Network methods to support user involvement in qualitative data analyses: an introduction to Participatory Theme Elicitation.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:While Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) is encouraged throughout the research process, engagement is typically limited to intervention design and post-analysis stages. There are few approaches to participatory data analyses within complex health interventions. METHODS:Using qualitative data from a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT), this proof-of-concept study tests the value of a new approach to participatory data analysis called Participatory Theme Elicitation (PTE). Forty excerpts were given to eight members of a youth advisory PPI panel to sort into piles based on their perception of related thematic content. Using algorithms to detect communities in networks, excerpts were then assigned to a thematic cluster that combined the panel members' perspectives. Network analysis techniques were also used to identify key excerpts in each grouping that were then further explored qualitatively. RESULTS:While PTE analysis was, for the most part, consistent with the researcher-led analysis, young people also identified new emerging thematic content. CONCLUSIONS:PTE appears promising for encouraging user led identification of themes arising from qualitative data collected during complex interventions. Further work is required to validate and extend this method. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02455986 . Retrospectively Registered on 21 May 2015.
Project description:Background:Accessing support services for depression has been historically difficult given the societal stigma that exists regarding the condition. Recent advances in digital technologies continue to be postulated as a potential panacea yet the results from research trials have been mixed with a range of effect sizes. Methods:This article offers a different perspective by presenting a panel of end users (co-researchers) with qualitative interview data (n = 8) taken from a feasibility RCT of a group based video-conferencing service for depressed adults. The co-researcher panel were introduced to a new method of participatory data analysis known as Participatory Theme Elicitation (PTE). This method involves using network analysis techniques to create groupings and visual diagrams in order to support the generation of themes and minimise scientific researcher input/influence. Results:Co-researchers reported that while VC based interventions appeared convenient, accessible and relatively low cost - additional training and support should be offered to improve uptake and retention. In addition, co-researchers suggested that further exploration is needed regarding the level of self-awareness one feels in a group based VC environment and whether this facilitates disclosure (through disinhibition) or increases anxiety. Conclusion:The findings presented here appear to support existing (researcher and academic-led) literature in the field as well as suggest new areas for investigation. By presenting data generated solely by co-researchers, this article also adds to the evidence surrounding participatory analysis methods - particularly the growing need for robust approaches that are accessible and less time-consuming than those currently available. Trial registration number:NCT03288506 (Clinicaltrials.gov) 20th Sept 2017 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03288506.
Project description:Participatory music engagement has the capacity to support well-being. Yet, there is little research that has scrutinized the processes through which music has an effect. In this meta-ethnography [PROSPERO CRD42019130164], we conducted a systematic search of 19 electronic databases and a critical appraisal to identify 46 qualitative studies reporting on participants' subjective views of how participatory music engagement supports their mental well-being. Synthesis of first-order and second-order interpretations using thematic coding resulted in four third-order pathways that account for how participatory music engagement supports mental well-being: managing and expressing emotions, facilitating self-development, providing respite, and facilitating connections. Our interpretation suggests that people benefit from participatory music engagement by engaging with specific and multiple processes that meet their individual needs and circumstances. These findings inform research directions within the field of music and well-being, as well as guiding the development and delivery of future music interventions.
Project description:The objectives of the present study comprised the recognition of major genes related to pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and the evaluation of their functional enrichment levels, in addition to the identification of small chemical molecules that may offer potential for use in PTE treatment. The RNA expression profiling of GSE84738 was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following data preprocessing, the differently expressed genes (DEGs) between the PTE group and the control group were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray package. Subsequently, the protein?protein interaction (PPI) network of these DEGs was examined using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, visualized via Cytoscape. The most significantly clustered modules in the network were identified using Multi Contrast Delayed Enhancement, a plugin of Cytoscape. Subsequently, functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed, using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool. Furthermore, the chemical?target interaction networks were investigated using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database as visualized via Cytoscape. A total of 548 DEGs (262 upregulated and 286 downregulated) were identified in the PTE group, compared with the control group. The upregulated and downregulated genes were enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to inflammation and eye sarcolemma, respectively. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and erb?b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2) were upregulated genes that ranked higher in the PPI network (47 and 40 degrees, respectively) whereas C?JUN was the most downregulated gene (46). Small chemical molecules ethinyl (135), cyclosporine (126), thrombomodulin precursor (113) and tretinoin (111) had >100 degrees in the DEG?chemical interaction network. In addition, ethinyl targeted to TNF, whereas TNF and ERBB2 were targeted by cyclosporine, and tretinoin was a targeted chemical of ERBB2. Therefore, cyclosporine, ethinyl, and tretinoin may be potential targets for PTE treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging neglected mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease of domestic animals and humans, with potential for global expansion. The objectives of this study were: to assess perceived relative burden and seasonality of RVF in nomadic cattle herds and validate the burden with sero-prevalence impact; and assess perceived risk factors associated with the disease and risk pathways for RVF virus in nomadic pastoral herds of North-central Nigeria using pastoralists' existing veterinary knowledge.