Polymorphisms in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer in West Bengal, India.
ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed digestive tract cancers and carries a high risk of mortality. Acetaldehyde (AA), a carcinogenic intermediate of ethanol metabolism contributes to the risk of GC. The accumulation of AA largely depends on the activity of the major metabolic enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by the ADH (ADH1 gene cluster: ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH1C) and ALDH2 genes, respectively. This study aimed to evaluate the association between genetic variants in these genes and GC risk in West Bengal, India.We enrolled 105 GC patients (cases), and their corresponding sex, age and ethnicity was matched to 108 normal individuals (controls). Genotyping for ADH1A (rs1230025), ADH1B (rs3811802, rs1229982, rs1229984, rs6413413, rs4147536, rs2066702 and rs17033), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs886205, rs968529, rs16941667 and rs671) was performed using DNA sequencing and RFLP.Genotype and allele frequency analysis of these SNPs revealed that G allele of rs17033 is a risk allele (A vs G: OR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.54-8.75, p = 0.002) for GC. Significant association was also observed between rs671 and incidence of GC (p = 0.003). Moreover, smokers having the Lys allele of rs671 had a 7-fold increased risk of acquiring the disease (OR = 7.58, 95% CI = 1.34-42.78, p = 0.009).In conclusion, rs17033 of ADH1B and rs671 of ALDH2 SNPs were associated with GC risk and smoking habit may further modify the effect of rs671. Conversely, rs4147536 of ADH1B might have a protective role in our study population. Additional studies with a larger patient population are needed to confirm our results.
Project description:Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) encode essential alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. While alcohol use is associated with spontaneously deep intracerebral haemorrhage (SDICH), particularly in males, the activities and genetic variants of ADH and ALDH may affect SDICH development. This case-control study was conducted to identify the interaction of alcohol use and SDICH with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): ADH1B rs1229984, ADH1C rs2241894, ALDH2 rs671, ALDH2 rs886205, and ALDH2 rs4648328. We enrolled 208 patients with SDICH and 244 healthy controls in a Taiwanese population. ALDH2 rs671 was significantly associated with SDICH in the dominant (P?<?0.001) and additive models (P?=?0.007). ALDH2 rs4648328 was borderline significantly associated with SDICH in the recessive (P?=?0.024) or additive models (P?=?0.030). In alcohol-using patients, the ALDH2 rs671 GG genotype was associated with SDICH risk compared to the GA+AA genotype (P?=?0.010). ADH1B rs1229984, ADH1C rs2241894, and ALDH2 rs886205 did not demonstrate association with SDICH. Thus, the ALDH2 rs671 GG genotype is a risk factor for SDICH. Because the genetic distributions of ALDH2 rs671 exhibited strong ethnic heterogeneity, further studies in different populations are needed to validate these findings.
