Antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in maternal and cord blood pairs: a Thai cohort study.
ABSTRACT: Background:Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease, yet an increasing incidence of pertussis occurs in many countries. Thailand has a long-standing pertussis vaccination policy, therefore most expectant mothers today had received vaccines as children. The resurgence of pertussis among Thai infants in recent years led us to examine the pre-existing antibodies to Bordetella pertussis antigens in a cohort of 90 pregnant women. Methods:We evaluated the IgG to the Pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (PRN) in maternal and cord blood sera using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Results:When values of >10 IU/ml were accepted as potential protective concentrations, we found that the percentages of unprotected infants were 73.3%, 43.3% and 75.5% for anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-PRN IgG, respectively. Discussion:These results may explain the susceptibility for pertussis among newborn infants in Thailand and support the requirement for a pertussis booster vaccine during pregnancy, which may contribute to the passive seroprotection among newborns during the first months of life.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Maternal Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination provides antibody transfer to newborn infants and may affect their antibody response to the primary vaccination series. This study aimed to assess the effect of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy on infant antibody response to the whole cell pertussis (DTwP) primary series.<h4>Methods</h4>Plasma from 318 pregnant women (243 Tdap-vaccinated and 75 unvaccinated) and their infants (cord blood) was collected at delivery; infant blood was again collected at 2 and 7 months, before and after their primary DTwP series. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT), pertactin (PRN), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae 2/3 (FIM) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) IgG antibodies were quantified by a microsphere-based multiplex antibody capture assay and anti-PT neutralizing antibodies by the Real Time Cell analysis system.<h4>Results</h4>Infant geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG anti-Tdap antigens were significantly higher (p < 0.001) among the Tdap-vaccinated (PT: 57.22 IU/mL; PRN: 464.86 IU/mL; FHA: 424.0 IU/mL), versus the unvaccinated group (4 IU/mL, 15.43 IU/mL, 31.99 IU/mL, respectively) at delivery. Anti-FIM and ACT GMCs were similar between the two groups. At 2 months of age, anti-PT, PRN, and FHA GMCs remained higher (p < 0.001) in the Tdap-vaccinated group (12.64 IU/mL; 108.76 IU/mL; 87.41 IU/mL, respectively) than the unvaccinated group (1.02 IU/mL; 4.46 IU/mL; 6.89 IU/mL). However, at 7 months, after receiving the third DTwP dose, the anti-PT GMC was higher (p = 0.016) in the unvaccinated group (7.91 IU/mL) compared to the vaccinated group (2.27 IU/mL), but without differences for anti-PRN, FHA, FIM and ACT GMCs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Elevated antibody levels suggest that maternal Tdap vaccination might protect infants until 2 months of age. Reduced anti-PT levels at 7 months indicate potential blunting of immune response in infants. Surveillance would help determine if blunting alters vaccine immunity and impacts pertussis prevention in infants.
Project description:?Maternal vaccination with an acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in a growing number of industrialized countries, to protect young infants from disease. Little is known on the effect of this strategy in low- and middle-income countries. Following a previous report on the effect of adding a pertussis and diphtheria component to the tetanus vaccination program in pregnant women in Vietnam, we report on infant immune responses to a booster aP vaccine dose in this randomized controlled clinical trial.?Thirty infants of Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis)-vaccinated pregnant women and 37 infants of women vaccinated with a tetanus-only vaccine received a fourth aP-containing vaccine dose in the second year of life. Blood was taken 1 month after the fourth infant dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT), and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).?One month after the booster dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the Tdap group for anti-TT IgG (P < .001) only. Anti-DT IgG, anti-PT IgG, anti-Prn IgG, and anti-FHA IgG antibody titers were comparable for both groups. A rise in antibody concentrations was elicited for all (except DT) antigens after boosting.?The present results indicate that the blunting of infant pertussis responses induced by maternal immunization, measured after a primary series of aP vaccines, was resolved with the booster aP vaccine dose. These results add to the evidence for national and international decision makers on maternal immunization as a vaccination strategy for protection of young infants against infectious diseases.
