Study protocol for THINK: a multinational open-label phase I study to assess the safety and clinical activity of multiple administrations of NKR-2 in patients with different metastatic tumour types.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:NKR-2 are autologous T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) comprising a fusion of the natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor with the CD3? signalling domain, which associates with the adaptor molecule DNAX-activating protein of 10?kDa (DAP10) to provide co-stimulatory signal upon ligand binding. NKG2D binds eight different ligands expressed on the cell surface of many tumour cells and which are normally absent on non-neoplastic cells. In preclinical studies, NKR-2 demonstrated long-term antitumour activity towards a breadth of tumour indications, with maximum efficacy observed after multiple NKR-2 administrations. Importantly, NKR-2 targeted tumour cells and tumour neovasculature and the local tumour immunosuppressive microenvironment and this mechanism of action of NKR-2 was established in the absence of preconditioning. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This open-label phase I study will assess the safety and clinical activity of NKR-2 treatment administered three times, with a 2-week interval between each administration in different tumour types. The study will contain two consecutive segments: a dose escalation phase followed by an expansion phase. The dose escalation study involves two arms, one in solid tumours (five specific indications) and one in haematological tumours (two specific indications) and will include three dose levels in each arm: 3×108, 1×109?and 3×109 NKR-2 per injection. On the identification of the recommended dose in the first segment, based on dose-limiting toxicity occurrences, the study will expand to seven different cohorts examining the seven different tumour types separately. Clinical responses will be determined according to standard Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria for solid tumours or international working group response criteria in haematological tumours. ETHICS APPROVAL AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval has been obtained at all sites. Written informed consent will be taken from all participants. The results of this study will be disseminated through presentation at international scientific conferences and reported in peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03018405, EudraCT 2016-003312-12; Pre-result.
Project description:DNA demethylating agents may increase the immunogenicity of malignant tumours and increase the efficacy of subsequent treatment with immune check point inhibitors. We investigated the safety of administrating the demethylating agent decitabine by hepatic arterial infusionin patients with unresectable liver meta stases from solid tumours in a dose escalation phase I clinical trial. A total of nine eligible patients were enrolled and initiated study treatment at three different dose levels (two patients at 10, four at 15 and six at a dose level of 20mg decitabine/m2/day) (per protocol there was no intent to escalate the dose above the median tolerated intravenous dose level). Decitabine was administered as a 1-hour hepatic arterial infusion on five consecutive days every 4 weeks. Intrapatient dose escalation was applied in five patients. Grades 1 and 2 haematological toxicity was the most frequent treatment-related adverse event. None of the patients experienced treatment-limiting adverse events. Expression analysis of 30 cancer test is antigens (CTA) in pretreatment and post-treatment biopsies from patients indicated an increased expression of 21 CTAs after treatment. There were no objective tumour responses on study treatment or during post study exposure to immune checkpoint therapy in four patients with uveal melanoma liver metastases. We conclude that the investigate d hepatic arterial administration regimen for decitabine can be safely applied, and a dose level of 20 mg/m2/day on five consecutive days every 4 weeks can be considered for further investigation in combinatorial immunotherapy regimens. Trial registration number:NCT02316028.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyaluronan accumulation in tumour stroma is associated with reduced survival in preclinical cancer models. PEGPH20 degrades hyaluronan to facilitate tumour access for cancer therapies. Our objective was to assess safety and antitumour activity of PEGPH20 in patients with advanced solid tumours. METHODS:In HALO-109-101 (N=14), PEGPH20 was administered intravenously once or twice weekly (0.5 or 50??g?kg-1) or once every 3 weeks (0.5-1.5??g?kg-1). In HALO-109-102 (N=27), PEGPH20 was administered once or twice weekly (0.5-5.0??g?kg-1), with dexamethasone predose and postdose. RESULTS:Dose-limiting toxicities included grade ?3 myalgia, arthralgia, and muscle spasms; the maximum tolerated dose was 3.0??g?kg-1 twice weekly. Plasma hyaluronan increased in a dose-dependent manner, achieving steady state by Day 8 in multidose studies. A decrease in tumour hyaluronan level was observed in 5 of the 6 patients with pretreatment and posttreatment tumour biopsies. Exploratory imaging showed changes in tumour perfusion and decreased tumour metabolic activity, consistent with observations in animal models. CONCLUSIONS:The tumour stroma has emerging importance in the development of cancer therapeutics. PEGPH20 3.0??g?kg-1 administered twice weekly is feasible in patients with advanced cancers; exploratory analyses indicate antitumour activity supporting further evaluation of PEGPH20 in solid tumours.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This phase Ib study evaluated the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary efficacy of pimasertib (MSC1936369B), a MEK1/2 inhibitor, in combination with voxtalisib (SAR245409), a pan-PI3K and mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumours.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included a dose escalation and expansion in patients with select tumour types and alterations in the MAPK or PI3K pathways. A 3 + 3 design was used to determine MTD. Patients were evaluated for adverse events and tumour response.<h4>Results</h4>146 patients were treated, including 63 in dose escalation and 83 in expansion. The MTD was pimasertib 90 mg and voxtalisib 70 mg daily. Based on the safety profile, the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) was pimasertib 60 mg and voxtalisib 70 mg. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were diarrhoea (75%), fatigue (57%), and nausea (50%). Responses included a complete response in one patient (1%), partial response in five (5%), and stable disease in 51 (46%). At the RP2D, 74 patients required dose interruption (73%), 20 required dose reduction (20%), and 26 discontinued treatment due to TEAEs (26%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The combination of pimasertib and voxtalisib showed poor long-term tolerability and limited anti-tumour activity in patients with advanced solid tumours.
