TRADD mediates the tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis of L929 cells in the absence of RIP3.
ABSTRACT: Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is a critical initiator in mediating necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in L929 cells, so knockdown of RIP3 inhibits TNF?-induced L929 cell necroptosis. However, RIP3 knockdown was shown to switch TNF?-induced necroptosis to apoptosis in L929 cells in other studies. Therefore, whether RIP3 knockdown blocks the TNF?-induced death of L929 cells is controversial. In this study, TNF? activated caspase pathway and induced cell death in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells, and the RIP3-independent cell death had been blocked by Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) or caspase 8 knockdown, demonstrating that RIP3 knockdown switched TNF?-induced necroptosis to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Although both TNF receptor type 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) and RIP1 have been reported to mediate TNF?-induced apoptosis, the knockdown of TRADD, but not RIP1, suppressed TNF?-induced activation of the caspase pathway and subsequent apoptosis in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells. In addition, TRADD bound and activated caspase 8 during the RIP3-independent apoptosis process, indicating that TRADD initiates RIP3-independent apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Collectively, we identified the target and mechanism underlying RIP3-independent apoptosis and elucidated the coordinated roles of RIP3 and TRADD in mediating the programmed cell death of L929 cells following TNF? stimulation.
Project description:TNF receptor 1 signaling induces NF-?B activation and necroptosis in L929 cells. We previously reported that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-mediated receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) ubiquitination acts as a cytoprotective mechanism, whereas knockdown of cylindromatosis, a RIP1-deubiquitinating enzyme, protects against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We report here that RIP1 is a crucial mediator of canonical NF-?B activation in L929 cells, therefore questioning the relative cytoprotective contribution of RIP1 ubiquitination versus canonical NF-?B activation. We found that attenuated NF-?B activation has no impact on TNF-induced necroptosis. However, we identified A20 and linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as negative regulators of necroptosis. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to RIP3, we also found that knockdown of RIP1 did not block TNF cytotoxicity. Cell death typing revealed that RIP1-depleted cells switch from necroptotic to apoptotic death, indicating that RIP1 can also suppress apoptosis in L929 cells. Inversely, we observed that Fas-associated protein via a death domain, cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and caspase-8, which are all involved in the initiation of apoptosis, counteract necroptosis induction. Finally, we also report RIP1-independent but RIP3-mediated necroptosis in the context of TNF signaling in particular conditions.
Project description:As a programmed necrotic cell death, necroptosis has the intrinsic initiators, including receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), which combine to form necroptotic signaling pathway and mediate necroptosis induced by various necroptotic stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Although chemical inhibition of RIPK1 blocks TNF-induced necroptosis, genetic elimination of RIPK1 does not suppress but facilitate necroptosis triggered by TNF. Moreover, RIPK3 has been reported to mediate the RIPK1-independent necroptosis, but the involved mechanism is unclear. In this study, we found that TRADD was essential for TNF-induced necroptosis in RIPK1-knockdown L929 and HT-22 cells. Mechanistic study demonstrated that TRADD bound RIPK3 to form new protein complex, which then promoted RIPK3 phosphorylation via facilitating RIPK3 oligomerization, leading to RIPK3-MLKL signaling pathway activation. Therefore, TRADD acted as a partner of RIPK3 to initiate necroptosis in RIPK1-knockdown L929 and HT-22 cells in response to TNF stimulation. In addition, TRADD was critical for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contributed to RIPK1-independent necroptosis triggered by TNF. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TRADD acts as the new target protein for TNF-induced RIPK3 activation and the subsequent necroptosis in a RIPK1-independent manner.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling may result in survival, apoptosis or programmed necrosis. The latter is called necroptosis if the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or genetic knockout of RIP3 prevents it. In the lethal mouse model of TNF?-mediated shock, addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (zVAD) accelerates time to death. Here, we demonstrate that RIP3-deficient mice are protected markedly from TNF?-mediated shock in the presence and absence of caspase inhibition. We further show that the fusion protein TAT-crmA, previously demonstrated to inhibit apoptosis, also prevents necroptosis in L929, HT29 and FADD-deficient Jurkat cells. In contrast to RIP3-deficient mice, blocking necroptosis by Nec-1 or TAT-crmA did not protect from TNF?/zVAD-mediated shock, but further accelerated time to death. Even in the absence of caspase inhibition, Nec-1 application led to similar kinetics. Depletion of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes or genetic deficiency for T lymphocytes did not influence this model. Because RIP3-deficient mice are known to be protected from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP), we applied Nec-1 and TAT-crmA in this model and demonstrated the deterioration of pancreatic damage upon addition of these substances. These data highlight the importance of separating genetic RIP3 deficiency from RIP1 inhibition by Nec-1 application in vivo and challenge the current definition of necroptosis.