Project description:Maternal antibodies induced by vaccination during pregnancy cross the placental barrier and can close the susceptibility gap to pertussis in young infants up to the start of primary immunization. As not only the quantity but also the quality of circulating antibodies is important for protection, we assessed whether maternal immunization affects the avidity of infant vaccine-induced IgG antibodies, in the frame of a prospective clinical trial on pregnancy vaccination in Belgium. Infants born from Tdap (Boostrix®) vaccinated (N = 55) and unvaccinated (N = 26) mothers were immunized with a hexavalent pertussis containing vaccine (Infanrix Hexa®) at 8, 12 and 16 weeks, followed by a fourth dose at 15 months of age. Right before and one month after this fourth vaccine dose, the avidity of IgG antibodies against diphtheria toxin (DT), tetanus toxin (TT), pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and pertactin (Prn) was determined using 1.5 M ammonium thiocyanate as dissociating agent. In both groups, antibody avidity was moderate for TT, PT, FHA and Prn and low for DT after priming. After a fourth dose, antibody avidity increased significantly to high avidity for TT and PT, whereas it remained moderate for FHA and Prn and low for DT. The avidity correlated positively with antibody level in both study groups, yet not significantly for PT. When comparing both study groups, only PT-specific antibodies showed significantly lower avidity in infants born from vaccinated than from unvaccinated mothers after the fourth vaccine dose. The clinical significance of lower avidity of vaccine induced infant antibodies after maternal vaccination, if any, needs further investigation.
Project description:We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a three-dose primary vaccination schedule with the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib) in Korean infants. In this phase III open-label, multicenter study (NCT01309646), healthy infants aged 42-69 days (randomized 1:1) received three doses of either pentavalent DTPa-IPV/Hib (DTPa-IPV/Hib group) or DTPa-IPV and Hib vaccines administered separately (DTPa-IPV+Hib group) at 2, 4, 6 months of age. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority of DTPa-IPV/Hib compared to DTPa-IPV+Hib vaccines in terms of immune responses to all vaccine antigens, 1 month post-dose 3. Solicited symptoms (local and general) were recorded during 4 days, and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) during 31 days, after each vaccination. Serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study duration. The immunogenicity of the pentavalent DTPa-IPV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior compared to concomitant administration of DTPa-IPV+Hib vaccines. One month post-dose 3, nearly all infants had antibody levels above the seroprotective thresholds for anti-diphtheria toxoid, anti-tetanus toxoid, anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate, and anti-poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3, and had antibody levels above the seropositive thresholds for anti-pertussis toxoid (PT), anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and anti-pertactin (PRN) antibodies. A vaccine response for PT, FHA and PRN was observed in at least 96.7% of study participants. Anti-PRP geometric mean concentrations appeared lower for the DTPa-IPV/Hib group (8.456 µg/mL) than for the DTPa-IPV+Hib group (18.700 µg/mL). In both groups, the most common solicited symptoms were injection site redness and irritability. Fifty-seven SAEs were reported throughout the study; none were considered to be vaccination related.
