Enterotoxigenicity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Food in China.
ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of zoonotic agent in the world, which are attributable to the contamination of food with enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 1,150 S. aureus isolates were cultured from 27,000 retail foods items from 203 cities of 24 provinces in China in 2015 and were test for antimicrobial susceptibility. Additionally, the role of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA to SEE), methicillin resistance (mecA) and the toxigenic capabilities were also assessed. The results showed that 4.3% retail foods were contaminated with S. aureus, and 7.9% retail foods isolates were mecA positive. Some 97.6% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial compound, and 57.5% of these were multi drug resistant (MDR). Resistance to penicillin (83.7%, 963/1,150), was common, followed by linezolid (67.7%, 778/1,150) and erythromycin (52.1%, 599/1,150). The isolates cultured from raw meats showed high levels of resistant to tetracycline (42.8%), ciprofloxacin (17.4%), and chloramphenicol (12.0%) and expressed a MDR phenotype (62.4%). A total of 29.7% S. aureus isolates harbored the classical SEs genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). The sea and seb genes were the most frequent SEs genes detected. Of note, 22% of the SEs genes positive S. aureus harbored two or three SEs genes, and 16 isolates were confirmed with the capacity to simultaneously produce two or three enterotoxin types. Moreover, nearly 50% of the MRSA isolates were positive for at least one SE gene in this study. Therefore, it is important to monitor the antimicrobial susceptibility and enterotoxigenicity of MDR S. aureus and MRSA in the food chain and to use these data to develop food safety measures, designed to reduce the contamination and transmission of this bacterium.
Project description:Staphylococcal food poisoning, one of the most common food-borne diseases, results from ingestion of one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In the present study, 64 S. aureus isolates recovered from foods and food handlers, associated or not associated with food-poisoning outbreaks in Spain, were investigated. They were assigned to 31 strains by spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), exotoxin gene content, and antimicrobial resistance. The strains belonged to 10 clonal complexes (CCs): CC5 (29.0%), CC30 (25.8%), CC45 (16.1%), CC8, CC15 (two strains each), CC1, CC22, CC25, CC59, and CC121 (one strain each). They contained hemolysin genes (90.3%); lukED (77.4%); exfoliatin genes eta, etd (6.5% each), and etb (3.2%); tst (25.8%); and the following enterotoxin or enterotoxin-like genes or clusters: sea (38.7%), seb (12.9%), sec (16.1%), sed-selj with or without ser (22.9%), selk-selq (6.5%), seh, sell, selp (9.7% each), egc1 (32.3%), and egc2 (48.4%). The number of se and sel genes ranged from zero to 12. All isolates carrying tst, and most isolates with genes encoding classical enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SEC, and SED), expressed the corresponding toxin(s). Two CC5 isolates from hamburgers (spa type t002, sequence type 5 [ST5]; spa type t2173, ST5) were methicillin resistant and harbored staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IVd. Six (19.4%) were mupirocin resistant, and one (spa type t120, ST15) from a food handler carried mupA (MIC, 1,250 ?g/ml). Resistance to ampicillin (blaZ) (61.3%), erythromycin (ermA-ermC or ermC) (25.8%), clindamycin (msrA-msrB or msrB) (16.1%), tetracycline (tetK) (3.2%), and amikacin-gentamicin-kanamycin-tobramycin (aphA with aacA plus aphD or aadD) (6.5%) was also observed. The presence of S. aureus strains with an important repertoire of virulence and resistance determinants in the food chain represents a potential health hazard for consumers and merits further observation.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major food contaminants worldwide, and its enterotoxins are documented as food poisoning and bioterrorism agents. In the present study, an attempt was made to account on the incidences of toxigenic S. aureus and its antibiotic resistance profiles in ready to eat bakery food products from different parts of Southern India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana). A total of 100 food samples, including milk, cake, cheese and chicken products were assessed for S. aureus and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB) by PCR. Among the subjected food samples, a total of 51 isolates belong to genus Staphylococcus and out of that, 34 isolates were S. aureus. Among 34 S. aureus isolates, 14 isolates were found positive for SEB. The PCR results were further co-evaluated with in-house developed aptamer linked immunosorbent assay (ALISA) for the specific and sensitive detection of SEB. The obtained ALISA results were promising and found consistent with PCR analysis. Furthermore, 24%, 47%, 91%, 82%, 59%, and 47% of S. aureus isolates were found resistant to chloramphenicol, methicillin, penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, and oxacillin, respectively and concluded as a multidrug resistance (MDR). In conclusion, the present study revealed high presence of toxigenic and MDR resistant S. aureus species among the studied regions of Southern India. The present study cautions the need of stringent food safety regulations in India to control the toxigenic and MDR S. aureus from food sources and to minimize the risks associated with S. aureus.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important aetiological agents of food intoxications in Europe and can cause gastro-enteritis through the production of various staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in foods. Due to their stability and ease of production and dissemination, some SEs have also been studied as potential agents for bioterrorism. Therefore, specific and accurate analytical tools are required to detect and quantify SEs. Online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) based on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect and quantify two types of SE (A and B) spiked in milk and buffer solution. SE extraction and concentration was performed according to the European Screening Method developed by the European Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci. Trypsin digests were screened for the presence of SEs using selected proteotypic heavy-labeled peptides as internal standards. SEA and SEB were successfully detected in milk samples using LC-MS/MS in MRM mode. The selected SE peptides were proteotypic for each toxin, allowing the discrimination of SEA and SEB in a single run. The detection limit of SEA and SEB was approximately 8 and 4 ng/g, respectively.
