Data on partial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes (phaC) mined from Aaptos aaptos marine sponge-associated bacteria metagenome.
ABSTRACT: We report data associated with the identification of three polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase genes (phaC) isolated from the marine bacteria metagenome of Aaptos aaptos marine sponge in the waters of Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Our data describe the extraction of bacterial metagenome from sponge tissue, measurement of purity and concentration of extracted metagenome, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated amplification using degenerate primers targeting Class I and II phaC genes, sequencing at First BASE Laboratories Sdn Bhd, and phylogenetic analysis of identified and known phaC genes. The partial nucleotide sequences were aligned, refined, compared with the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) databases, and released online in GenBank. The data include the identified partial putative phaC and their GenBank accession numbers, which are Rhodocista sp. phaC (MF457754), Pseudomonas sp. phaC (MF437016), and an uncultured bacterium AR5-9d_16 phaC (MF457753).
Project description:The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene from Chromobacterium violaceum (phaC(Cv)) was cloned and characterized. A 6.3-kb BamHI fragment was found to contain both phaC(Cv) and the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-specific 3-ketothiolase (phaA(Cv)). Escherichia coli strains harboring this fragment produced significant levels of PHA synthase and 3-ketothiolase, as judged by their activities. While C. violaceum accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when grown on a fatty acid carbon source, Klebsiella aerogenes and Ralstonia eutropha (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus), harboring phaC(Cv), accumulated the above-mentioned polymers and, additionally, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) when even-chain-length fatty acids were utilized as the carbon source. This finding suggests that the metabolic environments of these organisms are sufficiently different to alter the product range of the C. violaceum PHA synthase. Neither recombinant E. coli nor recombinant Pseudomonas putida harboring phaC(Cv) accumulated significant levels of PHA. Sequence analysis of the phaC(Cv) product shows homology with several PHA synthases, most notably a 48% identity with that of Alcaligenes latus (GenBank accession no. AAD10274).
Project description:The thermophile Cupriavidus sp. strain S-6 accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from glucose at 50°C. A 9.0-kbp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genomic DNA of Cupriavidus sp. S-6 enabled Escherichia coli XL1-Blue to synthesize PHB at 45°C. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed a pha locus in the clone. The thermophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (PhaC(Csp)) shared 81% identity with mesophilic PhaC of Cupriavidus necator H16. The diversity between these two strains was found dominantly on their N and C termini, while the middle regions were highly homologous (92% identity). We constructed four chimeras of mesophilic and thermophilic phaC genes to explore the mutations related to its thermostability. Among the chimeras, only PhaC(H16?), which was PhaC(H16) bearing 30 point mutations derived from the middle region of PhaC(Csp), accumulated a high content of PHB (65% [dry weight]) at 45°C. The chimera phaC(H16)(?) and two parental PHA synthase genes were overexpressed in E. coli BLR(DE3) cells and purified. At 30°C, the specific activity of the chimera PhaC(H16?) (172 ± 17.8 U/mg) was 3.45-fold higher than that of the parental enzyme PhaC(H16) (50 ± 5.2 U/mg). At 45°C, the half-life of the chimera PhaC(H16?) (11.2 h) was 127-fold longer than that of PhaC(H16) (5.3 min). Furthermore, the chimera PhaC(H16?) accumulated 1.55-fold (59% [dry weight]) more PHA content than the parental enzyme PhaC(H16) (38% [dry weight]) at 37°C. This study reveals a limited number of point mutations which enhance not only thermostability but also PhaC(H16) activity. The highly thermostable and active PHA synthase will provide advantages for its promising applications to in vitro PHA synthesis and recombinant E. coli PHA fermentation.
Project description:Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising candidate for use as an alternative bioplastic to replace petroleum-based plastics. Our understanding of PHA synthase PhaC is poor due to the paucity of available three-dimensional structural information. Here we present a high-resolution crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PhaC from Chromobacterium sp. USM2, PhaC Cs -CAT. The structure shows that PhaC Cs -CAT forms an ?/? hydrolase fold comprising ?/? core and CAP subdomains. The active site containing Cys291, Asp447 and His477 is located at the bottom of the cavity, which is filled with water molecules and is covered by the partly disordered CAP subdomain. We designated our structure as the closed form, which is distinct from the recently reported catalytic domain from Cupriavidus necator (PhaC Cn -CAT). Structural comparison showed PhaC Cn -CAT adopting a partially open form maintaining a narrow substrate access channel to the active site, but no product egress. PhaC Cs -CAT forms a face-to-face dimer mediated by the CAP subdomains. This arrangement of the dimer is also distinct from that of the PhaC Cn -CAT dimer. These findings suggest that the CAP subdomain should undergo a conformational change during catalytic activity that involves rearrangement of the dimer to facilitate substrate entry and product formation and egress from the active site.
