A Laser-Activated Biocompatible Theranostic Nanoagent for Targeted Multimodal Imaging and Photothermal Therapy.
ABSTRACT: Multifunctional nanoparticles have been reported for cancer detection and treatment currently. However, the accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment for tumors are still not satisfied. Here we report on the development of targeted phase change multimodal polymeric nanoparticles for the imaging and treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.We evaluated the multimodal imaging capabilities of the prepared nanoparticles in vitro using agar-based phantoms. The targeting performance and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles were examined in cell culture using SKBR3 (over-expressing HER2) and MDA-MB-231 (HER2 negative) cells. We then tested the magnetic resonance (MR)/ photoacoustic (PA)/ ultrasound (US)/ near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) multimodal imaging properties and photothermal effect of the nanoparticles in vivo using a SKBR3 breast xenograft model in nude mice. Tissue histopathology and immunofluorescence were also conducted.Both in vitro and in vivo systematical studies validated that the hybrid nanoparticles can be used as a superb MR/US/PA/NIRF contrast agent to simultaneously diagnose and guide tumor photothermal therapy (PTT). When irradiated by a near infrared laser, the liquid PFP vaporizes to a gas, rapidly expelling the contents and damaging surrounding tissues. The resulting micro-sized bubbles provide treatment validation through ultrasound imaging. Localization of DIR and SPIO in the tumor region facilitate photothermal therapy for targeted tumor destruction. The mice treated with HER2 targeted nanoparticles had a nearly complete response to treatment, while the controls showed continued tumor growth.This novel theranostic agent may provide better diagnostic imaging and therapeutic potential than current methods for treating HER2-positive breast cancer.
Project description:Targeted theranostic platform that integrates multi-modal imaging and therapeutic function is emerging as a promising strategy for earlier detection and precise treatment of cancer. Herein, we designed targeted gold-nanoshelled poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) magnetic hybrid nanoparticles carrying anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) antibodies (Her2-GPH NPs) for dual-modal ultrasound (US)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and photothermal therapy of breast cancer. The agent was fabricated by coating gold nanoshell around PLGA nanoparticles co-loaded with perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), followed by conjugating with anti-Her2 antibodies. Cell-targeting studies demonstrated receptor-mediated specific binding of the agent to Her2-positive human breast cancer SKBR3 cells, and its binding rate was significantly higher than that of Her2-negative cells (P < 0.001). In vitro, the agent had capabilities for contrast-enhanced US imaging as well as T2-weighted MR imaging with a relatively high relaxivity (r2 = 441.47 mM-1 s-1). Furthermore, the Her2 functionalization of the agent prominently enhanced the US/MR molecular imaging effect of targeted cells by cell-specific binding. Live/dead cell assay and targeted photothermal cytotoxicity experiments confirmed that Her2-GPH NPs could serve as effective photoabsorbers to specifically induce SKBR3 cell death upon near-infrared laser irradiation. In summary, Her2-GPH NPs were demonstrated to be novel targeted theranostic agents with great potential to facilitate early non-invasive diagnosis and adjuvant therapy of breast cancer.
Project description:It is highly desirable to develop theranostic nanoparticles for achieving cancer imaging with enhanced contrast and simultaneously multimodal synergistic therapy. Herein, we report a theranostic micelle system hierarchically assembling cyanine dye (indocyanine green) and chemotherapeutic compound (doxorubicin) (I/D-Micelles) as a novel theranostic platform with high drug loading, good stability and enhanced cellular uptake via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. I/D-Micelles exhibit the multiple functionalities including near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), hyperthermia and intracellular singlet oxygen from indocyanine green, and simultaneous cytotoxicity from doxorubicin. Upon photoirradiation, I/D-Micelles can induce NIRF imaging, acute photothermal therapy via hyperthermia and simultaneous synergistic chemotherapy via singlet oxygen-triggered disruption of lysosomal membranes, eventually leading to enhanced NIRF imaging and superior tumor eradication without any re-growth. Our results suggest that the hierarchical micelles can act as a superior theranostic platform for cancer imaging and multimodal synergistic therapy.