Project description:Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a technique that involves precise delivery of a large dose of ionising radiation to the tumour or tumour bed during surgery. Direct visualisation of the tumour bed and ability to space out the normal tissues from the tumour bed allows maximisation of the dose to the tumour while minimising the dose to normal tissues. This results in an improved therapeutic ratio with IORT. Although it was introduced in the 1960s, it has seen a resurgence of popularity with the introduction of self-shielding mobile linear accelerators and low-kV IORT devices, which by eliminating the logistical issues of transport of the patient during surgery for radiotherapy or building a shielded operating room, has enabled its wider use in the community. Electrons, low-kV X-rays and HDR brachytherapy are all different methods of IORT in current clinical use. Each method has its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages, its own set of indications where one may be better suited than the other, and each requires a specific kind of expertise. IORT has demonstrated its efficacy in a wide variety of intra-abdominal tumours, recurrent colorectal cancers, recurrent gynaecological cancers, and soft-tissue tumours. Recently, it has emerged as an attractive treatment option for selected, early-stage breast cancer, owing to the ability to complete the entire course of radiotherapy during surgery. IORT has been used in a multitude of roles across these sites, for dose escalation (retroperitoneal sarcoma), EBRT dose de-escalation (paediatric tumours), as sole radiation modality (early breast cancers) and as a re-irradiation modality (recurrent rectal and gynaecological cancers). This article aims to provide a review of the rationale, techniques, and outcomes for IORT across different sites relevant to current clinical practice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a two-electron oxidoreductase expressed in multiple tumour types. ARQ 761 is a β-lapachone (β-lap) analogue that exploits the unique elevation of NQO1 found in solid tumours to cause tumour-specific cell death.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a 3+3 dose escalation study of 3 schedules (weekly, every other week, 2/3 weeks) of ARQ 761 in patients with refractory advanced solid tumours. Tumour tissue was analysed for NQO1 expression. After 20 patients were analysed, enrolment was restricted to patients with NQO1-high tumours (H-score ≥ 200).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 42 patients were treated. Median number of prior lines of therapy was 4. Maximum tolerated dose was 390 mg/m<sup>2</sup> as a 2-h infusion every other week. Dose-limiting toxicity was anaemia. The most common treatment-related adverse events were anaemia (79%), fatigue (45%), hypoxia (33%), nausea (17%), and vomiting (17%). Transient grade 3 hypoxia, reflecting possible methemoglobinaemia, occurred in 26% of patients. Among 32 evaluable patients, best response was stable disease (n = 12); 6 patients had tumour shrinkage. There was a trend towards improved efficacy in NQO1-high tumours (P = 0.06).<h4>Conclusions</h4>ARQ 761 has modest single-agent activity, which appears associated with tumour NQO1 expression. Principal toxicities include anaemia and possible methemoglobinaemia.
Project description:The constitutive expression of CD70 has been described in various haematological and solid tumour types. In addition, the co-expression of its receptor in tumours has been demonstrated, mediating tumour cell proliferation. Although CD70 expression is a prerequisite to enrol patients in solid tumour clinical trials using anti-CD70 immunotherapy, there is currently no standardised test to evaluate CD70 expression. These differences in immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocols make it challenging to compare the expression levels that were obtained in different studies, pointing out the need for one uniform methodology. In this retrospective study, over 600 tumour samples from different solid and haematological malignancies were analysed while using one validated IHC method. CD70 and CD27 expression was demonstrated in a broad range of tumour types. In solid tumours, 43% demonstrated CD70 positivity with the highest degree in renal cell carcinoma (79.5%). Kaposi sarcoma showed no CD70 expression on the tumour cells. In lymphoma samples, 58% demonstrated CD70 positivity. Moreover, the co-expression of CD70 and CD27 was observed in 39% of lymphoma samples. These findings highlight the need to further explore anti-CD70 therapies in a broad range of CD70 expressing tumour types and in doing so, implementing one standardised protocol to define CD70 overexpression to use it as a diagnostic tool.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with cancer are a high-risk population in the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer and COVID-19, and examined risk factors for mortality in this population. METHODS:We did a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study of 205 patients with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and with a pathological diagnosis of a malignant tumour in nine hospitals within Hubei, China, from Jan 13 to March 18, 2020. All patients were either discharged from hospitals or had died by April 20, 2020. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and cancer histories were compared between survivors and non-survivors by use of ?2 test. Risk factors for mortality were identified by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. FINDINGS:Between Jan 13 and Mar 18, 2020, 205 patients with cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled (median age 63 years [IQR 56-70; range 14-96]; 109 [53%] women). 