Project description:Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are a class of polyesters stored in inclusion bodies and found in many bacteria and in some archaea. The terminal step in the synthesis of PHA is catalyzed by PHA synthase. Genes encoding this enzyme have been cloned, and the primary sequence of the protein, PhaC, is deduced from the nucleotide sequences of more than 30 organisms. PHA synthases are grouped into three classes based on substrate range, molecular mass, and whether or not there is a requirement for phaE in addition to the phaC gene product. Here we report the results of an analysis of a PHA synthase that does not fit any of the described classes. This novel PHA synthase from Bacillus megaterium required PhaC (PhaC(Bm)) and PhaR (PhaR(Bm)) for activity in vivo and in vitro. PhaC(Bm) showed greatest similarity to the PhaCs of class III in both size and sequence. Unlike those in class III, the 40-kDa PhaE was not required, and furthermore, the 22-kDa PhaR(Bm) had no obvious homology to PhaE. Previously we showed that PhaC(Bm), and here we show that PhaR(Bm), is localized to inclusion bodies in living cells. We show that two forms of PHA synthase exist, an active form in PHA-accumulating cells and an inactive form in nonaccumulating cells. PhaC was constitutively produced in both cell types but was more susceptible to protease degradation in the latter type. Our data show that the role of PhaR is posttranscriptional and that it functions directly or indirectly with PhaC(Bm) to produce an active PHA synthase.
Project description:Biodegradable polyester polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a promising bioplastic material for industrial use as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics. PHA synthase PhaC forms an active dimer to polymerize acyl moieties from the substrate acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into PHA polymers. Here we present the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of PhaC from Chromobacterium sp. USM2, bound to CoA. The structure reveals an asymmetric dimer, in which one protomer adopts an open conformation bound to CoA, whereas the other adopts a closed conformation in a CoA-free form. The open conformation is stabilized by the asymmetric dimerization and enables PhaC to accommodate CoA and also to create the product egress path. The bound CoA molecule has its ?-mercaptoethanolamine moiety extended into the active site with the terminal SH group close to active center Cys291, enabling formation of the reaction intermediate by acylation of Cys291.
Project description:PHA synthases (PhaC) are grouped into four classes based on the kinetics and mechanisms of reaction. The grouping of PhaC enzymes into four classes is dependent on substrate specificity, according to the preference in forming short-chain-length (scl) or medium-chain-length (mcl) polymers: Class I, Class III and Class IV produce scl-PHAs depending on propionate, butyrate, valerate and hexanoate precursors, while Class II PhaC synthesize mcl-PHAs based on the alkane (C6 to C14) precursors. PHA synthases of Class I, in particular PhaCCs from Chromobacterium USM2 and PhaCCn/RePhaC1 from Cupriavidus necator/Ralstonia eutropha, have been analysed and the crystal structures of the C-domains have been determined. PhaCCn/RePhaC1 was also studied by X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) analysis. Models have been proposed for dimerization, catalysis mechanism, substrate recognition and affinity, product formation, and product egress route. The assays based on amino acid substitution by mutagenesis have been useful to validate the hypothesis on the role of amino acids in catalysis and in accommodation of bulky substrates, and for the synthesis of PHB copolymers and medium-chain-length PHA polymers with optimized chemical properties.
Project description:Sponge symbionts are a largely unexplored source of new and unusual metabolic pathways. Insights into the distribution and function of metabolic genes of sponge symbionts are crucial to dissect and exploit their biotechnological potential. Screening of the metagenome of the marine sponge Plakortis simplex led to the discovery of the swf family, a new group of mono-modular type I polyketide synthase/fatty acid synthase (PKS/FAS) specifically associated with sponge symbionts. Two different examples of the swf cluster were present in the metagenome of P.?simplex. A third example of the cluster is present in the previously sequenced genome of a poribacterium from the sponge Aplysina aerophoba but was formerly considered orthologous to the wcb/rkp cluster. The swf cluster was also found in six additional species of sponges. Therefore, the swf cluster represents the second group of mono-modular PKS, after the supA family, to be widespread in marine sponges. The putative swf operon consists of swfA (type I PKS/FAS), swfB (reductase and sulphotransferase domains) and swfC (radical S-adenosylmethionine, or radical SAM). Activation of the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of the SwfA protein to its holo-form by co-expression with Svp is the first functional proof of swf type genes in marine sponges. However, the precise biosynthetic role of the swf clusters remains unknown.
