Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To assess the relative effects of individual testosterone products among hypogonadal men. DESIGN:Systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS:We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and grey literature (25 May 2017) for randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies (NRS) that involved hypogonadal men given testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for ?3 months. Comparators were placebo, another TRT, or the same product at a different dose. Outcomes were quality of life, depression, libido, erectile function, activities of daily living and testosterone levels, as well as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, prostate cancer, heart disease, diabetes, serious adverse events, withdrawals due to adverse events and erythrocytosis. RCT data were pooled via meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool (RCTs) andScottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)50 (NRS). RESULTS:Eighty-seven RCTs and 51 NRS were included. Most were at high or unclear risk of bias, with short treatment duration and follow-up. When compared as a class against placebo, TRT improved quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.26, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.11), libido (SMD 0.33, 95%?CI 0.16 to 0.50), depression (SMD -0.23, 95%?CI -0.44 to -0.01) and erectile function (SMD 0.25, 95%?CI 0.10 to 0.41). Most individual TRTs were significantly better than placebo at improving libido (6/10). Only one TRT was better than placebo at improving quality of life, and no individual TRTs improved depression or erectile function. There was no increased risk of adverse events, with the exception of withdrawals due to adverse events with the use of some TRTs. CONCLUSION:Despite a class effect of improving quality of life, depression, erectile function and libido, major improvements were not observed with the use of any individual product. We observed no statistically significant increase in the risk of adverse events; however, longer-term high-quality trials are needed to fully assess the risk of harm. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42014009963.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors, and symptoms in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS).<h4>Research design and methods</h4>The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a novel transdermal 2% testosterone gel was evaluated over 12 months in 220 hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or MetS in a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome was mean change from baseline in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Secondary outcomes were measures of body composition, glycemic control, lipids, and sexual function. Efficacy results focused primarily on months 0-6 (phase 1; no changes in medication allowed). Medication changes were allowed in phase 2 (months 6-12).<h4>Results</h4>TRT reduced HOMA-IR in the overall population by 15.2% at 6 months (P = 0.018) and 16.4% at 12 months (P = 0.006). In type 2 diabetic patients, glycemic control was significantly better in the TRT group than the placebo group at month 9 (HbA(1c): treatment difference, -0.446%; P = 0.035). Improvements in total and LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein a (Lpa), body composition, libido, and sexual function occurred in selected patient groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the frequencies of adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs. The majority of AEs (>95%) were mild or moderate.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Over a 6-month period, transdermal TRT was associated with beneficial effects on insulin resistance, total and LDL-cholesterol, Lpa, and sexual health in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or MetS.
Project description:This was a 6-month, open label, multinational, observational study in hypogonadal men treated with daily titrated dose of 50, 75, or 100?mg 1% testosterone gel (AndroGel®) in community practice. Primary outcome was effect of treatment on hypogonadal symptoms and quality of life as assessed by Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale. Secondary objectives included erectile dysfunction (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]), and surrogates for body composition (waist circumference, body mass index [BMI]).Seven hundred and ninety-nine of the 1053 men enrolled had follow-up data at 6 months, 81.2% had ?1 testosterone value in the normal range during the study. Substantial and significant improvements were observed in mean AMS score (-29%), IIEF score (+115.7%), and MFI scores (-21.5%). Further beneficial effects were significant decreases in mean BMI (-0.8?kg/m(2)) and waist circumference (-3.3?cm). Younger age quartiles showed greater improvements in AMS, MFI, BMI, and waist circumference than older quartiles. IIEF scores, however, did not differ significantly by age category.Substantial improvements in hypogonadal symptoms, quality of life, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and libido/sexual desire were observed. Adverse drug reactions were experienced by 7.5% of the safety population over the 6-month study period.
Project description:To determine whether favorable changes to lean tissue mass (LTM), resting energy expenditure (REE), and testosterone (T) that occurred with 12 months of physiological testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) were retained 6 months after discontinuing treatment.Prospective, open-label, controlled drug intervention trial.Metropolitan area hospitals.Eugonadal (n = 11) and hypogonadal (n = 13) men with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI).Hypogonadal subjects received a 5 or 10 mg transdermal T patch daily for 12 months, with adjustment of the dose to normalize the serum T concentration; TRT was discontinued after 12 months (TRT-12M) and subjects were followed for an additional 6 months and re-evaluated (Post-TRT). Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and blood draws were performed at baseline (BL) prior to TRT, TRT-12M, and Post-TRT. Eugonadal subjects did not receive treatment and were evaluated at comparable time points.There were no significant differences between groups prior to TRT at BL for any of the study endpoints. In the hypogonadal group, a significant increase in LTM was observed from BL to TRT-12M (50.2 ± 7.4 vs. 52.9 ± 6.8 kg, P < 0.01), which persisted Post-TRT compared to BL (52.2 ± 7.8 kg, P < 0.05). The increase in REE from BL to TRT-12M (1283 ± 246 vs. 1410 ± 250 kcal/day) was also retained at Post-TRT (1393 ± 220 kcal/day). These sustained improvements in LTM and REE after termination of anabolic hormonal therapy may be associated with persistent beneficial effects on health and physical function of hypogonadal men with chronic SCI.
