Enhanced antitumor efficacy of biocompatible magnetosomes for the magnetic hyperthermia treatment of glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: In this study, biologically synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles, called magnetosomes, are made fully biocompatible by removing potentially toxic organic bacterial residues such as endotoxins at magnetosome mineral core surfaces and by coating such surface with poly-L-lysine, leading to magnetosomes-poly-L-lysine (M-PLL). M-PLL antitumor efficacy is compared with that of chemically synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) currently used for magnetic hyperthermia. M-PLL and IONPs are tested for the treatment of glioblastoma, a dreadful cancer, in which intratumor nanoparticle administration is clinically relevant, using a mouse allograft model of murine glioma (GL-261 cell line). A magnetic hyperthermia treatment protocol is proposed, in which 25 µg in iron of nanoparticles per mm3 of tumor are administered and exposed to 11 to 15 magnetic sessions during which an alternating magnetic field of 198 kHz and 11 to 31 mT is applied for 30 minutes to attempt reaching temperatures of 43-46 °C. M-PLL are characterized by a larger specific absorption rate (SAR of 40 W/gFe compared to 26 W/gFe for IONPs as measured during the first magnetic session), a lower strength of the applied magnetic field required for reaching a target temperature of 43-46 °C (11 to 27 mT compared with 22 to 31 mT for IONPs), a lower number of mice re-administered (4 compared to 6 for IONPs), a longer residence time within tumours (5 days compared to 1 day for IONPs), and a less scattered distribution in the tumour. M-PLL lead to higher antitumor efficacy with full tumor disappearances achieved in 50% of mice compared to 20% for IONPs. This is ascribed to better ability of M-PLL, at equal iron concentrations, to maintain tumor temperatures at 43-46°C over a longer period of times.
Project description:PURPOSE: Tumor cells can be effectively inactivated by heating mediated by magnetic nanoparticles. However, optimized nanomaterials to supply thermal stress inside the tumor remain to be identified. The present study investigates the therapeutic effects of magnetic hyperthermia induced by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on breast (MDA-MB-231) and pancreatic cancer (BxPC-3) xenografts in mice in vivo. METHODS: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, synthesized either via an aqueous (MF66; average core size 12 nm) or an organic route (OD15; average core size 15 nm) are analyzed in terms of their specific absorption rate (SAR), cell uptake and their effectivity in in vivo hyperthermia treatment. RESULTS: Exceptionally high SAR values ranging from 658?±?53 W*gFe (-1) for OD15 up to 900?±?22 W*gFe (-1) for MF66 were determined in an alternating magnetic field (AMF, H?=?15.4 kA*m(-1) (19 mT), f?=?435 kHz). Conversion of SAR values into system-independent intrinsic loss power (ILP, 6.4?±?0.5 nH*m(2)*kg(-1) (OD15) and 8.7?±?0.2 nH*m(2)*kg(-1) (MF66)) confirmed the markedly high heating potential compared to recently published data. Magnetic hyperthermia after intratumoral nanoparticle injection results in dramatically reduced tumor volume in both cancer models, although the applied temperature dosages measured as CEM43T90 (cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C) are only between 1 and 24 min. Histological analysis of magnetic hyperthermia treated tumor tissue exhibit alterations in cell viability (apoptosis and necrosis) and show a decreased cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Concluding, the studied magnetic nanoparticles lead to extensive cell death in human tumor xenografts and are considered suitable platforms for future hyperthermic studies.
Project description:Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with chemically synthesized nanoparticles is currently used in clinical trials as it destroys tumor cells with an extremely localized deposition of thermal energy. In this paper, we investigated an MFH protocol based on magnetic nanoparticles naturally produced by magnetotactic bacteria: magnetosomes. The efficacy of such protocol is tested in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Mice receive a single intratumoral injection of magnetosomes, and they are exposed three times in a week to an alternating magnetic field with concurrent temperature measurements. MRI is used to visualize the nanoparticles and to monitor tumor size before and after the treatment. Statistically significant inhibition of the tumor growth is detected in subjects exposed to the alternating magnetic field compared to control groups. Moreover, thanks to magnetosomes high transversal relaxivity, their effective delivery to the tumor tissue is monitored by MRI. It is apparent that the efficacy of this protocol is limited by inhomogeneous delivery of magnetosomes to tumor tissue. These results suggest that naturally synthesized magnetosomes could be effectively considered as theranostic agent candidates for hyperthermia based on iron oxide nanoparticles.
Project description:Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have received significant interest for the use in biomedical applications. The assembly of IONPs into larger superstructures has been used to modify the properties and functionality of these particles. For example, the clustering of IONPs can lead to improvements in MRI contrast generation, changes in heat generation during magnetic fluid hyperthermia, and alterations to pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Nevertheless, the IONP clustering leads to significant heterogeneity in the assembly. Here, we demonstrate a method for using DNA origami to precisely control the number and positions of IONPs. We also showed how this technique can be used to module the functionality of IONP clusters by showing how MRI contrast generation efficiency can be tuned by altering the number and spacing of IONPs. Finally, we show that these property changes can be dynamically regulated, demonstrating the possibility for this technology to be used in biosensing applications.
Project description:Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) occupy a privileged position among magnetic nanomaterials with potential applications in medicine and biology. They have been widely used in preclinical experiments for imaging contrast enhancement, magnetic resonance, immunoassays, cell tracking, tissue repair, magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery. Despite these promising results, their successful translation into a clinical setting is strongly dependent upon their physicochemical properties, toxicity and functionalization possibilities. Currently, IONPs-based medical applications are limited to the use of non-functionalized IONPs smaller than 100 nm, with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. However, the main entry of IONPs into the scene of medical application will surely arise from their functionalization possibilities that will provide them with the capacity to target specific cells within the body, and hence to play a role in the development of specific therapies. In this review, we offer an overview of their basic physicochemical design parameters, giving an account of the progress made in their functionalization and current clinical applications. We place special emphasis on past and present clinical trials.