Project description:Background<i>Bordetella pertussis</i> is the main agent of whooping cough. Vaccination with acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely implemented in high-income countries. These vaccines contain 1 to 5 antigens: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and/or fimbrial proteins (FIM2 and FIM3). Monitoring the emergence of <i>B. pertussis</i> isolates that might partially escape vaccine-induced immunity is an essential component of public health strategies to control whooping cough.AimWe aimed to investigate temporal trends of fimbriae serotypes and vaccine antigen-expression in <i>B. pertussis</i> over a 23-year period in France (1996-2018).MethodsIsolates (n = 2,280) were collected through hospital surveillance, capturing one third of hospitalised paediatric pertussis cases. We assayed PT, FHA and PRN production by Western blot (n = 1,428) and fimbriae production by serotyping (n = 1,058). Molecular events underlying antigen deficiency were investigated by genomic sequencing.ResultsThe proportion of PRN-deficient <i>B. pertussis</i> isolates has increased steadily from 0% (0/38) in 2003 to 48.4% (31/64) in 2018 (chi-squared test for trend, p < 0.0001), whereas only 5 PT-, 5 FHA- and 9 FIM-deficient isolates were found. Impairment of PRN production was predominantly due to IS<i>481</i> insertion within the <i>prn</i> gene or a 22 kb genomic inversion involving the <i>prn</i> promoter sequence, indicative of convergent evolution. FIM2-expressing isolates have emerged since 2011 at the expense of FIM3.Conclusions<i>B. pertussis</i> is evolving through the rapid increase of PRN-deficient isolates and a recent shift from FIM3 to FIM2 expression. Excluding PRN, the loss of vaccine antigen expression by circulating <i>B. pertussis</i> isolates is epidemiologically insignificant.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits designed for pertussis diagnostic purposes are frequently used to assess antibody responses to pertussis vaccines in clinical trials, but have limited accuracy and are not calibrated against international standards. We developed a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based multiplexed assay and compared its performance to two commercial Bordetella pertussis ELISA kits and to historical in-house ELISAs.<h4>Methods</h4>The ECL assay quantifies serum concentrations of antibodies against four B. pertussis antigens: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbrial agglutinogen (FIM). The assay was validated for precision, accuracy, dilutability, lower limit of quantification, and specificity. Sera from a clinical trial (CTRI/2016/11/007434) were used to compare the ECL assay to two commercial ELISA kits available from GenWay BioTech and Demeditec Diagnostics for accuracy, linearity, specificity, and concordance to both internal (WWO-2-043) and international (NIBSC 06/140) references. Sera from four clinical trials (NCT02587520, NCT00255047, NCT00347958, NCT01346293) were used to compare the concordance to clinical ELISAs. Informed consent was ensured prior to using any sera.<h4>Results</h4>Precision, accuracy, dilutability, lower limit of quantification, and specificity were demonstrated for the ECL assay. Concordance between the ECL assay and established clinical ELISAs was met for antibody responses to PT, FIM, and PRN, but not for FHA. The ECL assay demonstrated higher accuracy and linearity than the ELISA kits. While concordance between the ECL and commercial kits was low, the ECL assay better distinguished between pre- and post-vaccination clinical samples.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The new ECL assay was validated for the quantitative evaluation of anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-FIM, and anti-PRN IgG antibodies in samples from clinical trials, and demonstrated equivalent or better performance than two commercially available ELISA kits.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4><i>Bordetella pertussis</i>, a highly contagious respiratory. Notably, the resurgence of pertussis has recently been associated with the lacking production of vaccine virulence factors. This study aimed to screen pertactin (Prn) and filamentous hemagglutinin (Fha) production in Iran with 50 years' whole cell vaccine (WCV) immunization program.<h4>Methods</h4>Overall, 130 <i>B</i>. <i>pertussis</i> isolates collected from Pertussis Reference Laboratory of Iran during 2005-2018. Real-time PCR was performed by targeting IS481, ptxP, IS1001 and IS1002 for species confirmation of <i>B. pertussis</i>. Western-blot was used to evaluate the expression of virulence factors (pertactin and filamentous hemagglutinin).<h4>Results</h4>All tested <i>B. pertussis</i> isolates expressed Prn and all except two isolates expressed Fha. We have sequenced genomes of these strains and identified differences compared with genome reference <i>B. pertussis</i> Tohama I.