Project description:The formation and localization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in Ralstonia eutropha are controlled by PhaM, which interacts both with the PHB synthase (PhaC) and with the bacterial nucleoid. Here, we studied the importance of proline and lysine residues of two C-terminal PAKKA motifs in PhaM for their importance in attaching PHB granules to DNA by in vitro and in vivo methods. Substitution of the lysine residues but not of the proline residues resulted in detachment of formed PHB granules from the nucleoid. Instead, formation of PHB granule clusters at polar regions of the rod-shaped cells and an unequal distribution of PHB granules to daughter cells were observed. The formation of PHB granules was studied by the expression of chromosomally anchored gene fusions of fluorescent proteins with PhaM and PhaC in different backgrounds. PhaM and PhaC fusions showed a distinct colocalization at formed PHB granules in the nucleoid region of the wild type. In a ?phaC background, PhaM and the catalytically inactive PhaCC319A protein were not able to form fluorescent foci, indicating that correct positioning requires the formation of PHB. Furthermore, time-lapse experiments revealed that PhaC and PhaM proteins detach from formed PHB granules at later stages, resulting in a nonhomogeneous population of PHB granules. This could explain why growth of individual PHB granules stops under PHB-permissive conditions at a certain size.IMPORTANCE PHB granules are storage compounds for carbon and energy in many prokaryotes. Equal distribution of accumulated PHB granules during cell division is therefore important for optimal fitness of the daughter cells. In R. eutropha, PhaM is responsible for maximal activity of PHB synthase, for initiation of PHB granule formation at discrete regions in the cells, and for association of formed PHB granules with the nucleoid. Here we found that four lysine residues of C-terminal PhaM sequence motifs are essential for association of PHB granules with the nucleoid. Furthermore, we followed PHB granule formation by time-lapse microscopy and provide evidence for aging of PHB granules that is manifested by detachment of previously PHB granule-associated PhaM and PHB synthase.
Project description:Sponges establish tight associations with both micro- and macroorganisms. However, while studies on sponge microbiomes are numerous, nothing is currently known about the microbiomes of sponge-associated polychaetes and their relationships with those of their host sponges. We analyzed the bacterial communities of symbiotic polychaetes (Haplosyllis spp.) and their host sponges (Clathria reinwardti, Amphimedon paraviridis, Neofibularia hartmani, and Aaptos suberitoides) to assess the influence of the sponges on the polychaete microbiomes. We identified both eukaryote partners by molecular (16S and COI genes) and morphological features, and we identified their microbial communities by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V4 region). We unravel the existence of six Haplosyllis species (five likely undescribed) associated at very high densities with the study sponge species in Nha Trang Bay (central Vietnam). A single polychaete species inhabited A. paraviridis and was different from the single species that inhabited A. suberitoides Conversely, two different polychaete species were found in C. reinwardti and N. hartmani, depending on the two host locations. Regardless of the host sponge, polychaete microbiomes were species specific, which is a widespread feature in marine invertebrates. More than half of the polychaete bacteria were also found in the host sponge microbiome but at contrasting abundances. Thus, the associated polychaetes seemed to be able to select, incorporate, and enrich part of the sponge microbiome, a selection that appears to be polychaete species specific. Moreover, the bacterial diversity is similar in both eukaryotic partners, which additionally confirms the influence of food (host sponge) on the structure of the polychaete microbiome.IMPORTANCE The symbiotic lifestyle represents a fundamental cryptic contribution to the diversity of marine ecosystems. Sponges are ideal targets to improve understanding the symbiotic relationships from evolutionary and ecological points of view, because they are the most ancient metazoans on earth, are ubiquitous in the marine benthos, and establish complex symbiosis with both prokaryotes and animals, which in turn also harbor their own bacterial communities. Here, we study the microbiomes of sponge-polychaete associations and confirm that polychaetes feed on their host sponges. The study worms select and enrich part of the sponge microbiome to shape their own species-specific bacterial communities. Moreover, worm microbiome diversity runs parallel to that of its food host sponge. Considering our results on symbiotic polychaetes and previous studies on fishes and mammals, diet appears to be an important source of bacteria for animals to shape their species-specific microbiomes.
Project description:Five new alkaloids of aaptamine family, compounds (1-5) and three known derivatives (6-8), have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, as well as by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1-2 are characterized with triazapyrene lactam skeleton, whereas compounds 4-5 share an imidazole-fused aaptamine moiety. These compounds were evaluated in antifungal and anti-HIV-1 assays. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed antifungal activity against six fungi, with MIC values in the range of 4 to 64 ?g/mL. Compounds 7-8 exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity, with inhibitory rates of 88.0% and 72.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 ?M.