underlying this behavior remain to be elucidated.
Project description:Glyphosate quashes the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme which intercedes the functioning of shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids. Herbicide resistant crops are developed using glyphosate insensitive <i>EPSPS</i> gene isolated from <i>Agrobacterium</i> sp. strain CP4, which give farmers a sustainable weed control option. Intentions behind this study were to design and characterize the synthetic herbicide resistant <i>CP4</i>-<i>EPSPS</i> gene in a model plant system and check the effectiveness of transformed tobacco against application of glyphosate. Putative transgenic plants were obtained from independent transformation events, and stable plant transformation, transgene expression and integration were demonstrated respectively by PCR, qRT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Gene transcript level and gene copy number (1-4) varied among the tested transgenic tobacco lines. Herbicide assays showed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate after 12 days of spraying with glyphosate, and EPSPS activity remained at sufficient level to withstand the spray at 1000 ppm of the chemical. T<sub>1</sub> plants analyzed through immunoblot strips and PCR showed that the gene was being translated into protein and transmitted to the next generation successfully. This codon optimized synthetic <i>CP4</i>-<i>EPSPS</i> gene is functionally equivalent to the gene for glyphosate resistance available in the commercial crops and hence we recommend this gene for transformation into commercial crops.
Project description:The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 18.104.22.168) is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards. A novel gene encoding EPSPS was identified from the isolated bacterium by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The EPSPS, named AroA(R. aquatilis), was expressed and purified from E. coli, and key kinetic values were determined. The full-length enzyme exhibited higher tolerance to glyphosate than the E. coli EPSPS (AroA(E. coli)), while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Transgenic plants of AroA(R. aquatilis) were also observed to be more resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 5 mM than that of AroA(E. coli). To probe the sites contributing to increased tolerance to glyphosate, mutant R. aquatilis EPSPS enzymes were produced with the c-strand of subdomain 3 and the f-strand of subdomain 5 (Thr38Lys, Arg40Val, Arg222Gln, Ser224Val, Ile225Val, and Gln226Lys) substituted by the corresponding region of the E. coli EPSPS. The mutant enzyme exhibited greater sensitivity to glyphosate than the wild type R. aquatilis EPSPS with little change of affinity for its first substrate, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The effect of the residues on subdomain 5 on glyphosate resistance was more obvious.
Project description:Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)-encoding aroA gene in the shikimate pathway. The discovery and cloning of the aroA gene with high resistance is central to breeding a transgenic glyphosate-resistant plant. A novel aroAPantoea gene from Pantoea G-1 was previously isolated and cloned. The aroA Pantoea enzyme was defined as a new class I EPSPS with glyphosate resistance. The aroA Pantoea gene was introduced into tobacco through Agrobacteriummediated transformation. The transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern blot. The analysis of glyphosate resistance also showed that the transgenic tobacco plants could survive at 15 mM glyphosate; the glyphosate resistance level of the transgenic plants is higher than the agricultural application level recommended by most manufacturers. Overall, this study shows that aroAPantoea can be used as a candidate gene for the development of genetically modified crops.
Project description:S. cerevisiae from different environments are subject to a wide range of selective pressures, whether intentional or by happenstance. Chemicals classified by their application, such as herbicides, fungicides and antibiotics, can affect non-target organisms. First marketed as RoundUp™, glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide. In plants, glyphosate inhibits EPSPS, of the shikimate pathway, which is present in many organisms but lacking in mammals. The shikimate pathway produces chorismate which is the precursor to all the aromatic amino acids, para-aminobenzoic acid, and Coenzyme Q10. Crops engineered to be resistant to glyphosate contain a homolog of EPSPS that is not bound by glyphosate. Here, we show that S. cerevisiae has a wide-range of glyphosate resistance. Sequence comparison between the target proteins, i.e., the plant EPSPS and the yeast orthologous protein Aro1, predicted that yeast would be resistant to glyphosate. However, the growth variation seen in the subset of yeast tested was not due to polymorphisms within Aro1, instead, it was caused by genetic variation in an ABC multiple drug transporter, Pdr5, and an amino acid permease, Dip5. Using genetic variation as a probe into glyphosate response, we uncovered mechanisms that contribute to the transportation of glyphosate in and out of the cell. Taking advantage of the natural genetic variation within yeast and measuring growth under different conditions that would change the use of the shikimate pathway, we uncovered a general transport mechanism of glyphosate into eukaryotic cells.
Project description:Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ? Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 < Do-R4), medium-resistance accessions (Do-R3 < Cu-R2 < Do-R2) and high-resistance accessions (Do-R1 < Cu-R1). In addition, the resistance factor levels were similar to those found in the shikimic acid accumulation at 1000 ?M of glyphosate (Cu-R1 ? Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 >> Cu-S ? Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (<9.32%) was degraded in both susceptible accessions at 96 h after treatment. There were significant differences between P. hysterophorus accessions in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with and without different glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 ?mol ?g-1 TSP protein min-1 basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025) accessions. The same trend was found in the EPSPS enzyme activity treated with glyphosate, where a higher enzyme activity inhibition (glyphosate ?M) corresponded to greater resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to serine change in Cu-R1, Do-R1 Do-R2. The above-mentioned results indicate that high resistance values are determined by the number of defense mechanisms (target-site and non-target-site resistance) possessed by the different P. hysterophorus accessions, concurrently.