<h4>Methods</h4>Participatory Epidemiology (PE) survey was conducted in Fulani nomadic pastoral communities domiciled in Niger State between January and December 2015. A cross-sectional sero-prevalence investigation was also carried out in nomadic pastoral cattle herds to validate outcomes of PE. A total of nine nomadic pastoral communities were purposively selected for qualitative impact assessment using Participatory Rural Appraisal tools, while 97 cattle randomly sampled from 15 purposively selected nomadic herds and had their sera analyzed using c-ELISA. Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance W statistics and OpenEpi 2.3.1 were used for statistical analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Mean proportional piles (relative burden) of RVF (Gabi-gabiF) was 8.3%, and nomads agreement on the burden was strong (W = 0.6855) and statistically significant (P<0.001). This was validated by 11.3% (11/97; 95% CI: 6.1-18.9) sero-positivity (quantitative impact). Mean matrix scores of prominent clinical signs associated with RVF were fever (3.1), anorexia (2.1), abortion (4.1), nasal discharge (3.3), neurological disorder (8.4), diarrhoea (3.2), and sudden death (4.4), with strong agreement (W = 0.6687) and statistically significant (p<0.001). Mean proportional piles of pastoralists' perceived risk factors identified to influenced RVF occurrence were: availability of mosquitoes (18 piles, 17.6%), high cattle density (16 piles, 15.9%) and high rainfall (12 piles, 12.2%). Agreement on the risk factors was strong (W = 0.8372) and statistically significant (p<0.01). Mean matrix scores for the Entry pathway of RVF virus into the nomadic pastoral herds were: presence of RVFV infected mosquitoes (tiny biting flies) (7.9), presence of infected cattle in herds (8.4), and contacts of herd with infected wild animals at grazing (10.1). Mean matrix scores for the Spread pathway of RVF virus in herds were bites of infected mosquitoes (5.1), contacts with infected aborted fetuses/fluids (7.8), and contaminated pasture with aborted fetuses/fluids (9.7). Agreement on risk pathways was strong (W = 0.6922) and statistically significant (p<0.03). Key informants scored RVF to occurred more in Damina or late rainy season (5.3), followed by Kaka or early dry season (3.3), with strong agreement (W = 0.8719) and statistically significant (P<0.01). This study highlighted the significant existing knowledge level about RVF contained in nomadic pastoralists.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The use of PE approach is needful in active surveillance of livestock diseases in pastoral communities domiciled in highly remote areas. RVF surveillance system, control and prevention programmes that take the identified risk factors and pathways into consideration will be beneficial to the livestock industry in Nigeria, and indeed Africa. An 'OneHealth' approach is needed to improve efficiency of RVF research, surveillance, prevention and control systems, so as to assure food security and public health in developing countries.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Multidisciplinary guideline development groups (GDGs) have considerable influence on UK healthcare policy and practice, but previous research suggests that research evidence is a variable influence on GDG recommendations. The Evidence into Recommendations (EiR) study has been set up to document social-psychological influences on GDG decision-making. In this paper we aim to evaluate the relevance of existing qualitative methodologies to the EiR study, and to develop a method best-suited to capturing influences on GDG decision-making.<h4>Methods</h4>A research team comprised of three postdoctoral research fellows and a multidisciplinary steering group assessed the utility of extant qualitative methodologies for coding verbatim GDG meeting transcripts and semi-structured interviews with GDG members. A unique configuration of techniques was developed to permit data reduction and analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Our method incorporates techniques from thematic analysis, grounded theory analysis, content analysis, and framework analysis. Thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted with group members at the start and end of the GDG process defines discrete problem areas to guide data extraction from GDG meeting transcripts. Data excerpts are coded both inductively and deductively, using concepts taken from theories of decision-making, social influence and group processes. These codes inform a framework analysis to describe and explain incidents within GDG meetings. We illustrate the application of the method by discussing some preliminary findings of a study of a National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) acute physical health GDG.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This method is currently being applied to study the meetings of three of NICE GDGs. These cover topics in acute physical health, mental health and public health, and comprise a total of 45 full-day meetings. The method offers potential for application to other health care and decision-making groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient and public involvement (PPI) is a requirement for UK health and social care research funding. Evidence for how best to implement PPI in research programmes, such as National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaborations for Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs), remains limited. This paper reports findings from an action research (AR) project called IMPRESS, which aims to strengthen PPI within CLAHRC East of England (EoE). IMPRESS combines AR with Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to explore PPI within diverse case study projects, identifying actions to implement, test and refine to further embed PPI. METHODS:We purposively selected CLAHRC EoE case study projects for in-depth analysis of PPI using NPT. Data were generated from project PPI documentation, semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers and PPI contributors and focus groups. Transcripts and documents were subjected to abductive thematic analysis and triangulation within case. Systematic across case comparison of themes was undertaken with findings and implications refined through stakeholder consultation. RESULTS:We interviewed 24 researchers and 13 PPI contributors and analysed 28 documents from 10 case studies. Three focus groups were held: two with researchers (n = 4 and n = 6) and one with PPI contributors (n = 5). Findings detail to what extent projects made sense of PPI, bought in to PPI, operationalised PPI and appraised it, thus identifying barriers and enablers to fully embedded PPI. CONCLUSION:Combining NPT with AR allows us to assess the embeddedness of PPI within projects and programme, to inform specific local action and report broader conceptual lessons for PPI knowledge and practice informing the development of an action framework for embedding PPI in research programmes. To embed PPI within similar programmes teams, professionals, disciplines and institutions should be recognised as variably networked into existing PPI support. Further focus and research is needed on sharing PPI learning and supporting innovation in PPI.