Project description:Different clones of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus have been found in humans as well as in animals and retail meat. However, more information about the genetic characteristics and similarities between strains is needed. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Staphylococcus aureus from humans, and to compare their characteristics with isolates of animal origin. A total of 550 nasal swabs were taken from healthy humans, and S. aureus was isolated and identified. Positive S. aureus isolates were subjected to molecular typing and susceptibility testing. In addition, 108 MRSA isolates recovered from clinical patients in the state of North Dakota and 133 S. aureus isolates from animals and meat previously analyzed were included. The nasal carriage of S. aureus in healthy people was 7.6% and, in general, clones were genetically diverse. None of the S. aureus strains obtained from healthy people were mecA- or PVL-positive. A total of 105 (97.2%) MRSA isolates from clinical cases harbored the mecA gene and 11 (10.2%) isolated from blood stream infections harbored the PVL gene. The most common resistance profile among S. aureus from healthy people was penicillin, and from clinical cases were erythromycin-penicillin-ciprofloxacin. The rate of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 70% in humans. Most of the S. aureus harboring mecA and PVL genes were identified as ST5 and ST8, and exhibited MDR. However, S. aureus isolates of animal origin used for comparison exhibited a lower rate of MDR. The most common resistance profiles in isolates of animal origin were penicillin-tetracycline and penicillin-tetracycline-erythromycin, in animals and raw meat, respectively. The ST5 was also found in animals and meat, with ST9 and ST398 being the major clones. The genetic similarity between clones from humans and meat suggests the risk of spread of S. aureus in the food chain.
Project description:Although high levels of staphylococcal phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been shown to correlate with bacterial virulence, the PSMs expression in foodborne Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), as well as its association with staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) was not yet clear. We collected a panel of 350 foodborne and 127 clinic-derived S. aureus strains and compared their PSMs expression. Overall, foodborne strains exhibited higher PSMs than clinical isolates, indicating a potential pathological significance of PSMs in staphylococcal food contamination. Furthermore, PSMs expression and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) levels in relation to antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains were analysed. While the co-expression of PSMs and SEs was confirmed, one typical foodborne strain simultaneously yielding PSMs, SEB and SED was selected. By comparing this wildtype strain to a series of gene-deficient mutants, we concluded that PSMs and SEs expressions both relied on staphylococcal accessory regulator A initiation in the early stage of accessory gene regulator control, yet their succedent regulations differentiated to RNAIII-dependent and independent, respectively. These data provided preliminary insight into PSMs and SEs expression in foodborne S. aureus, and may guide the further studies on PSMs effects in SFP.
Project description:A real-time immunoquantitative PCR (iqPCR) method for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) was developed and evaluated using both pure cultures and foods. The assay consisted of immunocapture of SEB and real-time PCR amplification of the DNA probe linked to the detection antibody. iqPCR was compared to an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the same couple of capture-detection antibodies and to commercial kits for detection of S. aureus enterotoxins (SE). The iqPCR was approximately 1,000 times more sensitive (<10 pg ml(-1)) than the in-house ELISA and had a dynamic range of approximately 10 pg ml(-1) to approximately 30,000 pg ml(-1). iqPCR was not inhibited by any of the foods tested and was able to detect SEB present in these foods. No cross-reactivity with SE other than SEB was observed. Application of iqPCR for detection of SEB in cultures of S. aureus revealed the onset of SEB production after 4 h of incubation at 22, 37, and 42 degrees C, which was in the first half of the exponential growth phase. The total amounts of SEB produced by the two strains tested were larger at 42 degrees C than at 37 degrees C and were strain dependent.