Project description:Nanotechnology has great potential to produce novel therapeutic strategies that target malignant cells through the ability of nanoparticles to get access to and be ingested by living cells. However its specificity for accumulation in tumors, which is the key factor that determines its efficacy, has always been a challenge. Here we tested a novel strategy to target and treat ovarian cancer, a representative peritoneal cancer, using iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Peritoneal tumors in general are directly accessible to nanoparticles administered intraperitoneally (IP), as opposed to the more commonly attempted intravenous (IV) administration. In addition, tumor-associated immunosuppressive phagocytes, a predominant cell population in the tumor microenvironment of almost all solid tumors, and cells that are critical for tumor progression, are constantly recruited to the tumor, and therefore could possibly function to bring nanoparticles to tumors. Here we demonstrate that tumor-associated peritoneal phagocytes ingest and carry IONPs specifically to tumors and that these specifically delivered nanoparticles can damage tumor cells after IONP-mediated hyperthermia generated by AMF. This illustrates therapeutic possibilities of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of nanoparticles and subsequent ingestion by tumor-associated phagocytes, to directly impact tumors or stimulate antitumor immune responses. This approach could use IONPs combined with AMF as done here, or other nanoparticles with cytotoxic potential. Overall, the data presented here support IP injection of nanoparticles to utilize peritoneal phagocytes as a delivery vehicle in association with IONP-mediated hyperthermia as therapeutic strategies for ovarian and other peritoneal cancers.
Project description:Iron oxide nanoparticles (IOs) are intrinsically theranostic agents that could be used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and local hyperthermia or tissue thermal ablation. Yet, effective hyperthermia and high MR contrast have not been demonstrated within the same nanoparticle configuration. Here, magnetic nanoconstructs are obtained by confining multiple, ? 20 nm nanocubes (NCs) within a deoxy-chitosan core. The resulting nanoconstructs-magnetic nanoflakes (MNFs)-exhibit a hydrodynamic diameter of 156 ± 3.6 nm, with a polydispersity index of ?0.2, and are stable in PBS up to 7 days. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field of 512 kHz and 10 kA m(-1), MNFs provide a specific absorption rate (SAR) of ?75 W gFe(-1), which is 4-15 times larger than that measured for conventional IOs. Moreover, the same nanoconstructs provide a remarkably high transverse relaxivity of ?500 (mM s)(-1), at 1.41T. MNFs represent a first step toward the realization of nanoconstructs with superior relaxometric and ablation properties for more effective theranostics.
Project description:Iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have proven utility as contrast agents in many MRI applications. Previous quantitative IONP mapping has been performed using mainly T2 * mapping methods. However, in applications requiring high IONP concentrations, such as magnetic nanoparticles based thermal therapies, conventional pulse sequences are unable to map T2 * because the signal decays too rapidly. In this article, sweep imaging with Fourier transformation (SWIFT) sequence is combined with the Look-Locker method to map T1 of IONPs in high concentrations.T1 values of agar containing IONPs in different concentrations were measured with the SWIFT Look-Locker method and with inversion recovery spectroscopy. Precisions of Look-Locker and variable flip angle (VFA) methods were compared in simulations.The measured R1 (=1/T1 ) has a linear relationship with IONP concentration up to 53.6 mM of Fe. This concentration exceeds concentrations measured in previous work by almost an order of magnitude. Simulations show SWIFT Look-Locker method is also much less sensitive to B1 inhomogeneity than the VFA method.SWIFT Look-Locker can accurately measure T1 of IONP concentrations ?53.6 mM. By mapping T1 as a function of IONP concentration, IONP distribution maps might be used in the future to plan effective magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia therapy.
Project description:The performance of magnetic nanoparticles is intimately entwined with their structure, mean size and magnetic anisotropy. Besides, ensembles offer a unique way of engineering the magnetic response by modifying the strength of the dipolar interactions between particles. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical analysis of magnetic hyperthermia, a rapidly developing technique in medical research and oncology. Experimentally, we demonstrate that single-domain cubic iron oxide particles resembling bacterial magnetosomes have superior magnetic heating efficiency compared to spherical particles of similar sizes. Monte Carlo simulations at the atomic level corroborate the larger anisotropy of the cubic particles in comparison with the spherical ones, thus evidencing the beneficial role of surface anisotropy in the improved heating power. Moreover we establish a quantitative link between the particle assembling, the interactions and the heating properties. This knowledge opens new perspectives for improved hyperthermia, an alternative to conventional cancer therapies.
Project description:Combinatorial use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF) can induce local hyperthermia in tumors in a controlled and uniform manner. Heating B16 primary tumors at 43°C for 30 min activated dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequently CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph node (dLN) and conferred resistance against rechallenge with B16 (but not unrelated Lewis Lung carcinoma) given 7 days post hyperthermia on both the primary tumor side and the contralateral side in a CD8(+) T cell-dependent manner. Mice with heated primary tumors also resisted rechallenge given 30 days post hyperthermia. Mice with larger heated primary tumors had greater resistance to secondary tumors. No rechallenge resistance occurred when tumors were heated at 45°C. Our results demonstrate the promising potential of local hyperthermia treatment applied to identified tumors in inducing anti-tumor immune responses that reduce the risk of recurrence and metastasis.Local heating of tumors via iron oxide NPs and an alternating magnetic field led to activation of anti-cancer CD8 T cells, which resulted in resistance against re-challenge and greater resistance to secondary tumors. Similar local heating-based strategies may become an important weapon in enhancing tumor elimination via a naturally existing but attenuated immune response.