Sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents: Prevalence and correlates.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) may be at disproportionate risk for misusing prescription psychotropic medications compared to their heterosexual peers. However, generalizable studies specific to this age group are lacking. The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of sexual orientation disparities in prescription drug misuse among a nationally representative sample of adolescents as well as to examine key correlates of misuse. METHOD:Using data from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we conducted stepwise multivariable weighted logistic regressions, sequentially controlling for demographics, experiences of victimization, mental health, and other illicit substance use. RESULTS:Adjusting for grade and race/ethnicity, female SMA and gay and unsure males had significantly elevated odds of ever misusing a prescription drug compared to heterosexual adolescents (ORs from 1.7-2.5). Most sexual orientation disparities among females remained significant with the addition of victimization and mental health covariates but attenuated completely after controlling for other illicit drug use. The effect for unsure males attenuated when victimization variables were included, but the effect for gay males remained significant through the final model. Controlling for other illicit drug use, mental health variables remained significant correlates for females whereas only forced sex was significant for males. CONCLUSION:These results suggest experiences of victimization and mental health partially account for the disparities in prescription drug misuse between SMA and heterosexual adolescents, and their effects may differ by sex. A combination of structural, individual coping, and universal drug prevention approaches should be used to make the largest impact on reducing these disparities.
Project description:Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) are more likely to suffer from depression, putatively through experiences of social stress and victimization interfering with processing of social reward. Alterations in neural reward networks, which develop during adolescence, confer risk for the development of depression. Employing both social and monetary reward fMRI tasks, this is the first neuroimaging study to examine function in reward circuitry as a potential mechanism of mental health disparities between SMA and heterosexual adolescents. Eight SMA and 38 heterosexual typically developing adolescents completed self-report measures of depression and victimization, and underwent fMRI during monetary and peer social reward tasks in which they received positive monetary or social feedback, respectively. Compared with heterosexual adolescents, SMA had greater interpersonal depressive symptoms and exhibited blunted neural responses to social, but not monetary, reward in socioaffective processing regions that are associated with depressive symptoms. Specifically, compared with heterosexual adolescents, SMA exhibited decreased activation in the right medial prefrontal cortex, left anterior insula (AI), and right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in response to being liked. Lower response in the right TPJ was associated with greater interpersonal depressive symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties and the underlying substrates of response to social reward (perhaps more so than response to monetary reward) may confer risk for development of depressive symptoms in SMA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prescription opioid misuse has become a leading cause of unintentional injury and death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. However, there is limited information on how adolescents and young adults obtain prescription opioids. There are also inadequate recent data on the prevalence of additional drug abuse among those misusing prescription opioids. In this study, we evaluated past-year prevalence of prescription opioid use and misuse, sources of prescription opioids, and additional substance use among adolescents and young adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This was a retrospective analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the years 2015 and 2016. Prevalence of opioid use, misuse, use disorder, and additional substance use were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by age group and other demographic variables. Sources of prescription opioids were determined for respondents reporting opioid misuse. We calculated past-year prevalence of opioid use and misuse with or without use disorder, sources of prescription opioids, and prevalence of additional substance use. We included 27,857 adolescents (12-17 years of age) and 28,213 young adults (18-25 years of age) in our analyses, corresponding to 119.3 million individuals in the extrapolated national population. There were 15,143 respondents (27.5% [95% CI 27.0-28.0], corresponding to 32.8 million individuals) who used prescription opioids in the previous year, including 21.0% (95% CI 20.4-21.6) of adolescents and 32.2% (95% CI 31.4-33.0) of young adults. Significantly more females than males reported using any prescription opioid (30.3% versus 24.8%, P < 0.001), and non-Hispanic whites and blacks were more likely to have had any opioid use compared to Hispanics (28.9%, 28.1%, and 25.