Project description:Hypogonadism is prevalent in older men and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for older hypogonadal men is a promising therapy. However, a number of important clinical concerns over TRT safety remain unsolved due to a lack of large-scale randomized clinical trials directly comparing the health risks of untreated hypogonadism vs long-term use of TRT. Meta-analyses of clinical trials of TRT as of 2010 have identified three major adverse events resulting from TRT: polycythemia, an increase in prostate-related events, and a slight reduction in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. There are other purported health risks but their incidence can be neither confirmed nor denied based on the small number of subjects that have been studied to date. Furthermore, subsequent literature is equivocal with regard to the safety and utility of TRT and this topic has been subject to contentious debate. Since January 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration has released two official announcements regarding the safety of TRT and clinical monitoring the risks in TRT users. Additionally, the health risks related to the clinical presentation of low or declining testosterone levels not been resolved in the current literature. Because TRT is prescribed in the context of putative risks resulting from reduced testosterone levels, we reviewed the epidemiology and reported risks of low testosterone levels. We also highlight the current information about TRT utilization, the risks most often claimed to be associated with TRT, and current or emerging alternatives to TRT.
Project description:The use of testosterone replacement therapy in obese men with low testosterone levels has been controversial. This review aims to analyze the effectiveness of testosterone therapy for weight loss and preventing cardiovascular complications in obese men with low testosterone levels.We will perform a systematic review according to Cochrane Methodology of randomized studies, including crossover studies, wherein patients are allocated into one of the two groups: testosterone therapy and control (no treatment or placebo). The primary outcomes analyzed will be: weight loss, adverse events, quality of life, improvement of libido, control of obesity complications, frequency of cardiovascular events, and deaths. Four general and adaptive search strategies have been created for the following electronic health databases: Embase, Medline, LILACS, and CENTRAL. Two reviewers will independently select the eligible studies, assess the risk of bias, and extract the data from included studies. Similar outcomes measured in at least two trials will be plotted in the meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3. The quality of evidence of the effect estimate of the intervention for the outcomes that could be plotted in the meta-analysis will be generated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group.Although testosterone replacement seems to be an attractive treatment modality for obese men with low testosterone, its potential benefits has been refuted by some studies, whose results have not shown significant differences between treated and untreated patients.For obese men with low testosterone concentrations, the proposed systematic review aims to answer the following questions: When compared with no treatment or placebo: Is testosterone therapy safe? Is testosterone therapy effective in promoting weight loss, a sustained reduction in body weight and changes in body composition? Is testosterone effective in improving quality of life, libido, and erectile function? Is testosterone therapy effective in controlling obesity complications and in preventing cardiovascular events?
Project description:Background Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is commonly used for the treatment of hypogonadism in men, which is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (Mets). Recent compiling evidence shows that TRT has beneficial metabolic effects on these patients. Objective A meta-analysis has been conducted to evaluate the effects of TRT on cardiovascular metabolic factors. Methods We conducted a systemic search on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, and CNKI and selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to include. The efficacy of TRT on glycemia, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and body weight was meta-analyzed by Review Manager. Results A total of 18 RCTs, containing 1415 patients (767 in TRT and 648 in control), were enrolled for the meta-analysis. The results showed that TRT could reduce HbA1c (MD?=??0.67, 95% CI ?1.35, ?0.19, and P=0.006) and improve HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) (SMD?=??1.94, 95% CI ?2.65, ?1.23, and P < 0.0001). TRT could also decrease low-density lipoprotein (SMD?=??0.50, 95% CI ?0.82, ?0.90, and P=0.002) and triglycerides (MD?=??0.64, 95% CI ?0.91, ?0.36, and P < 0.0001). In addition, TRT could reduce body weight by 3.91?kg (MD?=??3.91, 95% CI ?4.14, ?3.69, and P < 0.00001) and waist circumference by 2.8?cm (MD ?2.80, 95% CI ?4.38, ?1.21 and P=0.0005). Erectile dysfunction (measured by IIEF-5) did not improve, while aging-related symptoms (measured by AMS scores) significantly improved. Conclusions TRT improves glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid parameters in hypogonadism patients with T2DM and MetS, partially through reducing central obesity.
