Effect of the acylation of TEAD4 on its interaction with co-activators YAP and TAZ.
ABSTRACT: The Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, and the discovery of molecules that modulate this pathway may open new therapeutic avenues in oncology. TEA/ATTS domain (TEAD) transcription factors are the most distal elements of the Hippo pathway and their transcriptional activity is regulated by the Yes-associated protein (YAP). Amongst the various possibilities for targeting this pathway, inhibition of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive strategy. It has been shown recently that TEAD proteins are covalently linked via a conserved cysteine to a fatty acid molecule (palmitate) that binds to a deep hydrophobic cavity present in these proteins. This acylation of TEAD seems to be required for efficient binding to YAP, and understanding how it modulates the YAP:TEAD interaction may provide useful information on the regulation of TEAD function. In this report we have studied the effect of TEAD4 acylation on its interaction with YAP and the other co-activator transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). We show in our biochemical and cellular assays that YAP and TAZ bind in a similar manner to acylated and non-acylated TEAD4. This indicates that TEAD4 acylation is not a prerequisite for its interaction with YAP or TAZ. However, we observed that TEAD4 acylation significantly enhances its stability, suggesting that it may help this transcription factor to acquire and/or maintain its active conformation.
Project description:The Hippo pathway is a tumor suppressor pathway that is implicated in the regulation of organ size. The pathway has three components: the upstream regulatory factors, the kinase core, and the downstream transcriptional machinery, which consists of YAP, TAZ (transcription co-activators) and TEAD (transcription factor). Formation of YAP/TAZ-TEAD complexes leads to the transcription of growth-promoting genes. Herein, we report the crystal structure of TAZ-TEAD4 complex, which reveals two binding modes. The first is similar to the published YAP-TEAD structure. The second is a unique binding mode, whereby two molecules of TAZ bind to and bridge two molecules of TEAD4. We validated the latter using cross-linking and multi-angle light scattering. Using siRNA, we showed that TAZ knockdown leads to a decrease in TEAD4 dimerization. Lastly, results from luciferase assays, using YAP/TAZ transfected or knockdown cells, give support to the non-redundancy of YAP/TAZ co-activators in regulating gene expression in the Hippo pathway.
Project description:The Hippo pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that regulates a broad range of biological functions, and dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is a feature of a variety of cancers. Given this, some have suggested that disrupting the interaction of the Hippo core component YAP and its paralog TAZ with transcriptional factor TEAD may be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. However, there are currently no clinically available drugs targeting the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction for cancer treatment. To facilitate screens for small molecule compounds that disrupt the YAP-TEAD interaction, we have developed the first ultra-bright NanoLuc biosensor to quantify YAP/TAZ-TEAD protein-protein interaction (PPI) both in living cells and also in vitro using biosensor fusion proteins purified from bacteria. Using this biosensor, we have performed an in vitro high throughput screen (HTS) of small molecule compounds and have identified and validated the drug Celastrol as a novel inhibitor of YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction. We have also demonstrated that Celastrol can inhibit cancer cell proliferation, transformation, and cell migration. In this study, we describe a new inhibitor of the YAP/TAZ-TEAD interaction warranting further investigation and offer a novel biosensor tool for the discovery of other new Hippo-targeting drugs in future work.
Project description:The Hippo signaling pathway controls cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis by regulating the expression of target genes that execute these processes. Acting downstream from this pathway is the YAP transcriptional coactivator, whose biological function is mediated by the conserved TEAD family transcription factors. The interaction of YAP with TEADs is critical to regulate Hippo pathway-responsive genes. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the YAP-interacting C-terminal domain of TEAD4 in complex with the TEAD-interacting N-terminal domain of YAP. The structure reveals that the N-terminal region of YAP is folded into two short helices with an extended loop containing the PXXPhiP motif in between, while the C-terminal domain of TEAD4 has an immunoglobulin-like fold. YAP interacts with TEAD4 mainly through the two short helices. Point mutations of TEAD4 indicate that the residues important for YAP interaction are required for its transforming activity. Mutagenesis reveals that the PXXPhiP motif of YAP, although making few contacts with TEAD4, is important for TEAD4 interaction as well as for the transforming activity.
Project description:TEAD transcription factors are responsible for the transcriptional output of Hippo signalling1,2. TEAD activity is primarily regulated by phosphorylation of its coactivators YAP and TAZ3,4. In addition, cysteine palmitoylation has recently been shown to regulate TEAD activity5,6. Here, we report lysine long-chain fatty acylation as a novel posttranslational modification of TEADs. Lysine fatty acylation occurs spontaneously via intramolecular transfer of acyl groups from the proximal acylated cysteine residue. Lysine fatty acylation, like cysteine palmitoylation, contributes to the transcriptional activity of TEADs by enhancing the interaction with YAP and TAZ, but it is more stable than cysteine acylation, suggesting that the lysine fatty-acylated TEAD acts as a “stable active form”. Significantly, lysine fatty acylation of TEAD increased upon Hippo signalling activation, despite a decrease in cysteine acylation. Our results provide new insight into the role of fatty acyl modifications in the regulation of TEAD activity.
Project description:TEAD (TEA/ATTS domain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the ?-loop found in YAP.