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Opioid misuse was reported by 1,050 adolescents (3.8%; 95% CI 3.5-4.0) and 2,207 young adults (7.8%; 95% CI 7.3-8.2; P < 0.001). Male respondents using opioids were more likely to have opioid misuse without use disorder compared with females (23.2% versus 15.8%, respectively; P < 0.001), with similar prevalence by race/ethnicity. Among those misusing opioids, 55.7% obtained them from friends or relatives, 25.4% from the healthcare system, and 18.9% through other means. Obtaining opioids free from friends or relatives was the most common source for both adolescents (33.5%) and young adults (41.4%). Those with opioid misuse reported high prevalence of prior cocaine (35.5%), hallucinogen (49.4%), heroin (8.7%), and inhalant (30.4%) use. In addition, at least half had used tobacco (55.5%), alcohol (66.9%), or cannabis (49.9%) in the past month. Potential limitations of the study are that we cannot exclude selection bias in the study design or socially desirable reporting among participants, and that longitudinal data are not available for long-term follow-up of individuals. CONCLUSIONS:Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid use among adolescents and young adults in the US is high despite known risks for future opioid and other drug use disorders. Reported prescription opioid misuse is common among adolescents and young adults and often associated with additional substance abuse, underscoring the importance of drug and alcohol screening programs in this population. Prevention and treatment efforts should take into account that greater than half of youths misusing prescription opioids obtain these medications through friends and relatives.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>In the United States, 28.6 million people used illicit drugs or misused prescription drugs in the last 30 days. Thus, identifying factors linked with lower likelihood of future drug misuse is an important target for research and practice. Sense of purpose in life has been linked with better behavioral and physical health outcomes. Furthermore, a higher sense of purpose may reduce the likelihood of drug misuse because it has been linked with several protective factors including enhanced ability to handle stress, higher pain tolerance, and lower impulsivity. However, the association between sense of purpose and drug misuse has been understudied. Thus, we tested whether people with a higher sense of purpose at baseline had a lower likelihood of future drug misuse 9 to 10 years later.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 3535 middle-aged adults from the Midlife in the United States Study who were not misusing drugs at baseline. Using multiple logistic regression models, we assessed whether baseline purpose in life was associated with risk of misusing drugs 9 to 10 years later.<h4>Results</h4>Among respondents not misusing drugs at baseline, people in the highest quartile of purpose (versus lowest quartile) had a substantially lower likelihood of future drug misuse in a model adjusting for demographic variables (odds ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.31-0.83). Associations remained evident after additionally adjusting for psychological distress, baseline health, and health behaviors.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A growing knowledge base suggests that a sense of purpose can be increased. Additional research is needed to evaluate sense of purpose as a novel target in the prevention and reduction of drug misuse.
Project description:BACKGROUND:US opioid overdose deaths continue to climb, with a 12.0% increase from 2016 to 2017. Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, has been a major contributor to opioid-related overdose deaths. While fentanyl-related overdose is driven by illicit fentanyl, little is known about individuals who misuse prescription fentanyl, which is also linked to elevated overdose and mortality risk. This work aimed to fill that gap through analyses of prescription fentanyl misuse correlates. METHODS:Data were from the 2015-16 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N?=?114,043), a nationally representative survey of the non-institutionalized US population. Respondents were (all past-year): those misusing prescription fentanyl (PF); those misusing other (non-fentanyl) prescription opioids (NFPO); and population controls. Respondent groups were compared using multinomial regression on sociodemographics, physical health, mental health and substance use. The PF and NFPO misuse groups were compared on opioid misuse characteristics, using logistic regression. RESULTS:An estimated 4.4% misused NFPO, and 0.1% misused PF (past-year). Past-year heroin use was more common in those who misused PF (44.3%) than those who misused other NFPO (4.4%; relative risk ratio [RRR]?=?7.1, 95%CI?=?3.7-13.9) or population controls (0.1%, RRR?=?35.1, 95%CI?=?17.3-71.1). Non-alcohol substance use disorder (SUD) was similarly elevated in those who misused PF (78.7%) versus the other NFPO group (27.5%, RRR?=?3.8, 95%CI?=?1.8-8.2) or population controls (1.6%, RRR?=?20.6, 95%CI?=?9.4-45.5). CONCLUSIONS:Respondents who misused prescription fentanyl were both more drug-involved generally and opioid-involved specifically; and likely need a combination of significant interventions and monitoring for their polysubstance use.
