Are identities oral? Understanding ethnobotanical knowledge after Irish independence (1937-1939).
ABSTRACT: The Schools' Folklore Scheme (1937-1939) was implemented at a pivotal time in Irelands' political history. It resulted in a body of ethnological information that is unique in terms of when, why and how it was collected. This material consists of over 700,000 pages of information, including ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical traditions, reflecting an oral identity that spans generations and that in many cases was not documented in writing until the 1930s. The intention of this study is to highlight the importance of the Schools' Folklore Scheme and to demonstrate an ethnographic approach based on recollections of original participants of the scheme, to further understand the material in the collection and the impact it had on the participants.This study involves an analysis of both oral and archival data. Eleven semi-structured interviews with original participants of the scheme were carried out between April and September 2016. Their corresponding schools' archival contributions to the scheme were located, and ethnomedicinal information was analysed and compared with the participants' recollections.The majority of participants' stated the scheme had a positive impact on them. Five participants' recalled collecting ethnomedicinal information, and there was a direct correlation between three of the participants' ethnomedicinal recollections and their entries in the archives. One third of all the ethnomedicinal entries analysed included the use of a plant. There were 191 plant mentions and 64 plant species named.Contacting the original participants offers a novel approach of analysing this archival material. It provides a unique first-hand account of this historical initiative, an insight into how the scheme was implemented and how it impacted upon the children. The ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical information provides an understanding of the medicinal practices in Ireland during the 1930s. The plant species that were both orally recalled by participants and documented in the archives are in keeping with key ethnomedicinal systems throughout the world.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The study of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants has led to discoveries that have helped combat diseases and improve healthcare. However, the development of quantitative measures that can assist our quest for new medicinal plants has not greatly advanced in recent years. Phylogenetic tools have entered many scientific fields in the last two decades to provide explanatory power, but have been overlooked in ethnomedicinal studies. Several studies show that medicinal properties are not randomly distributed in plant phylogenies, suggesting that phylogeny shapes ethnobotanical use. Nevertheless, empirical studies that explicitly combine ethnobotanical and phylogenetic information are scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:In this study, we borrowed tools from community ecology phylogenetics to quantify significance of phylogenetic signal in medicinal properties in plants and identify nodes on phylogenies with high bioscreening potential. To do this, we produced an ethnomedicinal review from extensive literature research and a multi-locus phylogenetic hypothesis for the pantropical genus Pterocarpus (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae). We demonstrate that species used to treat a certain conditions, such as malaria, are significantly phylogenetically clumped and we highlight nodes in the phylogeny that are significantly overabundant in species used to treat certain conditions. These cross-cultural patterns in ethnomedicinal usage in Pterocarpus are interpreted in the light of phylogenetic relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This study provides techniques that enable the application of phylogenies in bioscreening, but also sheds light on the processes that shape cross-cultural ethnomedicinal patterns. This community phylogenetic approach demonstrates that similar ethnobotanical uses can arise in parallel in different areas where related plants are available. With a vast amount of ethnomedicinal and phylogenetic information available, we predict that this field, after further refinement of the techniques, will expand into similar research areas, such as pest management or the search for bioactive plant-based compounds.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To explore the negative recollections of prostate cancer patients regarding the attitudes and language used by the doctors in delivering their diagnoses in Japan, in order to improve patient-centred communication. DESIGN AND SETTING:This is a qualitative secondary analysis of the prostate cancer narrative data from the Database of Individual Patients' Experiences-Japan archives. A thematic analysis was conducted regarding negative recollections of doctors' words/attitudes when delivering a cancer diagnosis. Recruitment was based on maximum variation sampling. Participants were recruited from medical institutions, patient associations and through media advertisements. PARTICIPANTS:Men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer (n=51). FINDINGS:Of the 51 participants, 17 had negative recollections of the doctors' words/attitudes during the delivery of the cancer diagnosis. After thematic analysis, 11 categories emerged: 'Surprised by the abrupt disclosure of the diagnosis', 'Displeased by the direct disclosure of the diagnosis to the patient in the absence of family members', 'Unable to accept the doctor's negative words in the explanations', 'Unable to understand the doctor's technical jargon', 'Distrust due to failure in diagnosis based on previous examinations', 'Aggrieved at the doctor's unwillingness to allow questions', 'Dissatisfied with explanations involving facts only', 'Indignant over the unexpected disclosure of life expectancy', 'Unable to accept the doctor's blame for the delay in the initial hospital visit', 'Uncomfortable with the usage of inappropriate metaphors' and 'Pessimistic thoughts despite optimistic explanations'. CONCLUSIONS:It is clear that patients have recollections of a variety of negative experiences regarding the words/attitudes of their doctors at the time they received their prostate cancer diagnosis. Thus, the use of narrative data would facilitate the appropriate application of commonly used guidelines for the delivery of cancer diagnoses tailored to individual patients in clinical practice.
Project description:Pangi Valley is the interior most tribal area in Himachal Pradesh of Northwest Himalaya. An ethnobotanical investigation is attempted to highlight the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribes of Pangi Valley. Various localities visited in the valley 2-3 times in a year and ethnobotanical information was collected through interviews with elderly people, women, shepherds, and local vaids during May 2009 to September 2013. This paper documented 67 plant species from 59 genera and 36 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage, including the use of 35 plants with new ethnomedicinal and other use from the study area for the first time. Wild plants represent an important part of their medicinal, dietary, handicraft, fuel wood, veterinary, and fodder components. These tribal inhabitants and migrants depend on the wild plant resources for food, medicines, fuel, fibre, timber, and household articles for their livelihood security. The present study documents and contributes significant ethnobotanical information from the remote high altitude and difficult region of the world, which remains cut off from rest of the world for 6-7 months due to heavy snowfall.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. METHODS: Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. RESULTS: Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. CONCLUSION: The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge.