Project description:The Hippo pathway controls organ size and tissue homeostasis, with deregulation leading to cancer. The core Hippo components in mammals are composed of the upstream serine/threonine kinases Mst1/2, MAPK4Ks and Lats1/2. Inactivation of these upstream kinases leads to dephosphorylation, stabilization, nuclear translocation and thus activation of the major functional transducers of the Hippo pathway, YAP and its paralogue TAZ. YAP/TAZ are transcription co-activators that regulate gene expression primarily through interaction with the TEA domain DNA-binding family of transcription factors (TEAD). The current paradigm for regulation of this pathway centres on phosphorylation-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YAP/TAZ through a complex network of upstream components. However, unlike other transcription factors, such as SMAD, NF-?B, NFAT and STAT, the regulation of TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling has been largely overlooked. In the present study, we show that environmental stress promotes TEAD cytoplasmic translocation via p38 MAPK in a Hippo-independent manner. Importantly, stress-induced TEAD inhibition predominates YAP-activating signals and selectively suppresses YAP-driven cancer cell growth. Our data reveal a mechanism governing TEAD nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and show that TEAD localization is a critical determinant of Hippo signalling output.
Project description:To investigate the role of Hippo pathway signaling during vertebrate development transgenic zebrafish lines were generated and validated to dynamically monitor and manipulate Yap/Taz-Tead activity. Spatial and temporal analysis of Yap/Taz-Tead activity suggested the importance of Hippo signaling during cardiac precursor migration and other developmental processes. When the transcriptional co-activators, Yap and Taz were restricted from interacting with DNA-binding Tead transcription factors through expression of a dominant negative transgene, cardiac precursors failed to migrate completely to the midline resulting in strong cardia bifida. Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters also allowed us to investigate upstream and downstream factors known to regulate Hippo signaling output in Drosophila. While Crumbs mutations in Drosophila eye disc epithelia increase nuclear translocation and activity of Yorkie (the fly homolog of Yap/Taz), zebrafish crb2a mutants lacked nuclear Yap positive cells and down-regulated Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters in the eye epithelia, despite the loss of apical-basal cell polarity in those cells. However, as an example of evolutionary conservation, the Tondu-domain containing protein Vestigial-like 4b (Vgll4b) was found to down-regulate endogenous Yap/Taz-Tead activity in the retinal pigment epithelium, similar to Drosophila Tgi in imaginal discs. In conclusion, the Yap/Taz-Tead activity reporters revealed the dynamics of Yap/Taz-Tead signaling and novel insights into Hippo pathway regulation for vertebrates. These studies highlight the utility of this transgenic tool-suite for ongoing analysis into the mechanisms of Hippo pathway regulation and the consequences of signaling output.
Project description:The Hippo signaling pathway is known to play an important role in multiple physiological processes, including adipogenesis. However, whether the downstream components of the Hippo pathway are involved in adipogenesis remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the TEA domain family (TEAD) transcription factors are essential for adipogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Knockdown of TEAD1-4 stimulated adipogenesis and increased the expression of adipocyte markers in these cells. Interestingly, we found that the TEAD4 knockdown-mediated adipogenesis proceeded in a Yes-associated protein (YAP)/TAZ (Wwtr1)-independent manner and that adipogenesis suppression in WT cells involved formation of a ternary complex comprising TEAD4 and the transcriptional cofactors C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2) and vestigial-like family member 4 (VGLL4). VGLL4 acted as an adaptor protein that enhanced the interaction between TEAD4 and CtBP2, and this TEAD4-VGLL4-CtBP2 ternary complex dynamically existed at the early stage of adipogenesis. Finally, we verified that TEAD4 directly targets the promoters of major adipogenesis transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and adiponectin, C1Q, and collagen domain-containing (Adipoq) during adipogenesis. These findings reveal critical insights into the role of the TEAD4-VGLL4-CtBP2 transcriptional repressor complex in suppression of adipogenesis in murine preadipocytes.
Project description:Together with TEAD4 the Hippo pathway effector YAP stimulates chromosomal instability. Verteporfin is known to disrupt the physical YAP/TEAD interaction and tehrefore might prevent from chromosomal instability in liver cancer. Immortalized HCC cell line hepG2 is treated with Verteporfin for 24 hours.
Project description:Hippo signaling restricts tumor growth by inhibiting the oncogenic potential of YAP/TAZ-TEAD transcriptional complex. Here, we uncover a context-dependent tumor suppressor function of YAP in androgen receptor (AR) positive prostate cancer (PCa) and show that YAP impedes AR+ PCa growth by antagonizing TEAD-mediated AR signaling. TEAD forms a complex with AR to enhance its promoter/enhancer occupancy and transcriptional activity. YAP and AR compete for TEAD binding and consequently, elevated YAP in the nucleus disrupts AR-TEAD interaction and prevents TEAD from promoting AR signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of MST1/2 or LATS1/2, or transgenic activation of YAP suppressed the growth of PCa expressing therapy resistant AR splicing variants. Our study uncovers an unanticipated crosstalk between Hippo and AR signaling pathways, reveals an antagonistic relationship between YAP and TEAD in AR+ PCa, and suggests that targeting the Hippo signaling pathway may provide a therapeutical opportunity to treat PCa driven by therapy resistant AR variants.