Project description:Glyphosate is a widely applied broad-spectrum systemic herbicide that inhibits competitively the penultimate enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) from the shikimate pathway, thereby causing deleterious effects. A glyphosate-resistant Arabidopsis mutant (gre1) was isolated and genetic analyses indicated that a dysfunctional red (R) and far-red (FR) light receptor, phytochrome B (phyB), caused this phenotype. This finding is consistent with increased glyphosate sensitivity and glyphosate-induced shikimate accumulation in low R:FR light, and the induction of genes encoding enzymes of the shikimate pathway in high R:FR light. Expression of the shikimate pathway genes exhibited diurnal oscillation and this oscillation was altered in the phyB mutant. Furthermore, transcript analysis suggested that this diurnal oscillation was not only dependent on phyB but was also due to circadian regulatory mechanisms. Our data offer an explanation of the well documented observation that glyphosate treatment at various times throughout the day, with their specific composition of light quality and intensity, results in different efficiencies of the herbicide.
Project description:Glyphosate has been used for more than 15 years for weed management in citrus groves in the Gulf of Mexico, at up to 3-4 applications per year. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) control has sometimes failed. In this research, the mechanisms governing three goosegrass biotypes (Ein-Or from an orange grove, and Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 from Persian lime groves) with suspected resistance to glyphosate were characterized and compared to a susceptible biotype (Ein-S). Dose-response and shikimate accumulation assays confirmed resistance of the resistant (R) biotypes. There were no differences in glyphosate absorption, but the R biotypes retained up to 62-78% of the herbicide in the treated leaf at 96?h after treatment (HAT), in comparison to the Ein-S biotype (36%). The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity in the Ein-Or and Ein-S biotypes was over 100-fold lower than the Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 ones. The latter showed a high EPSPS-basal activity, a mutation at Pro-106-Ser position in the EPSPS gene, and EPSPS overexpression. The EPSPS basal and EPSPS overexpression were positively correlated. The R goosegrass biotypes displayed poor glyphosate translocation. Furthermore, this grassweed showed, for the first time, two mechanisms at the target-site level (Pro-106-Ser mutation?+?EPSPS overexpression) acting together simultaneously against glyphosate.
Project description:The shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the target of the broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate. The genetic engineering of EPSPS led to the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops worldwide. The genetically engineered corn lines NK603 and GA21 carry distinct EPSPS enzymes. CP4 EPSPS, expressed in NK603 corn and transgenic soybean, cotton, and canola, belongs to class II EPSPS, glyphosate-insensitive variants of this enzyme isolated from certain Gram-positive bacteria. GA21 corn, on the other hand, was created by point mutations of class I EPSPS, such as the enzymes from Zea mays or Escherichia coli, which are sensitive to low glyphosate concentrations. The structural basis of the glyphosate resistance resulting from these point mutations has remained obscure. We studied the kinetic and structural effects of the T97I/P101S double mutation, the molecular basis for GA21 corn, using EPSPS from E. coli. The T97I/P101S enzyme is essentially insensitive to glyphosate (K(i) = 2.4 mm) but maintains high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) (K(m) = 0.1 mm). The crystal structure at 1.7-A resolution revealed that the dual mutation causes a shift of residue Gly(96) toward the glyphosate binding site, impairing efficient binding of glyphosate, while the side chain of Ile(97) points away from the substrate binding site, facilitating PEP utilization. The single site T97I mutation renders the enzyme sensitive to glyphosate and causes a substantial decrease in the affinity for PEP. Thus, only the concomitant mutations of Thr(97) and Pro(101) induce the conformational changes necessary to produce catalytically efficient, glyphosate-resistant class I EPSPS.
Project description:Weeds burden plant growth as they compete for space, sunlight, and soil nutrients leading to 25-80% yield losses. Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a widely used broad spectrum non-selective herbicide that controls weeds by inhibiting 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme and interfering with the shikimate biosynthesis pathway. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the most important commercial crops grown worldwide for its fiber. We have developed herbicide tolerant transgenic cotton (cv. P8-6) by introgression of a codon-optimized and modified EPSPS gene (CP4-EPSPS) possessing an N-terminal chloroplast targeting peptide from Petunia hybrida. Because of the recalcitrant nature of cotton, a genotype-independent non-tissue culture-based apical meristem-targeted in planta transformation approach was used to develop transformants. Although in planta transformation methodologies are advantageous in developing a large number of transgenic plants, effective screening strategies are essential for initial identification of transformants. In the present study, the use of a two-level rigorous screening strategy identified 2.27% of T1 generation plants as tolerant to 800 and 1,500 mg/L of commercially available glyphosate (Roundup). Precise molecular characterization revealed stable integration, expression, and inheritance of CP4-EPSPS in advanced generations of the promising transgenic events. Further, superiority of selected transgenic plants in tolerating increasing levels of glyphosate (500-4,000 mg/L) was ascertained through reduced accumulation of shikimate. This report is the first of its kind where cotton transformants tolerating high levels of glyphosate (up to 4,000 mg/L) and accumulating low levels of shikimate have been identified. This study not only reiterated the genotype-independent nature of the transformation strategy but also reiterated the translational utility of the CP4-EPSPS gene in management of weeds.