Project description:We evaluated redundant and receptor-specific activities of TRADD, RIPK1, and FADD in RIPK3-expressing HeLa cells lacking expression of these proteins or any combination of two of these factors. We confirmed the opposing role of FADD in TNF- and TRAIL-induced necroptosis and observed an anti-necroptotic function of TRADD. RIPK1 and TRADD act in a redundant manner in TNF- but not TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Complementary, FADD proved to be sufficient for TRAIL- but not for TNF-induced apoptosis. TRADD and RIPK1, however, redundantly mediated proinflammatory signaling in response to TNF and TRAIL. FADD deficiency sensitized more efficiently for TNFR1-mediated necroptosis than caspase-8 deficiency pointing to a caspase-8 independent inhibitory activity of FADD on TNF-induced necroptosis. Based on these characteristics, we propose a model in which the death receptor-specific activities of TRADD, RIPK1, and FADD are traced back to their hierarchically different position in TNFR1- and TRAIL death receptor signaling.
Project description:The relevance of the adaptor protein TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) for signal transduction of the death receptor tumour necrosis factor receptor1 (TNFR1) is well-established. The role of TRAF2 for signalling by CD95 and the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) DRs, however, is only poorly understood. Here, we observed that knockdown (KD) of TRAF2 sensitised keratinocytes for TRAIL- and CD95L-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, while cell death was fully blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) in control cells, TRAF2-depleted keratinocytes were only partly rescued from TRAIL- and CD95L-induced cell death. In line with the idea the only partially protective effect of zVAD-fmk on TRAIL- and CD95L-treated TRAF2-depleted keratinocytes is due to the induction of necroptosis, combined treatment with zVAD-fmk and the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) inhibitor necrostatin-1 [corrected] fully rescued these cells. To better understand the impact of TRAF2 levels on RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necroptosis and RIP3-independent apoptosis, we performed experiments in HeLa cells that lack endogenous RIP3 and HeLa cells stably transfected with RIP3. HeLa cells, in which necroptosis has no role, were markedly sensitised to TRAIL-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis by TRAF2 KD. In RIP3-expressing HeLa transfectants, however, KD of TRAF2 also strongly sensitised for TRAIL-induced necroptosis. Noteworthy, priming of keratinocytes with soluble TWEAK, which depletes the cytosolic pool of TRAF2-containing protein complexes, resulted in strong sensitisation for TRAIL-induced necroptosis but had only a very limited effect on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The necroptotic TRAIL response was not dependent on endogenously produced TNF and TNFR signalling, since blocking TNF by TNFR2-Fc or anti-TNF? had no effect on necroptosis induction. Taken together, we identified TRAF2 not only as a negative regulator of DR-induced apoptosis but in particular also as an antagonist of TRAIL- and CD95L-induced necroptosis.
Project description:Necroptosis is a form of necrotic cell death that requires the activity of the death domain-containing kinase RIP1 and its family member RIP3. Necroptosis occurs when RIP1 is deubiquitinated to form a complex with RIP3 in cells deficient in the death receptor adapter molecule FADD or caspase-8. Necroptosis may play a role in host defense during viral infection as viruses like vaccinia can induce necroptosis while murine cytomegalovirus encodes a viral inhibitor of necroptosis. To see how general the interplay between viruses and necroptosis is, we surveyed seven different viruses. We found that two of the viruses tested, Sendai virus (SeV) and murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV68), are capable of inducing dramatic necroptosis in the fibrosarcoma L929 cell line. We show that MHV68-induced cell death occurs through the cytosolic STING sensor pathway in a TNF-dependent manner. In contrast, SeV-induced death is mostly independent of TNF. Knockdown of the RNA sensing molecule RIG-I or the RIP1 deubiquitin protein, CYLD, but not STING, rescued cells from SeV-induced necroptosis. Accompanying necroptosis, we also find that wild type but not mutant SeV lacking the viral proteins Y1 and Y2 result in the non-ubiquitinated form of RIP1. Expression of Y1 or Y2 alone can suppress RIP1 ubiquitination but CYLD is dispensable for this process. Instead, we found that Y1 and Y2 can inhibit cIAP1-mediated RIP1 ubiquitination. Interestingly, we also found that SeV infection of B6 RIP3-/- mice results in increased inflammation in the lung and elevated SeV-specific T cells. Collectively, these data identify viruses and pathways that can trigger necroptosis and highlight the dynamic interplay between pathogen-recognition receptors and cell death induction.
Project description:TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide (CHX) sensitize for poly(I:C)-induced cell death. Notably, although CHX preferentially enhanced poly(I:C)-induced apoptosis, TWEAK enhanced primarily poly(I:C)-induced necroptosis. Both sensitizers of poly(I:C)-induced cell death, however, showed no major effect on proinflammatory poly(I:C) signaling. Analysis of a panel of HeLa-RIPK3 variants lacking TRADD, RIPK1, FADD, or caspase-8 expression revealed furthermore similarities and differences in the way how poly(I:C)/TWEAK, TNF, and TRAIL utilize these molecules for signaling. RIPK1 turned out to be essential for poly(I:C)/TWEAK-induced caspase-8-mediated apoptosis but was dispensable for this response in TNF and TRAIL signaling. TRADD-RIPK1-double deficiency differentially affected poly(I:C)-triggered gene induction but abrogated gene induction by TNF completely. FADD deficiency abrogated TRAIL- but not TNF- and poly(I:C)-induced necroptosis, whereas TRADD elicited protective activity against all three death inducers. A general protective activity against poly(I:C)-, TRAIL-, and TNF-induced cell death was also observed in FLIPL and FLIPS transfectrants.
