Population genomics of the eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides).
ABSTRACT: Despite its economic importance as a bioenergy crop and key role in riparian ecosystems, little is known about genetic diversity and adaptation of the eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Here, we report the first population genomics study for this species, conducted on a sample of 425 unrelated individuals collected in 13 states of the southeastern United States. The trees were genotyped by targeted resequencing of 18,153 genes and 23,835 intergenic regions, followed by the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This natural P. deltoides population showed low levels of subpopulation differentiation (FST = 0.022-0.106), high genetic diversity (?W = 0.00100, ? = 0.00170), a large effective population size (Ne ? 32,900), and low to moderate levels of linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, genomewide scans for selection (Tajima's D), subpopulation differentiation (XTX), and environmental association analyses with eleven climate variables carried out with two different methods (LFMM and BAYENV2) identified genes putatively involved in local adaptation. Interestingly, many of these genes were also identified as adaptation candidates in another poplar species, Populus trichocarpa, indicating possible convergent evolution. This study constitutes the first assessment of genetic diversity and local adaptation in P. deltoides throughout the southern part of its range, information we expect to be of use to guide management and breeding strategies for this species in future, especially in the face of climate change.
Project description:BackgroundBlack cottonwood (Populus deltoides) is one of the keystone forest tree species, and has become the main breeding parents in poplar hybrid breeding. However, the genetic diversity and population structure of the introduced resources are not fully understood.ResultsIn the present study, five loci containing null alleles were excluded and 15 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeat) primers were used to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of 384 individuals from six provenances (Missouri, Iowa, Washington, Louisiana, and Tennessee (USA), and Quebec in Canada) of P. deltoides. Ultimately, 108 alleles (Na) were detected; the expected heterozygosity (He) per locus ranged from 0.070 to 0.905, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.535. The provenance ‘Was’ had a relatively low genetic diversity, while ‘Que’, ‘Lou’, and ‘Ten’ provenances had high genetic diversity, with Shannon’s information index (I) above 1.0. The mean coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) were 0.129 and 1.931, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 84.88% of the genetic variation originated from individuals. Based on principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and STRUCTURE cluster analysis, individuals distributed in the Mississippi River Basin were roughly classified as one group, while those distributed in the St. Lawrence River Basin and Columbia River Basin were classified as another group. The cluster analysis based on the population level showed that provenance ‘Iow’ had a small gene flow and high degree of genetic differentiation compared with the other provenances, and was classified into one group. There was a significant relationship between genetic distance and geographical distance.ConclusionsP. deltoides resources have high genetic diversity and there is a moderate level of genetic differentiation among provenances. Geographical isolation and natural conditions may be the main factors causing genetic differences among individuals. Individuals reflecting population genetic information can be selected to build a core germplasm bank. Meanwhile, the results could provide theoretical support for the scientific management and efficient utilization of P. deltoides genetic resources, and promote the development of molecular marker-assisted breeding of poplar.
Project description:Drought stress is a recurring feature of world climate and the single most important factor influencing agricultural yield worldwide. Plants display highly variable, species-specific responses to drought and these responses are multifaceted, requiring physiological and morphological changes influenced by genetic and molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the reproducibility of water deficit studies is very cumbersome, which significantly impedes research on drought tolerance, because how a plant responds is highly influenced by the timing, duration, and intensity of the water deficit. Despite progress in the identification of drought-related mechanisms in many plants, the molecular basis of drought resistance remains to be fully understood in trees, particularly in poplar species because their wide geographic distribution results in varying tolerances to drought. Herein, we aimed to better understand this complex phenomenon in eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) by performing a detailed contrast of the proteome changes between two different water deficit experiments to identify functional intersections and divergences in proteome responses. We investigated plants subjected to cyclic water deficit and compared these responses to plants subjected to prolonged acute water deficit. In total, we identified 108,012 peptide sequences across both experiments that provided insight into the quantitative state of 22,737 Populus gene models and 8,199 functional protein groups in response to drought. Together, these datasets provide the most comprehensive insight into proteome drought responses in poplar to date and a direct proteome comparison between short period dehydration shock and cyclic, post-drought re-watering. Overall, this investigation provides novel insights into drought avoidance mechanisms that are distinct from progressive drought stress. Additionally, we identified proteins that have been associated as drought-relevant in previous studies. Importantly, we highlight the RD26 transcription factor as a gene regulated at both the transcript and protein level, regardless of species and drought condition, and, thus, represents a key, universal drought marker for Populus species.
Project description:A Gram-positive bacterium was isolated from the root of an eastern cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides) in Georgia and identified as a Tumebacillus species with 99% 16S rRNA nucleotide identity to Tumebacillus avium The genome is 4.6 Mbp and encodes 4,072 proteins and 251 RNAs.