Project description:Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skin diseases are a major health concern especially in association with human immune deficiency syndrome and acquired an immune deficiency. The aim of this study was to document the ethnomedicinal information of plants used to treat skin diseases in Northern Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study of therapeutic herbs utilized by the indigenous people of Northern Pakistan for skin diseases.<h4>Methods</h4>Interviews were taken to obtain information from 180 participants. Quantitative methods including fidelity level (FL), Frequency of citation (FC), Use-value (UV), Jaccard indices (JI), Family importance value (FIV), Relative frequency of citation (RFC) and Chi-square test were applied. Medicinal plants uses are also compared with 50 national and international publications.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we recorded 106 plant species belonged to 56 floral families for treatment of skin ailments. The dominant life form reported was herb while the preferred method of utilization was powder, along with leaf as the most used plant part. RFC ranges from 0.07 to 0.25% whereas the highest FIV was recorded for family Pteridaceae. FL values range from 36.8 to 100%. The study reported 88% of new plant reports for the treatment of skin diseases.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The present study revealed the importance of several plants used to treat skin diseases by the local communities of Northern Pakistan. The available literature supported the evidence of plant dermatological properties. Plants having high UV and RFC can be considered for further scientific analysis. There is dire need to create awareness among local, government and scientific communities for the preservation of medicinal species and ethnomedicinal knowledge in Northern Pakistan.
Project description:Annotated formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue archives constitute a valuable resource for retrospective biomarker discovery. However, proteomic exploration of archival tissue is impeded by extensive formalin-induced covalent cross-linking. Robust methodology enabling proteomic profiling of archival resources is urgently needed. Recent work is beginning to support the feasibility of biomarker discovery in archival tissues, but further developments in extraction methods which are compatible with quantitative approaches are urgently needed. We report a cost-effective extraction methodology permitting quantitative proteomic analyses of small amounts of FFPE tissue for biomarker investigation. This surfactant/heat-based approach results in effective and reproducible protein extraction in FFPE tissue blocks. In combination with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics methodology, the protocol enables the robust representative and quantitative analyses of the archival proteome. Preliminary validation studies in renal cancer tissues have identified typically 250-300 proteins per 500 ng of tissue with 1D LC-MS/MS with comparable extraction in FFPE and fresh frozen tissue blocks and preservation of tumor/normal differential expression patterns (205 proteins, r = 0.682; p < 10(-15)). The initial methodology presented here provides a quantitative approach for assessing the potential suitability of the vast FFPE tissue archives as an alternate resource for biomarker discovery and will allow exploration of methods to increase depth of coverage and investigate the impact of preanalytical factors.
Project description:Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional knowledge is significant in primary health care system. Medicinal plant species with high RPL values should be screened for comprehensive phytochemical and pharmacological studies. This could be useful in novel drug discovery and to validate the ethomendicinal knowledge.
Project description:Biased transmission of health knowledge has far-reaching effects on information reproduction and health-related cognitions. We examined whether transmissions of different types of disorder and etiological information influence recollections of health knowledge and evaluations of patients, by simulating the digital transmission of information. Transmission chains of four non-interacting persons (i.e., four generations) were formed. The first generation read three vignettes describing fictitious patients with one of three disorders (physiological, psychological, culture-bound) uniquely paired with one of three etiologies (genetic, environmental, unknown etiology). Next, they evaluated patients' well-being, rated desired social distance, and recalled the vignettes. These written recollections replaced the original vignettes for a second-generation of participants, whose recollections were used for the third generation and so on. The framing of disorders affected recollections of etiology, in which culture-bound framings resulted in the poorest recall of etiologies. Participants also perceived the culture-bound disorder as the least serious but desired the most social distance from patients diagnosed with it, when compared to other disorders. The study showed that health information is selectively attended to and reproduced, possibly affected by perceived self-relevance. Faulty recollections and framing of disorders affect health cognitions, potentially instigating biased transmission of disorder- and patient-related narratives.
Project description:The 'Bikeability' cycle training scheme, a flagship policy of the government in England, aims to give children the skills and confidence to cycle more safely and more often. Little, however, is known about the scheme?s reach. This paper examined which schools offer Bikeability, and which children participate in cycle training.We used operational delivery data to examine which primary schools in England offered Bikeability. Predictors included the deprivation level of the student body and the local prevalence of cycling. We then examined cycle training participation using data from 6986 participants (age 10-11) in the nationally-representative Millennium Cohort Study. Parents reported whether their child had completed formal cycle training, along with other child and family factors. We used operational data to identify children whose school had previously delivered Bikeability.55% of schools offered Bikeability to the cohort of children leaving primary school in 2012; this fell to 48% in schools in the top tenth for student deprivation. Among Millennium Cohort participants, 47% of children had completed cycle training; this proportion rose to 68% among children whose schools had offered Bikeability. In adjusted robust Poisson regression models, participation rates were lower among minority ethnic children, particularly South Asians; among children who played sport less often; and among children whose parents were poorer or less educated. The magnitude of these differences was largest among children whose schools had not offered Bikeability (all p?0.02 for interaction, except for income where p=0.09), although trends in the same direction were observed in schools that had offered Bikeability.Offering high-quality cycle training free of charge in English schools reduced but did not eliminate inequalities in cycle training participation. Further promoting the scheme to parents and schools, particularly in deprived areas, would be expected to increase uptake and help reduce current inequalities in participation.