Project description:Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are two major alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Moderate alcohol intake is a protective modified factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) while heavy alcohol intake and abstinence increased dementia risk. The associations between Alzheimer's disease and alcohol-metabolizing genes are uncertain. This study examined the association of AD with seven <i>ADH/ALDH</i> single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), <i>ADH1C</i> rs2241894, <i>ADH1B</i> rs1229984, <i>ALDH1B1</i> rs2073478, <i>ALDH2</i> rs886205, rs4767944, rs4648328, and rs671. We enrolled 157 AD and 168 age- and sex-matched control subjects in pilot study to examine the association of AD with <i>ADH/ALDH</i> SNPs. Reconstructed <i>ALDH2</i> haplotypes were performed. We measured plasma level of ADH1C and checked the interaction effect of AD-rs2241894 genotype on plasma ADH1C level. In extension study, we further examined 339 AD and 2,504 healthy control from the Taiwan Biobank. In pilot study, we observed that <i>ADH1C</i> rs2241894 TT genotype was negatively associated with AD in a recessive genetic model (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, <i>p</i> < 0.0001) in women. A strong linkage disequilibrium was observed among the four examined SNPs of <i>ALDH2</i>. No haplotype was related to AD. The plasma ADH1C level in AD was higher than that in control. After adjusted by age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol, we found a significant interaction effect of AD-rs2241894 genotype on plasma ADH1C level (<i>p</i> = 0.04). This interaction effect was attributable to the association between AD and plasma ADH1C level (? estimate = 366, 95% CI 92.7?639.4, <i>p</i> = 0.009). The genetic distribution of <i>ADH1C</i> rs2241894 showed strong ethnic heterogeneity, in which the T allele was the minor allele accounting for 28.5% in our study and 23.6% in East Asians, while it was a major allele in Americans, Europeans, and the global populations. No association was discovered between AD and the five SNPs: rs2241894, rs1229984, rs2073478, rs886205, and rs671 in the extension study. In summary, this study revealed a suggestive association between ADH1C rs2241894 and female AD in the pilot study, but failed to confirm this finding in a population database. Further age-matched and large sample size case-control studies are needed before rs2241894 can be interpreted as a protective genetic factor of AD.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial and polygenic disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between six polymorphisms of four alcohol metabolism relevant genes (ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH1b1, ALDH2) and the risk of CAD in Han Chinese.<h4>Methods and results</h4>This was a hospital-based case-control study involving 1365 hypertensive patients. All study subjects were angiographically confirmed. Genotypes were determined with ligase detection reaction method. There was no observable deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for six examined polymorphisms in controls. The genotype and allele distributions of ALDH1b1 rs2073478 and ALDH2 rs671 polymorphisms differed significantly between the two groups (P?0.005), even after the Bonferroni correction. The most common allele combination was A-C-C-G-C-G (alleles in order of rs1229984, rs1693482, rs2228093, rs2073478, rs886205, rs671) and its frequency was slightly higher in controls than in CAD patients (P?=?0.067). After assigning the most common allele combination as a reference, allele combination A-C-C-T-C-A, which simultaneously possessed the risk alleles of rs2073478 and rs671 polymorphisms, was associated with a 1.80-fold greater risk of CAD. Further, a two-locus model including rs2073478 and rs671 that had a maximal testing accuracy of 0.598 and a cross-validation consistency of 10 (P?=?0.008) was deemed as the overall best MDR model, which was further validated by classical Logistic regression model.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings provide clear evidence for both individual and interactive associations of ALDH1b1 and ALDH2 genes with the development of CAD in Han Chinese.
Project description:Alcohol drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer (EC) and the metabolism of ethanol has been suggested to play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including genomewide association studies (GWAS), have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) to be associated with EC. Using a population-based case-control study with 858 EC cases and 1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population. Results showed that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.66] for G-allele carriers compared to A/A homozygotes. No heterogeneity was detected on this association across different strata of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Statistical interaction between ALDH2 (rs671) and alcohol drinking on EC susceptibility in both additive and multiplicative scales was observed. Compared to G/G homozygotes, A-allele carriers were positively associated with EC among moderate/heavy drinkers (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.12-2.40) and inversely associated with EC among never/light drinks (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54-1.03). In addition, statistical interaction between ALDH2 and ADH1B polymorphisms on EC susceptibility among never/light drinkers was indicated. We did not observe association of ADH1C polymorphism with EC. In conclusion, our findings indicated that ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with EC independent of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking status and alcohol drinking interacted with ALDH2 (rs671) on EC susceptibility in this high-risk Chinese population.