Project description:Long-term testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) up to 5 years has been shown to produce progressive and sustainable weight loss (WL) in hypogonadal men. This study investigated effects of long-term TRT up to 8 years in hypogonadal men with different obesity classes.From two independent observational registries we identified a total of 411 obese, hypogonadal men receiving TRT in urological clinics. The effects of TRT on anthropometric as well as metabolic parameters were studied for a maximum duration of 8 years, mean follow-up: 6 years. All men received long-acting injections of testosterone undecanoate in 3-monthly intervals.In all three classes of obesity, T therapy produced significant WL, decrease in waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI). In patients with class I obesity, mean weight decreased from 102.6±6.4 to 84.1±4.9 kg, change from baseline: -17.4±0.5 kg and -16.8±0.4%. WC in this group of patients decreased from 106.8±7.4 to 95.1±5.3 cm, change from baseline: -10.6±0.3 cm. BMI decreased from 32.69±1.4 to 27.07±1.57, change from baseline: -5.52±0.15 kg m(-2). In patients with class II obesity, weight decreased from 116.8±6.9 to 91.3±6.3 kg, change from baseline: -25.3±0.5 kg and -21.5±0.4%. WC decreased from 113.5±7.5 to 100.0±5.4 cm, change from baseline: -13.9±0.4 cm. BMI decreased from 37.32±1.45 to 29.49±1.71, change from baseline: -8.15±0.17 kg m(-2). In patients with class III obesity, weight decreased from 129.0±5.6 to 98.9±4.8 kg, change from baseline: -30.5±0.7 kg and -23.6±0.5%. WC decreased from 118.5±5.6 to 103.8±4.9 cm, change from baseline: -14.3±0.4 cm. BMI decreased from 41.93±1.48 to 32.46±1.59, change from baseline -9.96±0.29 kg m(-2).Testosterone therapy appears to be an effective approach to achieve sustained WL in obese hypogonadal men irrespective of severity of obesity. Based on these findings we suggest that T therapy offers safe and effective treatment strategy of obesity in hypogonadal men.
Project description:While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Some authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations whilst other have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadism and lead to an increase in totally appropriate prescribing. They commented that this was merely an appropriate correction of previous underdiagnosis and undertreatment by adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Urologists and primary care physicians are the most frequent initiators of TRT, usually for erectile dysfunction. Benefits are clearly established for sexual function, increase in lean muscle mass and strength, mood and cognitive function, with possible reduction in frailty and osteoporosis. There remains no evidence that TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, yet the decision to initiate and continue therapy is often decided by urologists. The cardiovascular issues associated with TRT have been clarified by recent studies showing clearly that therapy associated with clear rise in testosterone levels are associated with reduced mortality. Studies reporting to show increased risk have been subject to flawed designs with inadequate baseline diagnosis and follow-up testing. Effectively they have compared nontreated patients with undertreated or on-compliant subjects involving a range of different therapy regimens. Recent evidence suggests long acting injections may be associated with decreased cardiovascular risk but the transdermal route may be associated with potentially relatively greater risk because of conversion to dihydrotestosterone by the effect of 5? reductase in skin. The multiple effects of TRT may add up to a considerable benefit to the patient that might be underestimated by the physician primarily concerned with his own specialty. This paper will attempt to identify who should be treated, and how they should be treated safely to achieve best outcomes, based on a comprehensive MEDLINE and EMBASE and Cochrane searches on hypogonadism, TRT and cardiovascular safety from May 2005 to May 2015. This revealed 1714 papers with 52 clinical trials and 32 placebo-controlled randomized, controlled trials.
Project description:CONTEXT:The Testosterone Trials are a coordinated set of seven trials to determine the efficacy of T in symptomatic men ≥65 years old with unequivocally low T levels. Initial results of the Sexual Function Trial showed that T improved sexual activity, sexual desire, and erectile function. OBJECTIVE:To assess the responsiveness of specific sexual activities to T treatment; to relate hormone changes to changes in sexual function; and to determine predictive baseline characteristics and T threshold for sexual outcomes. DESIGN:A placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Twelve academic medical centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 470 men ≥65 years of age with low libido, average T <275 ng/dL, and a partner willing to have sexual intercourse at least twice a month. METHODS:Men were assigned to take T gel or placebo for 1 year. Sexual function was assessed by three questionnaires every 3 months: the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire, the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function, and the International Index of Erectile Function. RESULTS:Compared with placebo, T administration significantly improved 10 of 12 measures of sexual activity. Incremental increases in total and free T and estradiol levels were associated with improvements in sexual activity and desire, but not erectile function. No threshold T level was observed for any outcome, and none of the 27 baseline characteristics predicted responsiveness to T. CONCLUSIONS:In older men with low libido and low T levels, improvements in sexual desire and activity in response to T treatment were related to the magnitude of increases in T and estradiol levels, but there was no clear evidence of a threshold effect.
Project description:Sleep has increasingly been found to play a role in the overall health of an individual, but sleep quality has also been decreasing with the invasion of technology into the bedroom, "always-on" lifestyles, and increasing demands on one's time when awake. We have herein reviewed the literature to assess the impact of sleep on erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms, hypogonadal symptoms, low testosterone, and male infertility. We find that erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract symptoms, and hypogonadal symptoms all have a linear relationship with sleep, as worse symptoms occur with poorer sleep. Male infertility, interestingly, has an inverse U-shaped relation to sleep in which men with too little and too much sleep seem to be more at risk for infertility than those with 7-8 hours of sleep. Finally, the literature has not demonstrated a significant clinical relationship between hypogonadal symptoms or testosterone levels and sleep. Overall, a large number of men experience poor quality sleep. Given the impact that poor sleep can have on general health and men's health, in particular, screening for poor sleep quality and recommending interventions to improve sleep are becoming imperative during clinical evaluation and treatment.