Project description:PURPOSE:Sexual violence (SV), teen dating violence (TDV), and substance use are significant public health concerns among U.S. adolescents. This study examined whether latent classes of baseline alcohol and prescription drug misuse longitudinally predict SV and TDV victimization and perpetration (i.e., verbal,relational, physical/threatening, and sexual) 1 year later. METHODS:Students from six Midwestern high schools (n?=?1,875; grades 9-11) completed surveys across two consecutive spring semesters. Latent class analysis was used to identify classes of individuals according to four substance use variables. A latent class regression and a manual three-step auxiliary approach were used to assess concurrent and distal relationships between identified classes and SV and TDV victimization and perpetration. RESULTS:Three classes of substance use were identified: low/no use (41% of sample), alcohol only use (45%), and alcohol and prescription drug misuse (APD) (14%). Youth in the APD class experienced greater SV and TDV victimization and perpetration than the alcohol only class at baseline. At Time 2 (one year later), youth in the baseline APD class experienced significantly higher SV and TDV victimization and perpetration outcomes than youth in the alcohol only class with the exception of sexual and physical TDV perpetration. CONCLUSIONS:The misuse of both alcohol and prescription drugs emerged as a significant risk factor for later SV and TDV among adolescents. As such, it would be beneficial if future research continued to assess the nature of these associations and incorporate prescription drug use and misuse into heath education,substance use, and violence prevention programs.
Project description:Chronic pain is common among patients with drug use disorders. The prevalence of chronic pain and its consequences in primary care patients who use drugs is unknown.To examine: 1) the prevalence of chronic pain and pain-related dysfunction among primary care patients who screen positive for drug use, and 2) the prevalence of substance use to self-medicate chronic pain in this population.This was a cross-sectional analysis.This study included 589 adult patients who screened positive for any illicit drug use or prescription drug misuse, recruited from an urban, hospital-based primary care practice.Both pain and pain-related dysfunction were assessed by numeric rating scales, and grouped as: (0) none, (1-3) mild, (4-6) moderate, (7-10) severe. Questions were asked about the use of substances to treat pain.Among 589 participants, chronic pain was reported by 87% (95% CI: 84-90%), with 13% mild, 24% moderate and 50% severe. Pain-related dysfunction was reported by 74% (95% CI: 70-78%), with 15% mild, 23% moderate, and 36% severe. Of the 576 that used illicit drugs (i.e., marijuana, cocaine, and/or heroin), 51% reported using to treat pain (95% CI: 47-55% ). Of the 121 with prescription drug misuse, 81% (95% CI: 74-88%) used to treat pain. Of the 265 participants who reported any heavy drinking in the past 3 months, 38% (95% CI: 32-44%) did so to treat pain compared to 79% (95% CI: 68-90%) of the 57 high-risk alcohol users.Chronic pain and pain-related dysfunction were the norm for primary care patients who screened positive for drug use, with nearly one-third reporting both severe pain and severe pain-related dysfunction. Many patients using illicit drugs, misusing prescription drugs and using alcohol reported doing so in order to self-medicate their pain. Pain needs to be addressed when patients are counseled about their substance use.