Project description:Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that critically depends on RIP3 and MLKL. However, the contribution of mitochondria to necroptosis is still poorly understood. In the present study, we discovered that mitochondrial perturbations play a critical role in Smac mimetic/Dexamethasone (Dexa)-induced necroptosis independently of death receptor ligands. We demonstrate that the Smac mimetic BV6 and Dexa cooperate to trigger necroptotic cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells that are deficient in caspase activation due to absent caspase-8 expression or pharmacological inhibition by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk, since genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of RIP3 or MLKL significantly rescue BV6/Dexa-induced necroptosis. In addition, RIP3 or MLKL knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are protected from BV6/Dexa/zVAD.fmk-induced cell death. In contrast, antagonistic antibodies against the death receptor ligands TNF?, TRAIL or CD95 ligand fail to rescue BV6/Dexa-triggered cell death. Kinetic studies revealed that prior to cell death BV6/Dexa treatment causes hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by loss of MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Bak activation and disruption of mitochondrial respiration. Importantly, knockdown of Bak significantly reduces BV6/Dexa-induced loss of MMP and delays cell death, but not ROS production, whereas ROS scavengers attenuate Bak activation, indicating that ROS production occurs upstream of BV6/Dexa-mediated Bak activation. Consistently, BV6/Dexa treatment causes oxidative thiol modifications of Bak protein. Intriguingly, knockdown or knockout of RIP3 or MLKL protect ALL cells or MEFs from BV6/Dexa-induced ROS production, Bak activation, drop of MMP and disruption of mitochondrial respiration, demonstrating that these mitochondrial events depend on RIP3 and MLKL. Thus, mitochondria might serve as an amplification step in BV6/Dexa-induced necroptosis. These findings provide new insights into the role of mitochondrial dysfunctions during necroptosis and have important implications for the development of novel treatment approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance in ALL.
Project description:Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), a natural phenolic acid widely found in gallnuts, tea leaves and various fruits, possesses several bioactivities against inflammation, oxidation, and carcinogenicity. The beneficial effect of GA on the reduction of animal hepatofibrosis has been indicated due to its antioxidative property. However, the cytotoxicity of GA autoxidation causing cell death has also been reported. Herein, we postulated that GA might target activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs), the cell type responsible for hepatofibrosis, to mitigate the process of fibrosis. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms that GA exerted on aHSCs were then analyzed. The results indicated that GA elicited aHSC programmed cell death through TNF-?-mediated necroptosis. GA induced significant oxidative stress through the suppression of catalase activity and the depletion of glutathione (GSH). Elevated oxidative stress triggered the production of TNF-? facilitating the undergoing of necroptosis through the up-regulation of key necroptotic regulatory proteins TRADD and receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), and the inactivation of caspase-8. Calmodulin and calpain-1 activation were engaged, which promoted subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). The TNF-? antagonist (SPD-304) and the RIP1 inhibitor (necrostatin-1, Nec-1) confirmed GA-induced TNFR1-mediated necroptosis. The inhibition of RIP1 by Nec-1 diverted the cell death from necroptosis to apoptosis, as the activation of caspase 3 and the increase of cytochrome c. Collectively, this is the first report indicating that GA induces TNF signaling-triggered necroptosis in aHSCs, which may offer an alternative strategy for the amelioration of liver fibrosis.
Project description:Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) have emerged as important anti-cell death mediators, particularly in cancer. Although they are known to be expressed in immune tissue, their specific immune function remains unclear. We observed that degradation of cIAPs with SMAC mimetic (SM) results in death of primary bone-marrow-derived macrophages. SM-induced death of macrophages occurred by programmed necrosis (necroptosis), which was dependent on TNF receptor expression. Consistent with necroptosis, SM-induced death of macrophages was abrogated by inhibition of receptor interacting protein 1 (Rip1) kinase signaling or by receptor interacting protein 3 (Rip3) knockdown. SM-induced necroptosis was also dependent on inhibition of SM-induced apoptosis due to the expression of the endogenous caspase inhibitor, xIAP. We found that cIAPs limit Rip3, and to a lesser extent Rip1, expression via post-transcriptional mechanisms, leading to inhibition of the Rip1-Rip3 death complex (necrosome). Reduced cIAP activity in vivo, via SM treatment or specific knockout of either cIAP, resulted in elevated macrophage cell death and compromised control of an intracellular bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. These results show that cIAPs have an important role in limiting programmed necrosis of macrophages, which facilitates effective control of a pathogen.