Efficient route to pre-organized and linear polyaminopolycarboxylates: Cy-TTHA, Cy-DTPA and mono/di- reactive, tert-butyl protected TTHA/Cy-TTHA.
ABSTRACT: Pre-organized polyaminopolycarboxylate chelators Cy-TTHA and Cy-DTPA were synthesized via modular five-step syntheses from commercially available starting materials in ~ 62% and 47% overall yields, respectively. Furthermore, strategies are reported for the efficient preparation of mono- and di-reactive, tert-butyl-protected TTHA/Cy-TTHA to selectively functionalize central chelators' carboxylic acids.
Project description:To compare the radiolabeling performance, stability, and practical efficacy of the chelators CHX-A?-DTPA and H4octapa with the therapeutic radiometal (90)Y.The bifunctional chelators p-SCN-Bn-H4octapa and p-SCN-Bn-CHX-A?-DTPA were conjugated to the HER2-targeting antibody trastuzumab. The resulting immunoconjugates were radiolabeled with (90)Y to compare radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro and in vivo stability, and in vivo performance in a murine model of ovarian cancer.High radiochemical yields (>95%) were obtained with (90)Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-trastuzumab and (90)Y-octapa-trastuzumab after 15min at room temperature. Both (90)Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-trastuzumab and (90)Y-octapa-trastuzumab exhibited excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. Furthermore, the radioimmunoconjugates displayed high tumoral uptake values (42.3±4.0%ID/g for (90)Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-trastuzumab and 30.1±7.4%ID/g for (90)Y-octapa-trastuzumab at 72h post-injection) in mice bearing HER2-expressing SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenografts. Finally, (90)Y radioimmunotherapy studies performed in tumor-bearing mice demonstrated that (90)Y-CHX-A?-DTPA-trastuzumab and (90)Y-octapa-trastuzumab are equally effective therapeutic agents, as treatment with both radioimmunoconjugates yielded substantially decreased tumor growth compared to controls.Ultimately, this work demonstrates that the acyclic chelators CHX-A?-DTPA and H4octapa have comparable radiolabeling, stability, and in vivo performance, making them both suitable choices for applications requiring (90)Y.
Project description:High radiolabeling efficiency, preferably to high specific activity, and good stability of the radioimmunoconjugate are essential features for a successful immunoconjugate for imaging or therapy. In this study, the radiolabeling efficiency, in vitro stability, and biodistribution of immunoconjugates with eight different bifunctional chelators labeled with (64)Cu were compared. The anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab, was conjugated to four macrocyclic bifunctional chelators (p-SCN-Bn-DOTA, p-SCN-Bn-Oxo-DO3A, p-SCN-NOTA, and p-SCN-PCTA), three DTPA derivatives (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA, p-SCN-CHX-A?-DTPA, and ITC-2B3M-DTPA), and a macrobicyclic hexamine (sarcophagine) chelator (sar-CO2H) = (1-NH2-8-NHCO(CH2)3CO2H)sar where sar = sarcophagine = 3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane). Radiolabeling efficiency under various conditions, in vitro stability in serum at 37 °C, and in vivo biodistribution and imaging in normal mice over 48 h were studied. All chelators except sar-CO2H were conjugated to rituximab by thiourea bond formation with an average of 4.9 ± 0.9 chelators per antibody molecule. Sar-CO2H was conjugated to rituximab by amide bond formation with 0.5 chelators per antibody molecule. Efficiencies of (64)Cu radiolabeling were dependent on the concentration of immunoconjugate. Notably, the (64)Cu-NOTA-rituximab conjugate demonstrated the highest radiochemical yield (95%) under very dilute conditions (31 nM NOTA-rituximab conjugate). Similarly, sar-CO-rituximab, containing 1/10th the number of chelators per antibody compared to that of other conjugates, retained high labeling efficiency (98%) at an antibody concentration of 250 nM. In contrast to the radioimmunoconjugates containing DTPA derivatives, which demonstrated poor serum stability, all macrocyclic radioimmunoconjugates were very stable in serum with <6% dissociation of (64)Cu over 48 h. In vivo biodistribution profiles in normal female Balb/C mice were similar for all the macrocyclic radioimmunoconjugates with most of the activity remaining in the blood pool up to 48 h. While all the macrocyclic bifunctional chelators are suitable for molecular imaging using (64)Cu-labeled antibody conjugates, NOTA and sar-CO2H show significant advantages over the others in that they can be radiolabeled rapidly at room temperature, under dilute conditions, resulting in high specific activity.