Project description:Larkinella sp. strain BK230, a heterotrophic bacterium of the phylum Bacteroidetes, was isolated from the roots of a field-grown eastern cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides) located in Georgia. The draft 7.27-Mb genome has a G+C content of 53.4% and contains 6,026 coding sequences, including 41 tRNA genes.
Project description:Terriglobus albidus strain ORNL is a heterotrophic soil acidobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of an Eastern cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides) in Tennessee. Its 6.4-Mb chromosome was completely sequenced using PacBio long reads, and it encodes 5,010 proteins and 53 RNAs.
Project description:Roseimicrobium sp. strain ORNL1 is a soil bacterium that belongs to the phylum Verrucomicrobia and was isolated from the rhizosphere of a forest Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides, in Tennessee. Its 7.9-Mb chromosome was completely sequenced using PacBio long reads and is predicted to encode 6,288 proteins and 76 RNAs.
Project description:We are interested in the root microbiome of the fast-growing Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides. There is a large bank of bacterial isolates from P. deltoides, and there are 44 draft genomes of bacterial endophyte and rhizosphere isolates. As a first step in efforts to understand the roles of bacterial communication and plant-bacterial signaling in P. deltoides, we focused on the prevalence of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing-signal production and reception in members of the P. deltoides microbiome. We screened 129 bacterial isolates for AHL production using a broad-spectrum bioassay that responds to many but not all AHLs, and we queried the available genome sequences of microbiome isolates for homologs of AHL synthase and receptor genes. AHL signal production was detected in 40% of 129 strains tested. Positive isolates included members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Members of the luxI family of AHL synthases were identified in 18 of 39 proteobacterial genomes, including genomes of some isolates that tested negative in the bioassay. Members of the luxR family of transcription factors, which includes AHL-responsive factors, were more abundant than luxI homologs. There were 72 in the 39 proteobacterial genomes. Some of the luxR homologs appear to be members of a subfamily of LuxRs that respond to as-yet-unknown plant signals rather than bacterial AHLs. Apparently, there is a substantial capacity for AHL cell-to-cell communication in proteobacteria of the P. deltoides microbiota, and there are also Proteobacteria with LuxR homologs of the type hypothesized to respond to plant signals or cues.
Project description:The complete chloroplast genome of <i>Populus deltoides</i> was characterized by reference-based assembly using whole-genome sequencing data. The total chloroplast genome size of <i>Populus deltoides</i> included a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRs) of 27,649?bp each, a small single-copy region (SSC) of 16,563?bp, and large single-copy region (LSC) of 85,096?bp, which was 156,957?bp in length. A total of 109 genes were predicted from the chloroplast genome, including 83 protein-coding genes, 22 <i>tRNA</i> genes, and four <i>rRNA</i> genes. The GC content of chloroplast genome for <i>Populus deltoides</i> was 36.68%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the reported chloroplast genomes of <i>Populus</i> showed that the chloroplast of the <i>Populus deltoides</i> is most closely related to the <i>Populus fremontii</i>. The complete chloroplast genome of <i>Populus deltoides</i> provides new insights into <i>Populus</i> evolutionary and genomic studies.
Project description:The speed and magnitude of global change will have major impacts on riparian ecosystems, thereby leading to greater forest vulnerability. Assessing species' adaptive capacities to provide relevant information for vulnerability assessments remains challenging, especially for nonmodel species like the North American Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall. The objective of this study was to understand how genomic diversity of this foundation species was shaped by its environment (climate, soil, and biotic interactions) to gauge its adaptive capacity. We used two complementary approaches to get a full portrait of P. deltoides genetic diversity at both the species and whole-genome ranges. First, we used a set of 93 nuclear and three chloroplastic SNP markers in 946 individuals covering most of the species' natural distribution. Then, to measure the degree of intraspecific divergence at the whole-genome level and to support the outlier and genomic-environment association analyses, we used a sequence capture approach on DNA pools. Three distinct lineages for P. deltoides were detected, and their current distribution was associated with abiotic and biotic variations. The comparison between both cpDNA and ncDNA patterns showed that gene flow between the lineages is unbalanced. The southern and northeastern populations may benefit from the input, through river flow, of novel alleles located upstream to their local gene pools. These alleles could migrate from populations that are already adapted to conditions that fit the predicted climates in the receiving local populations, hotter at the northeastern limit and drier in the Central United States. These "preadapted" incoming alleles may help to cope with maladaptation in populations facing changing conditions.
Project description:To aid in the investigation of the Populus deltoides microbiome, we generated draft genome sequences for 21 Pseudomonas strains and 19 other diverse bacteria isolated from Populus deltoides roots. Genome sequences for isolates similar to Acidovorax, Bradyrhizobium, Brevibacillus, Caulobacter, Chryseobacterium, Flavobacterium, Herbaspirillum, Novosphingobium, Pantoea, Phyllobacterium, Polaromonas, Rhizobium, Sphingobium, and Variovorax were generated.