Project description:Alcohol is a frequently used addictive substance worldwide. Aim of this study is to determine the frequency distribution of SNPs within ADH1B, ADH4, ADH1C, ALDH2, BDNF, OPRM1, and DRD2 genes in a southeastern European Caucasian population from Greece. For this purpose samples of 1276 volunteers were analyzed after deidentification and anonymization. The allele distribution of the examined polymorphisms in the present Greek population cohort was as follows: rs1229984 (ADH1B): GG(wt) = 64.14%, GA = 29.86%, AA = 4.00%; rs1693482 (ADH1C): CC(wt) = 57.45%, CT = 36.76%, TT = 5.80%; rs1799971 (OPRM1): AA(wt) = 72.43%, AG = 28.72%, GG = 1.89%; rs1800497 (DRD2): CC(wt) = 70.84%, CT = 27.18%, TT = 1.98%; rs1800759 (ADH4): CC(wt) = 34.25%, CA = 48.12%, AA = 17.63%; rs6265 (BDNF): GG(wt) = 65.99%, GA = 31.02%, AA = 2.99%; and rs671 (ALDH2): GG(wt) = 99.84% GA = 0.16%, AA = 0.00%. Mutant rs1229984 allele A was ~6.5× more frequent in the Greek than in the European population. Mutant rs1693482 allele T was ~1.7× more frequent in the European than in the Greek population. Mutant alleles for polymorphisms rs1800759 and rs1799971 show similar frequencies in both northern and southern Europeans. One rs671 mutant A allele was detected in the Greek population (0.08%). The mutant rs1800497 allele T was ~1.2× more frequent in the European than in the Greek population and the mutant rs6265 allele A was ~1.1× more frequent in the European than in the Greek population. An alcohol addiction-specific algorithm was generated (TGS) that may predict alcohol addiction prevalence in a population. According to our findings, the analyzed Southeastern population may differ genetically from north Europeans due to influences from neighboring Asian and African populations and a calculated TGS score >50 indicates individuals with low susceptibility to develop alcohol addiction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alcohol consumption and oxidative stress are well-known risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genes encoding enzymes of alcohol and reactive aldehyde metabolism, respectively, are prevalent among East Asians. Here, we examined whether these SNPs were associated with AF in Japanese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS:Five hundred seventy-seven Japanese patients with AF undergoing catheter ablation and 1935 controls at Hiroshima University Hospital were studied. Alcohol consumption habits, medical history, electrocardiogram (EKG), electrophysiology and cardiac echocardiography were reviewed. Patients were also genotyped for ALDH2 (rs671) and ADH1B (rs1229984). A significant linear correlation was found between ALDH2 genotype and mean alcohol intake (P?=?1.7?×?10-6). Further, ALDH2 (rs671) was associated with AF (P?=?7.6?×?10-4, odds ratio [OR]?=?0.6). Frequency of the ALDH2 SNP allele A which limits acetaldehyde metabolism was lower in patients with AF (18.8%) than in controls (23.5%). In contrast, we found that the frequencies of the ADH1B SNP genotypes were similar in patients with AF and in controls. Subset analysis among the 182 patients with lone AF and 914 controls (control II) (<60 years of age and without hypertension), both ALDH2 and ADH1B SNPs were significantly associated with AF (P?=?0.013, OR?=?0.7; P?=?0.0007, OR?=?1.4, respectively). The frequency of the dysfunctional allele A of ALDH2 was significantly lower and the dysfunctional allele G of ADH1B was significantly higher in patients with lone AF than in control II (ALDH2 A allele frequency?=?0.176 vs 0.235, OR?=?1.3, P?=?0.013, ADH1B SNP G allele frequency?=?0.286 vs 0.220, OR?=?1.4, P?=?0.0007). CONCLUSIONS:When considering all patients enrolled, the dysfunctional ALDH2 allele was negatively associated with AF. When examining a subset of patients with lone AF, the dysfunctional ALDH2 allele was negatively associated with AF and the slower metabolizing ADH1B allele was positively associated with AF. Hence, prolonged metabolic conversion of alcohol to acetaldehyde may be associated with the occurrence of AF in the Japanese and other East Asian populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The genes coding for ethanol metabolism enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)] have been widely studied for their influence on the risk to develop alcohol dependence (AD). However, the relation between polymorphisms of these metabolism genes and AD in Caucasian subjects has not been clearly established. The present study examined evidence for the association of alcohol metabolism genes with AD in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence. METHODS:We conducted a case-control association study with 575 independent subjects who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, AD diagnosis and 530 controls. A total of 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the seven ADH (ADH1-7) and two ALDH genes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate protocols. Several statistical procedures were implemented to control for false discoveries. RESULTS:All markers with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln). Haplotypic association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci. We detected two significant interactions between pairs of markers in intron 6 of ADH6 and intron 12 of ALDH2 (p = 5 x 10(-5)), and 5' of both ADH4 and ADH1A (p = 2 x 10(-4)). CONCLUSION:We found evidence for the association of several ADH genes with AD in a sample of Western European origin. The significant interaction effects between markers in ADH and ALDH genes suggest possible epistatic roles between alcohol metabolic enzymes in the risk for AD.