Project description:Interpersonal trust plays an important role in the clinic visit. Clinician trust in the patient may be especially important when prescribing opioid analgesics because of concerns about misuse. Previous studies have found that non-white patients are perceived negatively by clinicians.To examine whether clinicians' trust in patients differed by patients' race/ethnicity in a socially marginalized cohort.Cross-sectional study of patient-clinician dyads.169 HIV infected indigent patients recruited from the community and their 61 primary care providers (PCPs.)The Physician Trust in Patients Scale (PTPS), a validated scale that measures PCPs' trust in patients.The mean PTPS score was 43.2 (SD 10.8) out of a possible 60. Reported current illicit drug use and prescription opioid misuse were similar across patients' race or ethnicity. However, both patient illicit drug use and patient non-white race/ethnicity were associated with lower PTPS scores. In a multivariate model, non-white race/ethnicity was independently associated with PTPS scores 6.3 points lower than whites (95% CI: -9.9, -2.7). Current illicit drug use was associated with PTSP scores 5.5 lower than no drug use (95% CI -8.5, -2.5).In a socially marginalized cohort, non-white patients were trusted less than white patients by their PCPs, despite similar rates of illicit drug use and opioid analgesic misuse. The effect was independent of illicit drug use. This finding may reflect unconscious stereotypes by PCPs and may underlie disparities in chronic pain management.
Project description:This study investigated whether lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents were at higher risk for persistent victimization of bullying compared to heterosexual adolescents, and how victimization trajectories were associated with internalizing symptom development across LGB and heterosexual adolescents. Data came from a five-wave study (Mage T1 = 11.1 to Mage T5 = 22.3; n = 151 LGB; n = 1,275 heterosexual) and informants were adolescents and their parents. Adolescents were classified in three victimization trajectories: persistent (5.6%), decreasing (28.1%) or low (66.3%) victimization. LGB adolescents reported more persistent victimization, relative to no (OR = 6.79, 95% CI [3.52, 13.13]) or decreasing victimization (OR = 3.09, 95% CI [1.53, 6.24]), compared to heterosexual peers. Further, persistent victimization was more strongly associated with anxiety among LGB than among heterosexual adolescents.
Project description:Research has indicated that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning (LGBQ) adolescents have disproportionately high rates of substance use compared to heterosexual peers; yet certain features of schools and communities have been associated with lower substance use rates in this population. To advance this field, research examining multiple levels of influence using measures developed with youth input is needed. With community, school, and student data, this study tested hypotheses that LGBQ students attending high schools and living in communities with more LGBQ-supportive environments (assessed with a novel inventory tool) have lower odds of substance use behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, prescription drug misuse, and other drug use) than their peers in less supportive LGBQ environments. Multilevel models using data from 2454 LGBQ students (54.0% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic white) in 81 communities and adjusting for student and school covariates found that LGBQ adolescents who lived in areas with more community support had lower odds of frequent substance use, particularly among females. Expanding and strengthening community resources (e.g., LGBQ youth-serving organizations, LGBQ events such as a Pride parade, and LGBQ-friendly services) is recommended to further support LGBQ adolescents and reduce substance use disparities.
Project description:This study examines how work stress affects the misuse of prescription drugs to augment mental performance without medical necessity (i.e., cognitive enhancement). Based on the effort-reward imbalance model, it can be assumed that a misalignment of effort exerted and rewards received increases prescription drug misuse, especially if employees overcommit. To test these assumptions, we conducted a prospective study using a nationwide web-based sample of the working population in Germany (<i>N</i> = 11,197). Effort, reward, and overcommitment were measured at <i>t</i><sub>1</sub> and the 12 month frequency of prescription drug misuse for enhancing cognitive performance was measured at a one-year follow-up (<i>t</i><sub>2</sub>). The results show that 2.6% of the respondents engaged in such drug misuse, of which 22.7% reported frequent misuse. While we found no overall association between misuse frequency and effort, reward, or their imbalance, overcommitment was significantly associated with a higher misuse frequency. Moreover, at low levels of overcommitment, more effort and an effort-reward imbalance discouraged future prescription drug misuse, while higher overcommitment, more effort, and an imbalance increased it. These findings suggest that a stressful work environment is a risk factor for health-endangering behavior, and thereby underlines the importance of identifying groups at risk of misusing drugs.