Project description:Background:Multimodal contrast agents with low toxicity and targeted modification have opened up new possibilities for specific imaging of breast cancer and shown broad application prospects in biomedicine and great potential for clinical transformation. In this work, a potential multifunctional imaging agent was developed by doping Fe into hollow silica nanoparticles (HS-Fe NPs), followed by modification with specific anti-HER2 antibodies, enabling the NPs to have dual-mode ultrasound (US)-magnetic resonance (MR)-specific imaging capacity with low toxicity. Methods:Anti-HER2 antibodies were conjugated to silane-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-COOH-modified HS-Fe (HS-Fe-PEG) NPs to produce HER2-targeted HS-Fe-PEG (HS-Fe-PEG-HER2) NPs. The toxicity of HS-Fe-PEG-HER2 NPs on targeted cells in vitro and blood and organ tissue of mice in vivo was investigated. Distribution in vivo was also studied. Confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the targeting ability of HS-Fe-PEG-HER2 NPs in vitro. US and MR instruments were used for imaging both in vivo and in vitro. Results:The obtained HS-Fe-PEG-HER2 NPs (average diameter 234.42±48.76 nm) exhibited good physical properties and biosafety. In solution, they showed obvious enhancement of the US signal and negative contrast in T 2-weighted MR imaging. The binding rate of HS-Fe-PEG-HER2 NPs to targeted cells (SKBR3) was 78.97%±4.41% in vitro. US and MR imaging in vivo confirmed that the HS-Fe-PEG-HER2 NPs were delivered passively into the tumor region of SKBR3 and bound specifically to tumor cells. Target enhancement was better than untargeted and targeted competition groups. Conclusion:HS-Fe-PEG-HER2 NPs have potential as a low-cytotoxicity and dual-mode US-MR-specific imaging agent.
Project description:The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate an in vitro proof of principle that spectral photon-counting CT can measure gold-labelled specific antibodies targeted to specific cancer cells. A crossover study was performed with Raji lymphoma cancer cells and HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells using a MARS spectral CT scanner. Raji cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody-labelled gold, rituximab (specific antibody to Raji cells), and trastuzumab (as a control); HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody-labelled gold, trastuzumab (specific antibody to HER2-positive cancer cells), and rituximab (as a control). The calibration vials with multiple concentrations of nonfunctionalised gold nanoparticles were used to calibrate spectral CT. Spectral imaging results showed that the Raji cells-rituximab-gold and HER2-positive cells-trastuzumab-gold had a quantifiable amount of gold, 5.97?mg and 0.78?mg, respectively. In contrast, both cell lines incubated with control antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles had less gold attached (1.22?mg and 0.15?mg, respectively). These results demonstrate the proof of principle that spectral molecular CT imaging can identify and quantify specific monoclonal antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles taken up by Raji cells and HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells. The present study reports the future potential of spectral molecular imaging in detecting tumour heterogeneity so that treatment can be tuned accordingly, leading to more effective personalised medicine.
Project description:We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photoirradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application.
Project description:Conventional X-ray mammography has low diagnostic sensitivity for women with dense breasts. As a result, alternative contrast-enhanced screening tools such as dual energy mammography (DEM), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging are being used or investigated for these women. However, currently available contrast agents are non-ideal, have safety issues, and each imaging technique requires a different contrast agent. We therefore sought to develop a multimodal contrast agent that is functional for each breast imaging modality to simplify the diagnosis process and address the issues of existing contrast agents. Herein, we present a novel "all-in-one" nanoparticle (AION) multimodal imaging probe that has potent DEM, CT, MRI, and NIRF contrast properties and improved biocompatibility. AION were formed by co-encapsulation of a near-infrared fluorophore (DiR), silver sulfide nanoparticles (Ag2S-NP), and iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NP) in PEGylated micelles. AION showed negligible cytotoxicity, which was in agreement with its minimal silver ion release profiles. AION generated strong contrast with all imaging modalities as demonstrated in phantom imaging. AION allowed in vivo tumor imaging as evidenced by the increase in contrast after injection. This study indicates the potential of AION as an effective multimodal contrast agent for breast cancer diagnosis with a range of imaging methods.
Project description:Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modality holds great promise for tumor detection and offers several advantages of bioimaging, such as high tissue penetration with less background scattering. The disadvantage of NIRF bioimaging is that it has very low spatial resolution. Thus, the combination of NIRF with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a good option because MRI can provide anatomical information with a higher resolution. Heptamethine cyanine dye (MHI-148) has been reported to have tumor-targeting capability which was used here as the NIRF agent. DSPE-SPION nanoparticles were synthesized by the solvent hydration method and conjugated with MHI-148 dye to form a MRI/NIRF dual imaging probe. The size and charge of the MHI-DSPE-SPION were found to be about 84?±?6?nm and 3.7?mV by DLS & Zeta Potential analysis. In vivo MRI of the SCC7 tumor showed an enhanced accumulation of MHI-DSPE-SPION, peaking at day 1, compared to 4 hrs with the control DSPE-SPION. An in vivo photothermal tumor reduction study was done on the SCC7 tumor of BALB/c nude mice. Tumor reduction study showed complete tumor removal after 8 days. In conclusion, MHI-DSPE-SPION can be used as a cancer theranostics material because it provides MRI-optical imaging capabilities and the photothermal therapy (PTT) effect.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancers are challenging practice in oncology when they become resistant to anti-HER2 therapies such as trastuzumab. In these clinical situations, HER2-overexpression persists in metastatic localizations, and can thus be used for active targeting using innovative therapeutic approaches. Functionalized gold nanoparticles with anti-HER2 antibody can be stimulated by near-infrared light to induce hyperthermia.<h4>Methods</h4>Here, hybrid anti-HER2 gold nanoshells were engineered for photothermal therapy to overcome trastuzumab resistance in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer xenografts.<h4>Results</h4>When gold nanoshells were administered in HER2-tumor xenografts, no toxicity was observed. A detailed pharmacokinetic study showed a time-dependent accumulation of gold nanoshells within the tumors, significantly greater with functionalized gold nanoshells at 72?h. This enabled us to optimize the treatment protocol and irradiate the mice when the anti-HER2 gold nanoshells had accumulated most in the tumors. After weekly injections of anti-HER2 gold nanoshells, and repeated irradiations with a femtosecond-pulsed laser over four weeks, tumor growth was significantly inhibited. Detailed tissue microscopic analyses showed that the tumor growth inhibition was due to an anti-angiogenic effect, coherent with a preferential distribution of the nanoshells in tumor microvessels. We also showed a direct tumor cell effect with apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, coherent with an immune-mediated targeting of tumor cells by anti-HER2 nanoshells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This preclinical study thus supports the use of anti-HER2 gold nanoshells and photothermal therapy to overcome trastuzumab resistance in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.