183 (89%) had solid tumours and 22 (11%) had haematological malignancies. The median duration of follow-up was 68 days (IQR 59-78). The most common solid tumour types were breast (40 [20%] patients), colorectal (28 [14%]), and lung cancer (24 [12%]). 54 (30%) of 182 patients received antitumour therapies within 4 weeks before symptom onset. 30 (15%) of 205 patients were transferred to an intensive care unit and 40 (20%) died during hospital admission. Patients with haematological malignancies had poorer prognoses than did those with solid tumours: nine (41%) of 22 patients with haematological malignancies died versus 31 (17%) of 183 patients with solid tumours (hazard ratio for death 3·28 [95% CI 1·56-6·91]; log rank p=0·0009). Multivariable regression analysis showed that receiving chemotherapy within 4 weeks before symptom onset (odds ratio [OR] 3·51 [95% CI 1·16-10·59]; p=0·026) and male sex (OR 3·86 [95% CI 1·57-9·50]; p=0·0033) were risk factors for death during admission to hospital. INTERPRETATION:Patients with cancer and COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital had a high case-fatality rate. Unfavourable prognostic factors, including receiving chemotherapy within 4 weeks before symptom onset and male sex, might help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of fatal outcomes. FUNDING:National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Project description:Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic microtubule inhibitor that showed cytotoxic synergy in combination with gemcitabine preclinically. This combination was assessed in a Phase I dose-finding trial in patients diagnosed with advanced solid tumours who had received up to two prior chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease (CP cohort).Dose escalation was performed in a 3+3 design to identify the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Two additional expansion cohorts in women with gynaecologic cancers at the RP2D (G), and further dose escalation of metastatic chemotherapy-naive patients (CN), were evaluated.45 patients were treated: 21 (CP), 10 (G) and 14 (CN). The initial combination of eribulin and gemcitabine was administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle; however, due to 2 out of 6 dose-limiting haematological toxicities at the first dose level, a reduced dose-intense schedule was assessed. The RP2D was defined at 1.0?mg?m(-2) eribulin and 1000?mg?m(-2) gemcitabine day 1 and 8 q3 weeks. No other significant toxicities were observed in the G expansion cohort. Neutropenia prevented further dose escalation in the CN cohort. Objective responses were seen in all three cohorts - 2/21 (CP), 1/10 (G) and 2/14 (CN).The combination of eribulin and gemcitabine was well tolerated at the RP2D.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Proviral integration Moloney virus (PIM) kinases (PIM1, 2 and 3) are overexpressed in several tumour types and contribute to oncogenesis. AZD1208 is a potent ATP-competitive PIM kinase inhibitor investigated in patients with recurrent or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or advanced solid tumours. METHODS:Two dose-escalation studies were performed to evaluate the safety and tolerability, and to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), of AZD1208 in AML and solid tumours. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (PD) and preliminary efficacy of AZD1208. RESULTS:Sixty-seven patients received treatment: 32 in the AML study over a 120-900?mg dose range, and 25 in the solid tumour study over a 120-800?mg dose range. Nearly all patients (98.5%) in both studies experienced adverse events, mostly gastrointestinal (92.5%). Dose-limiting toxicities included rash, fatigue and vomiting. AZD1208 was not tolerated at 900?mg, and the protocol-defined MTD was not confirmed. AZD1208 increased CYP3A4 activity after multiple dosing, resulting in increased drug clearance. There were no clinical responses; PD analysis showed biological activity of AZD1208. CONCLUSIONS:Despite the lack of single-agent clinical efficacy with AZD1208, PIM kinase inhibition may hold potential as an anticancer treatment, perhaps in combination with other agents.
Project description:Although chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have shown impressive clinical success against haematological malignancies such as B cell lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their efficacy against non-haematological solid malignancies has been largely disappointing. Solid tumours pose many additional challenges for CAR T cells that have severely blunted their potency, including homing to the sites of disease, survival and persistence within the adverse conditions of the tumour microenvironment, and above all, the highly immunosuppressive nature of the tumour milieu. Gene engineering approaches for generating immune cells capable of overcoming these hurdles remain an unmet therapeutic need and ongoing area of research. Recent advances have involved gene constructs for membrane-bound and/or secretable proteins that provide added effector cell function over and above the benefits of classical CAR-mediated cytotoxicity, rendering immune cells not only as direct cytotoxic effectors against tumours, but also as vessels for payload delivery capable of both modulating the tumour microenvironment and orchestrating innate and adaptive anti-tumour immunity. We discuss here the novel concept of engineered immune cells as vessels for payload delivery into the tumour microenvironment, how these cells are better adapted to overcome the challenges faced in a solid tumour, and importantly, the novel gene engineering approaches required to deliver these more complex polycistronic gene constructs.