Project description:The set of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes has considerable genetic and functional complexity. The relationships between some alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and alcohol dependence (AD) have long been studied in many populations, but not comprehensively. In the present study, we genotyped 16 markers within the ADH gene cluster (including the ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH5, ADH6, and ADH7 genes), 4 markers within the ALDH2 gene, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in a case-control sample of 801 individuals. Associations between markers and disease were analyzed by a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test, a conventional case-control comparison, a structured association analysis, and a novel diplotype trend regression (DTR) analysis. Finally, the disease alleles were fine mapped by a Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) measure (J). All markers were found to be in HWE in controls, but some markers showed HWD in cases. Genotypes of many markers were associated with AD. DTR analysis showed that ADH5 genotypes and diplotypes of ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH7, and ALDH2 were associated with AD in European Americans and/or African Americans. The risk-influencing alleles were fine mapped from among the markers studied and were found to coincide with some well-known functional variants. We demonstrated that DTR was more powerful than many other conventional association methods. We also found that several ADH genes and the ALDH2 gene were susceptibility loci for AD, and the associations were best explained by several independent risk genes.
Project description:To date, the relationship between the aldehyde dehydrogenases-2 (ALDH2) rs671 G>A (Glu504Lys) polymorphism and gastric cancer (GC) risk has not been thoroughly elucidated. To derive a more precise estimation of the effect of the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism on GC, we conducted this meta-analysis. We searched for qualified studies in the Embase, PubMed, Wang Fan and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association. A total of 6,421 GC patients and 8,832 control subjects were included in the present study. The pooled results indicated no significant relationship between the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and GC susceptibility in all genetic models. A stratified analysis by country showed that the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism might be a risk factor for GC in Japan (Allele model: Punadjusted = 0.034; Dominant model: Punadjusted = 0.040); however, the result was nonsignificant when the Bonferroni correction and false discovery rate (FDR) were applied. In subgroup analyses by drinking status in the dominant model, our study revealed that the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism significantly increased the risk of GC for drinkers (dominant model: P < 0.001). No relationship between the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and GC risk was observed in any other subgroup. Our present study indicated no association between the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism and GC risk in Eastern Asian populations. However, the ALDH2 rs671 G>A polymorphism can significantly increase GC risk for drinkers.
Project description:Gout is caused by hyperuricemia, with alcohol consumption being an established risk factor. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are crucial enzymes for alcohol metabolism. We recently performed a genome-wide association study of gout and a subsequent fine-mapping study which identified rs671 of ALDH2 as a gout locus. However, the association between gout and common variants of ADH1B has hitherto remained unreported, prompting us to investigate the association between gout and common dysfunctional variants of ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2 (rs671). We used 1,048 clinically defined gout cases and 1,334 controls of Japanese male. The "His carrier" (His/His or His/Arg) of rs1229984 (His48Arg) of ADH1B significantly increased gout risk (P?=?4.3?×?10-4, odds ratio?=?1.76), as did the "non-Lys carrier (Glu/Glu)" of rs671 (Glu504Lys) of ALDH2. Furthermore, common variants of ADH1B and ALDH2 are independently associated with gout. Our findings likewise suggest that genotyping these variants can be useful for the evaluation of gout risk.