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Many countries reporting Prn and Fha-deficiency due to acellular vaccine (ACV) pressure. Our results demonstrate in a country with WCV history, Fha-deficient isolates may rise independently. However, Prn-deficient isolates are more under the ACV pressure in <i>B. pertussis</i> isolates. Continues surveillance will provide a better understanding of the effect of WCV on the evolution of the pathogen deficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acellular Pertussis vaccines against whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis present a much-improved safety profile compared to the original vaccine of killed whole cells. The principal antigen of acellular Pertussis vaccine, Pertussis Toxin (PT), must be chemically inactivated to obtain the corresponding toxoid (PTd). This process, however, results in extensive denaturation of the antigen. The development of acellular Pertussis vaccines containing PTd or recombinant PT (rPT) with inactivated S1, Filamentous Hemagglutinin (FHA), and Pertactin (PRN) has shown that the yield of PRN was limiting, whereas FHA was overproduced. To improve antigen yields and process economics, we have constructed strains of Bordetella pertussis that produce enhanced levels of both rPT and PRN. RESULTS:Three recombinant strains of Bordetella pertussis were obtained by homologous recombination using an allelic exchange vector, pSS4245. In the first construct, the segment encoding PT subunit S1 was replaced by two mutations (R9K and E129G) that removed PT toxicity and Bp-WWC strain was obtained. In the second construct, a second copy of the whole cluster of PT structural genes containing the above mutations was inserted elsewhere into the chromosome of Bp-WWC and the Bp-WWD strain was obtained. This strain generated increased amounts of rPT (3.77 ± 0.53 ?g/mL) compared to Bp-WWC (2.61 ± 0.16 ?g/mL) and wild type strain (2.2 ?g/mL). In the third construct, a second copy of the prn gene was inserted into the chromosome of Bp-WWD to obtain Bp-WWE. Strain Bp-WWE produced PRN at 4.18 ± 1.02 ?g/mL in the cell extract which was about two-fold higher than Bp-WWC (2.48 ± 0.10 ?g/mL) and Bp-WWD (2.31 ± 0.17 ?g/mL). Purified PTd from Bp-WWD at 0.8-1.6 ?g/well did not show any toxicity against Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell whereas purified PT from WT demonstrated a cell clustering endpoint at 2.6 pg/well. CONCLUSIONS:We have constructed Bordetella pertussis strains expressing increased amounts of the antigens, rPT or rPT and PRN. Expression of the third antigen, FHA was unchanged (always in excess). These strains will be useful for the manufacture of affordable acellular Pertussis vaccines.
Project description:Bordetella pertussis vaccine escape mutants that lack expression of the pertussis antigen pertactin (Prn) have emerged in vaccinated populations in the last 10-20 years. Additionally, clinical isolates lacking another acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine component, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), have been found sporadically. Here, we show that both whole-cell pertussis (wP) and aP vaccines induced protection in the lungs of mice, but that the wP vaccine was more effective in nasal clearance. Importantly, bacterial populations isolated from the lungs shifted to an FHA-negative phenotype due to frameshift mutations in the fhaB gene. Loss of FHA expression was strongly selected for in Prn-deficient strains in the lungs following aP but not wP vaccination. The combined loss of Prn and FHA led to complete abrogation of bacterial surface binding by aP-induced serum antibodies. This study demonstrates vaccine- and anatomical site-dependent adaptation of B. pertussis and has major implications for the design of improved pertussis vaccines.
Project description:Immunization with the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine raises controversies on immunogenicity and possible antibody interference. We performed an experimental, double-blind, parallel group controlled clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Tdap vaccine in 204 pregnant women and their children and to determine its interference in antibody production. Pregnant women 18 to 38 y of age with 12 to 24 weeks gestation, a low obstetric risk, and without serious disease were randomly selected. The experimental group received 0.5 mL IM of Tdap and the control group normal saline. Six blood samples were drawn before and after solution application, and from the umbilical cord of the infants and at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Pertactin and Pertussis toxin antibodies and possible interference of maternal antibodies with the vaccine were determined. In the experimental group, antibodies against Bordetella pertussis pertactin (anti-PRN) (112 E/mL 95% CI 89.9-139.9) and antibodies against pertussis toxin (anti-PT) (24.0 E/mL, 95% CI 18.3-31.4) were elevated in the mother before vaccination. These were higher in the umbilical cord and descended in the infant at 2 months (71.4 (95% CI 56.8-89.7 and 10.9; 95% CI 8.7-13.7, respectively). Anti-PT showed a delay in production. Tdap safety was confirmed with only mild local pain at 24 and 48 hours. Anti-PRN and anti-PT antibodies in the infant descend at 2 months of age. There is a delay in anti-PT in children of immunized mothers. Further studies are needed to elucidate its clinical significance.