Project description:A general method is described for the site-specific genetic encoding of cyanine dyes as non-canonical amino acids (Cy-ncAAs) into proteins. The approach relies on an improved technique for nonsense suppression with in vitro misacylated orthogonal tRNA. The data show that Cy-ncAAs (based on Cy3 and Cy5) are tolerated by the eukaryotic ribosome in cell-free and whole-cell environments and can be incorporated into soluble and membrane proteins. In the context of the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system, this technique yields ion channels with encoded Cy-ncAAs that are trafficked to the plasma membrane where they display robust function and distinct fluorescent signals as detected by TIRF microscopy. This is the first demonstration of an encoded cyanine dye as a ncAA in a eukaryotic expression system and opens the door for the analysis of proteins with single-molecule resolution in a cellular environment.
Project description:Biomarkers providing in vivo quantification of the basic elements of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are needed. A study was performed to determine whether the absorption of a small radiolabelled hydrophilic molecule (Indium-111 (In-)DTPA) would be increased in CF airways. DTPA clearance has been used previously to assess epithelial permeability and may also be useful for quantifying liquid absorption. The absorptive clearance rate of DTPA was quantified in 10 CF and 11 control subjects using a novel aerosol technique. Subjects inhaled an aerosol containing nonabsorbable technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) particles and In-DTPA. Tc-SC clearance from the lung is exclusively mucociliary, while In-DTPA is cleared by both absorption and mucociliary clearance. The difference between the In-DTPA and Tc-SC clearance rates estimates In-DTPA absorption. Tc-SC (mucociliary) clearance was similar in central and peripheral zones in CF and non-CF lungs. Total In-DTPA clearance was increased in both zones in CF lungs. The absorptive component of In-DTPA clearance was increased in the airway-dominated central lung zones in CF (42% x h( -1) versus 32% x h(-1), p = 0.03). The absorption of In-DTPA is increased in the CF airway. Further study is needed to understand the relative roles of fluid absorption, inflammation and other mechanisms potentially affecting epithelial permeability and DTPA absorption.
Project description:The conventional chemotherapeutics could not be traced in vivo and provide timely feedback on the clinical effectiveness of drugs. In this study, poly(L-?-glutamyl-glutamine)-paclitaxel (PGG-PTX), as a model polymer, was chemically conjugated with Gd-DTPA (Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), a T1-contrast agent of MRI, to prepare a Gd-DTPA-conjugated PGG-PTX (PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd) delivery system used for tumor theranostics. PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd can be self-assembled to NPs in water with a z-average hydrodynamic diameter about 35.9?nm. The 3?T MRI results confirmed that the relaxivity of PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd NPs (r1?=?18.98?mM-1S-1) was increased nearly 4.9 times compared with that of free Gd-DTPA (r1?=?3.87?mM-1S-1). The in vivo fluorescence imaging results showed that PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd NPs could be accumulated in the tumor tissue of NCI-H460 lung cancer animal model by EPR effect, which was similar to PGG-PTX NPs. The MRI results showed that compared with free Gd-DTPA, PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd NPs showed significantly enhanced and prolonged signal intensity in tumor tissue, which should be attributed to the increased relaxivity and tumor accumulation. PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd NPs also showed effective antitumor effect in vivo. These results indicated that PGG-PTX-DTPA-Gd NPs are an effective delivery system for tumor theranostics, and should have a potential value in personalized treatment of tumor.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Detection of glioma with MRI contrast agent is limited to cases in which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised as contrast agents cannot cross the BBB. Thus, an early-stage infiltrating tumor is not detectable. Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL-13R?2), which has been shown to be overexpressed in glioma, can be used as a target moiety. We hypothesized that liposomes conjugated with IL-13 and encapsulating MRI contrast agent are capable of passing through an intact BBB and producing MRI contrast with greater sensitivity.<h4>Methods</h4>The targeted MRI contrast agent was created by encapsulating Magnevist (Gd-DTPA) into liposomes conjugated with IL-13 and characterized by particle size distribution, cytotoxicity, and MRI relaxivity. MR image intensity was evaluated in the brain in normal mice post injection of Gd-DTPA and IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA one day apart. The specificity for glioma detection by IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA was demonstrated in an intracranial glioma mouse model and validated histologically.<h4>Results</h4>The average size of IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA was 137 ± 43 nm with relaxivity of 4.0 ± 0.4 L/mmole-s at 7 Tesla. No significant cytotoxicity was observed with MTS assay and serum chemistry in mice. The MRI signal intensity was enhanced up to 15% post injection of IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA in normal brain tissue following a similar time course as that for the pituitary gland outside of the BBB. MRI enhanced by IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA detected small tumor masses in addition to those seen with Magnevist-enhanced MRI.<h4>Conclusions</h4>IL-13-liposome-Gd-DTPA is able to pass through the uncompromised BBB and detect an early stage glioma that cannot be seen with conventional contrast-enhanced MRI.