Project description:Current surgical treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) must be as precise as possible to fully resect tumors and preserve functional tissues. Thus, it is urgent to develop efficient fluorescent probes to clearly identify tumor delineation, as well as metastatic lymph nodes. Chemo-photothermal therapy combination attracted a growing attention to increase anti-tumor effect in various types of cancer, including OSCC. In the present study, we designed a multimodal NIR-II probe that involves combining photothermal therapy with chemotherapy, imaging OSCC tumors and detecting metastatic lymph nodes. <b>Methods</b>: In this study, we synthesized a novel near infrared (NIR)-II probe named TQTPA [4,4'-((6,7-bis(4-(hexyloxy)phenyl)-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo [3,4-g]quinoxaline-4,9-diyl)bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl))bis(N,N-diphenylaniline)] via the Suzuki reaction and prepared multimodal nanoparticles (NPs) loading TQTPA and <i>cis</i>-dichlorodiammine platinum (CDDP) (HT@CDDP) by hyaluronic acid. The characteristics of the NPs, including their photothermal and imaging capabilities were investigated <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. Their anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated using orthotopic, tongue tumor-bearing, nude mice. <b>Results</b>: The NPs possessed good stability and water solubility and were pH/hyaluronidase sensitive. The good tissue penetration quality and active targeting ability enabled the NPs to draw the outline of orthotopic tongue tumors and metastatic lymph nodes as small as 1 mm in nude mice by IR-808 under NIR exposure. <i>In vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> experiments validated the biocompatibility and low systematic toxicity of the NPs. At the same time, the NPs acted as multimodal therapy agents, combining photothermal therapy with chemotherapy. <b>Conclusion</b>: With a good imaging capability and anti-tumor efficacy, our NPs successfully outlined orthotopic tongue tumors and metastatic lymph nodes as well as enabled chemo-photothermal therapy combination. Our study established a solid foundation for the application of new clinical diagnosis and treatment patterns in the future.
Project description:Trastuzumab treatment has improved the overall survival of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients. However, many of these patients will eventually become resistant to treatment. The mechanisms that contribute to resistance to trastuzumab are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that targeting of the FKHR transcription factor FOXO1A in HER2-overexpressing breast tumor cells can overcome the trastuzumab resistance in vitro. We have shown that overexpression of HER2 leads to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and subsequent inactivation of FOXO1A in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells SKBR3, BT474, and MCF7-HER2. In wild-type SKBR3 and BT474 cells, trastuzumab downregulates active Akt and increases FOXO1A expression that leads to increase in p27(kip1) and decrease in cyclin D1 and finally inhibits cell proliferation. In contrast, the effect of trastuzumab was eliminated by the reduction of FOXO1A in HER2-overexpressing cells with constitutively active Akt1 (SKBR3/AA28 and BT474/AA9). The downregulation of FOXO1A resulted in nuclear export of p27(kip1). Blocking the constitutively active Akt by a specific Akt/protein kinase B signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2) significantly increased FOXO1A expression and rendered the cells more responsive to trastuzumab-induced growth inhibition. Reactivation of FOXO1A by stable or transient transfection also restored the growth-inhibitory effects of trastuzumab in SKBR3/AA28, BT474/AA9, and MCF7-HER2 cells. Knocking down FOXO1A by small interfering RNA resulted in reducing trastuzumab-induced growth inhibition. In summary, trastuzumab can inhibit proliferation of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells by reactivating FOXO1A through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. FOXO1A may therefore serve as a target for HER2-overexpressing breast tumors.