Project description:The aim of this study is to investigate the bacterial population in coalho goat cheese produced in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil, to analyse the antibiotic resistance profiles of the identified pathogenic bacteria, to detect the staphylococcal enterotoxin genes and to evaluate the addition of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with technofunctional properties for the control of Staphylococcus aureus growth. In the analysed samples, strains of Escherichia coli (N=11), Salmonella spp. (N=18), Listeria spp. (N=6) and S. aureus (N=9) were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR). The most commonly isolated pathogen from the studied coalho goat cheese was S. aureus. Its isolates were positive for the genes encoding enterotoxins A (sea), B (seb), C (sec) and D (sed). The autochthonous LAB with the potential to inhibit S. aureus were identified as Enterococcus faecium. These strains were selected for in vitro tests of protective, safety, technological and functional properties. In the coalho goat cheese food matrix, these selected autochthonous LAB were able to reduce the enterotoxigenic MDR S. aureus load by approx. 3 log units.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) is considered to be the major reservoirs for genes facilitating the evolution of S. aureus as a successful pathogen. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolone, determining of the prevalence of insertion sequence elements IS256, IS257 and different superantigens (SAgs) among CoNS isolates obtained from various clinical sources. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The current study conducted on a total of the 91 CoNS species recovered from clinical specimens in Hamadan hospitals in western Iran in 2017-2019. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method and the presence of the IS256 and IS257, genes conferring resistance to fluoroquinolone and enterotoxins/enterotoxin-like encoding genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS:Among genes encoding classic enterotoxins, sec was the most frequent which was carried by 48.4% of the 91 isolates, followed by seb in 27.5% of the isolates. None of the CoNS isolates was found to be positive to enterotoxin-like encoding genes. In 11(12%) of all isolates that were phenotypically resistant to levofloxacin, 9 isolates (81.8%) were positive for gyrB, 8 isolates (72.7%) were positive for gyrA, 8 isolates (72.7%) harbored grlB and 7 isolates (63.6%) were found to carry grlA. The IS256 and IS257 were identified in 31.8% and 74.7% of the isolates, respectively. The results of statistical analysis showed a significant association between the occurrence of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance. CONCLUSION:Antimicrobial resistant determinants and SEs are co-present in clinical CoNS isolates that confer selective advantage for colonization and survival in hospital settings. The coexistence of insertion elements and antibiotic resistance indicate their role in pathogenesis and infectious diseases.
Project description:Bacterial outbreaks caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are interesting due to the existence of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel ways to control such MDR S. aureus. In this study, some natural agents such as honey bee (HB), extracts of either Moringa oleifera seeds (MSE), or leaves (MLE) and essential oils of garlic, clove, and moringa were studied for their inhibitory activity against this S. aureus pathogen. About 100 food samples including beef luncheon (n = 25), potato chips (n = 50), and corn flakes (n = 25) were investigated for possible pollution with the S. aureus bacteria. The isolated bacteria suspected to belong S. aureus that grew well onto Baird-Parker agar (Oxoid) and shiny halo zones and positive coagulase reaction were selected and identified by API-Kits; all of them that were approved belong to S. aureus (18 strains). The sensitivity of the obtained 18 S. aureus bacterial strains to 12 antibiotics were evaluated; all of them were resistant to ofloxacin; however, other antibiotics tested showed variable results. Interestingly, the S. aureus No. B3 isolated from beef luncheon was resistant to10 antibiotics out of 12 ones tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) of this S. aureus strain was about 83.3%. Therefore, its identification was confirmed by sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene which approved a successful biochemical identification carried out by API Kits and such strain was designated S. aureus LC 554891. The genome of such strain appeared to contain mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance; it was found to contain hla, hlb, tsst-1, and finbA that encode ?-blood hemolysis, ?-blood hemolysis, toxic shock syndrome gene, and fibrinogen-binding protein gene, respectively. In addition, the virulence factors viz. sea; seb; sec encoding enterotoxins were detected in the DNA extracted from S. aureus B3 strain. Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (MSE) showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus LC 554891 better than that obtained by tetracycline, essential oils or HB. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of MSE was 20µg/mL. Instrumental analysis of MSE showed 14 bioactive chemical compounds. Combinations of both MSE and tetracycline showed distinctive inhibitory activity against S. aureus LC 554891 than that obtained by either tetracycline or MSE singly.
Project description:Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are a family of 17 major serological types of heat-stable enterotoxins that are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis resulting from consumption of contaminated food. SEs are considered potential bioweapons. Many Staphylococcus aureus isolates contain multiple SEs. Because of the large number of SEs, serological typing and PCR typing are laborious and time-consuming. Furthermore, serological typing may not always be practical because of antigenic similarities among enterotoxins. We report on a microarray-based one-tube assay for the simultaneous detection and identification (genetic typing) of multiple enterotoxin (ent) genes. The proposed typing method is based on PCR amplification of the target region of the ent genes with degenerate primers, followed by characterization of the PCR products by microchip hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for each ent gene. We verified the performance of this method by using several other techniques, including PCR amplification with gene-specific primers, followed by gel electrophoresis or microarray hybridization, and sequencing of the enterotoxin genes. The assay was evaluated by analysis of previously characterized staphylococcal isolates containing 16 ent genes. The microarray assay revealed that some of these isolates contained additional previously undetected ent genes. The use of degenerate primers allows the simultaneous amplification and identification of as many as nine different ent genes in one S. aureus strain. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of the oligonucleotide microarray assay for the analysis of multitoxigenic strains, which are common among S. aureus strains, and for the analysis of microbial pathogens in general.