Project description:Because of the toxicity associated with myeloablative conditioning, nonmyeloablative regimens are increasingly being used in vulnerable patient populations. For patients with sickle cell disease, stable mixed chimerism has proven sufficient to reverse the phenotype. Because the vast majority of patients do not have an HLA-matched sibling, a safe nonmyeloablative regimen that could be applied to the haploidentical setting would be ideal. We employed a mismatched mouse model using BALB/c donors and C57BL/6 recipients. Recipient mice were conditioned with 200?cGy TBI and sirolimus or CSA with or without post transplant Cy (PT-Cy). Our data show that when sirolimus or PT-Cy alone is given to C57BL/6 recipients, donor cells are not detected. However, when sirolimus is administered for 15 or 31 days starting 1 day before or up to 6 days after transplant with PT-Cy, all mice maintain stable mixed chimerism. In contrast, conventional therapy employing CSA with or without PT-Cy does not result in stable mixed chimerism. Lastly, mice with stable mixed chimerism after sirolimus display decreased reactivity to donor Ag both in vitro and in vivo. These data identify a novel strategy for inducing mixed chimerism for the treatment of nonmalignant hematologic diseases.
Project description:The synthesis, photophysical properties, and kinetic stability of a series of water-soluble, highly emissive Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes featuring triethylenetetraamine hexaacetic acid (TTHA) and cyclohexyl triethylenetetraamine hexaacetic acid (cyTTHA) chelator scaffolds and carbostyril sensitizers are reported. The unique and modular design of the chelators gives rise to striking quantum yields of emission in aqueous solutions (up to 54%) as well as the characteristic lanthanides' photophysical properties (long excited-state lifetimes, large effective Stokes shifts, and narrow emission peaks). Furthermore, the preorganized chelators (L3, L4, and L6) bind metal within minutes at ambient temperature yet exhibit substantial resistance to transchelation in the presence of a challenge solution (EDTA, 1 mM). Moreover, the Eu(III) complex of L4 remains stably luminescent in HeLa cells over hours, demonstrating the suitability of these compounds for live-cell imaging applications. Representative chelators suitable for derivatization and protein bioconjugation were also prepared that were functionalized with clickable azide and alkyne moieties, biotin, and trimethoprim (TMP). With exceptional long-wavelength brightness, enhanced kinetic inertness, and an adaptable synthetic route, the reported lanthanide complexes are promising probes and labels for time-gated bioanalysis, biosensing, and optical microscopy.
Project description:Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in Han:SPRD Cy rats is caused by a missense mutation in Anks6 (also called Pkdr1), leading to an R823W substitution in SamCystin, a protein that contains ankyrin repeats and a sterile alpha motif (SAM). The cellular function of SamCystin and the role of the Cy (R823W) mutation in cyst formation are unknown. In normal SPRD rats, SamCystin was found to be expressed in proximal tubules and glomeruli; protein expression was highest at 7 days of age and declined by ?50-60% at 45-84 days of age. In Cy/+ and Cy/Cy kidneys, expression of SamCystin was lower than in +/+ kidneys at 3 and 7 days but became elevated at 21 days. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SamCystin was distributed on the brush border of proximal tubules in normal rat kidneys. In Cy/+ kidneys, there were robust SamCystin staining in cyst-lining epithelial cells and loss of apical localization, and increased number of PCNA-positive cells in cyst-lining epithelia. Verapamil, an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, accelerated PKD progression in this model and caused a further increase in the expression and abnormal distribution of SamCystin. We conclude that aberrant expression and mislocalization of R823W SamCystin lead to increased cell proliferation and renal cyst formation.