Project description:PURPOSE:The Graduate Record Exam (GRE) is a general examination predictive of success in US based graduate programs. Used to assess written, mathematical and critical thinking (CT) skills of students, the GRE is utilized for admission to approximately 85% of US Physical Therapist Education (PTE) programs. The purpose of this research is to assess if CT skills measured by the GRE match CT skills deemed, by an expert panel, as most important to assess prior to PTE. METHODS:Using a modified E-Delphi approach, a three-phase survey was distributed over 8-weeks to a panel consisting of licensed US physical therapists- experienced in the realm of critical thinking and/or PTE program directors. The CT skills isolated by the expert panel, based on Facione's The Delphi Report were compared to the CT skills assessed by the GRE. RESULTS:The CT skills supported by The Delphi Report and chosen by the expert panel to assess prior to acceptance into US PTE programs included clarifying meaning, categorization and analyzing arguments. Only clarifying meaning matched the CT skills from the GRE. CONCLUSION:The GRE is a test for general admission to graduate programs, lacking context related to healthcare or physical therapy. The current study fails to support the GRE as an assessment tool of CT for applicants for admission to PTE. Development of a context-based admission test where CT skills identified in this study is a key in the admissions process to predict which students will complete US PTE programs and pass licensure exam.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health and social care organisations globally are moving towards prevention-focussed community-based, integrated care. The success of this depends on professionals changing practice behaviours. This study explored the feasibility of applying a behavioural science approach to help staff teams from health organisations overcome psychological barriers to change and implement new models of care. METHODS:An Organisational Participatory Research study was conducted with health organisations from North West England, health psychologists and health workforce education commissioners. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) was applied with teams of professionals seeking help to overcome barriers to practice change. A mixed-methods data collection strategy was planned, including qualitative stakeholder interview and focus groups to explore feasibility factors and quantitative pre-post questionnaires and audits measuring team practice and psychological change barriers. Qualitative data were analysed with thematic analysis; pre-post quantitative data were limited and thus analysed descriptively. RESULTS:Four clinical teams from paediatrics, midwifery, heart failure and older adult mental health specialties in four organisations enrolled, seeking help to move care to the community, deliver preventative healthcare tasks, or become more integrated. Eighty-one managers, medical doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, midwives and other professionals contributed data. Three teams successfully designed a BCW intervention; two implemented and evaluated this. Five feasibility themes emerged from the thematic analysis of qualitative data. Optimising the BCW in an organisational change context meant 1) qualitative over quantitative data collection, 2) making behavioural science attractive, 3) co-development and a behavioural focus, 4) effective ongoing communication and 5) support from engaged leaders. Pre-post quantitative data collected suggested some positive changes in staff practice behaviours and psychological determinants following the intervention. CONCLUSIONS:Behavioural science approaches such as the BCW can be optimised to support teams within health and social care organisations implementing complex new models of care. The efficacy of this approach should now be trialled.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Singapore is becoming a world-class research hub, promoting the advancement of patient care through translational clinical research. Despite growing evidence internationally of the positive impact of public involvement (PPI), in Singapore PPI remains unusual beyond patient participation as subjects in studies.<h4>Objective</h4>To explore health researchers' understandings of the principles, role and scope of PPI, and to identify barriers and opportunities for implementation in Singapore.<h4>Design</h4>Semi-structured qualitative interviews between April and July 2018. Data were analysed using thematic framework analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Whilst most participants (n = 20) expressed a lack of experience of PPI, the interview process provided an opportunity for reflection through which it emerged as a beneficial strategy. Interviewees highlighted both utilitarian and ethical reasons for implementing PPI, particularly around increasing the relevance and efficiency of research. In addition to those challenges to PPI documented in the existing literature, participants highlighted others specific to the Singaporean context that make PPI at an individual level unlikely to be successful, including the socio-political environment and prevailing social and professional hierarchies. They also identified asset-based strategies to overcome these, in particular, a more community-oriented approach.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The cultural reluctance of individuals to question perceived authority figures such as researchers may be overcome by adopting an approach to PPI that is closer to family and local community values, and which facilitates patients and the public collectively engaging in research. Further work is needed to explore the views of patients and the public in Singapore, and the implications for other Asian communities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology--Participatory Learning and Action--to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders-migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory's four constructs--coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders to enhance the authenticity and veracity of findings.<h4>Discussion</h4>This research employs a unique combination of Normalization Process Theory and Participatory Learning and Action, which will provide a novel approach to the analysis of implementation journeys. The findings will advance knowledge in the field of implementation science because we are using and testing theoretical and methodological approaches so that we can critically appraise their scope to mediate barriers and improve the implementation processes.