Water-Borne Endovascular Embolics Inspired by the Undersea Adhesive of Marine Sandcastle Worms.
ABSTRACT: Transcatheter embolization is used to treat vascular malformations and defects, to control bleeding, and to selectively block blood supply to tissues. Liquid embolics are used for small vessel embolization that require distal penetration. Current liquid embolic agents have serious drawbacks, mostly centered around poor handling characteristics and toxicity. In this work, a water-borne in situ setting liquid embolic agent is described that is based on electrostatically condensed, oppositely charged polyelectrolytes-complex coacervates. At high ionic strengths, the embolic coacervates are injectable fluids that can be delivered through long narrow microcatheters. At physiological ionic strength, the embolic coacervates transition into a nonflowing solid morphology. Transcatheter embolization of rabbit renal arteries demonstrated capillary level penetration, homogeneous occlusion, and 100% devascularization of the kidney, without the embolic crossing into venous circulation. The benign water-borne composition and setting mechanism avoids many of the problems of current liquid embolics, and provides precise temporal and spatial control during endovascular embolization.
Project description:Embolotherapy using particle embolics is normally performed with exogenous contrast to assist in visualization. However, the exact location of the embolics cannot be identified after contrast washout. We developed a novel, pseudo-check valve-integrated microfluidic device, that partitions barium- impregnated alginate from crosslinking solution, thereby preventing nozzle failure. This enables rapid and continuous generation of inherently X-ray-visible embolic microspheres (XEMs) with uniform size. The XEMs are visible under clinical X-ray and cone beam CT both in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we demonstrated the embolization properties of these XEMs in large animals, performing direct intra- and post-procedural assessment of embolic delivery. The persistent radiopacity of these XEMs enables real-time evaluation of embolization precision and offers great promise for non-invasive follow-up examination without exogenous contrast. We also demonstrated that bariatric arterial embolization with XEMs significantly suppresses weight gain in swine, as an example of a non-oncological application of embolotherapy.
Project description:Preoperative endovascular tumor embolization has been used for 40 years. Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumor in which preoperative embolization has been most extensively described in the literature. Advocates of embolization report that it reduces operative blood-loss, and softens the tumor, thus making surgery safer and easier. Opponents suggest that it adds additional risk and cost for patients without controlled studies showing conclusive benefit. The literature suggests a 3 to 6% neurological complication rate related to embolization. The combined external and internal carotid artery blood supply and complex anastomoses of the meninges can make embolization challenging. Positive outcomes require thorough knowledge of the pertinent vascular anatomy, familiarity with the neurovascular equipment and embolics, and meticulous technique. There remains debate on several aspects of embolization, including tumors most appropriate for embolization, embolic agent of choice, ideal size of embolic, and the choice of vessel(s) to embolize. This detailed review of pertinent vascular anatomy, embolization technique, results, and complications should allow practitioners to maximize treatment outcomes in this setting.
Project description:Polyacrylate glue protein analogs of the glue secreted by Phragmatopoma californica, a marine polycheate, were synthesized with phosphate, primary amine, and catechol sidechains with molar ratios similar to the natural glue proteins. Aqueous mixtures of the mimetic polyelectrolytes condensed into liquid complex coacervates around neutral pH. Wet cortical bone specimens bonded with the coacervates, oxidatively crosslinked through catechol sidechains, had bond strengths nearly 40% of the strength of a commercial cyanoacrylate. The unique material properties of complex coacervates may be ideal for development of clinically useful adhesives and other biomaterials.
Project description:Transcatheter embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that uses embolic agents to intentionally block diseased or injured blood vessels for therapeutic purposes. Embolic agents in clinical practice are limited by recanalization, risk of non-target embolization, failure in coagulopathic patients, high cost, and toxicity. Here, a decellularized cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM)-based nanocomposite hydrogel is developed to provide superior mechanical stability, catheter injectability, retrievability, antibacterial properties, and biological activity to prevent recanalization. The embolic efficacy of the shear-thinning ECM-based hydrogel is shown in a porcine survival model of embolization in the iliac artery and the renal artery. The ECM-based hydrogel promotes arterial vessel wall remodeling and a fibroinflammatory response while undergoing significant biodegradation such that only 25% of the embolic material remains at 14 days. With its unprecedented proregenerative, antibacterial properties coupled with favorable mechanical properties, and its superior performance in anticoagulated blood, the ECM-based hydrogel has the potential to be a next-generation biofunctional embolic agent that can successfully treat a wide range of vascular diseases.
Project description:Objective An acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and, although hysterectomy is the definitive therapy, transcatheter embolization (TCE) provides an alternative treatment option. This systematic review presents the indications, technique, and outcomes for transcatheter treatment of the acquired uterine AVMs. Study Design Literature databases were searched from 2003 to 2013 for eligible clinical studies, including the patient characteristics, procedural indication, results, complications, as well as descriptions on laterality and embolic agents utilized. Results A total of 40 studies were included comprising of 54 patients (average age of 33.4 years). TCE had a primary success rate with symptomatic control of 61% (31 patients) and secondary success rate of 91% after repeated embolization. When combined with medical therapy, symptom resolution was noted in 48 (85%) patients without more invasive surgical procedures. Conclusion Low-level evidence supports the role of TCE, including in the event of persistent bleeding following initial embolization, for the treatment of acquired uterine AVMs. The variety of embolic agents and laterality of approach delineate the importance of refining procedural protocols in the treatment of the acquired uterine AVM. Condensation A review on the management of patients with acquired uterine AVMs.
Project description:Surfactant-mediated coacervates are termed as the new age microreactors for their ability to spontaneously sequester the molecules with varied polarities and functionalities. Efforts to emulate this applicability of coacervates through synthetic control of surfactant structures are finding success; however, there is little understanding of how to translate these changes into tailor-made properties. Herein, we designed 3-methyl-1-(octyloxycarbonylmethyl)imidazolium bromide (C8EMeImBr), an ester-functionalized ionic liquid-based surfactant, which shows better surface active properties than the nonfunctionalized and conventional cationic surfactant and forms complex coacervates over the broad range of concentration with sodium salicylate (NaSal). Mono- and divalent cations as well as ionic strength, viscosity, and time-dependent stability of the coacervates had also been addressed in order to study whether these coacervates could work as microreactors to encapsulate various molecules. The anionic charged complex coacervates with sponge morphology and honey comb-like interior show good efficiency to sequester cationic dyes from water because of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and good encapsulation efficiency for curcumin owing to their high surface area. Results suggest that ionic liquid-based coacervates studied here could be exploited as a novel low-cost, effective, and environmentally benign alternative to sequester dyes from the contaminated water and their recovery.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of bronchial arteriography and transcatheter embolization in treatment of severe haemoptysis. Forty five patients with severe haemoptysis were evaluated by means of bronchial arteriography and study of non bronchial systemic arteries and underwent transcatheter embolization. Specific causes of haemoptysis were Tuberculosis (n=37), Tuberculosis with Aspergilloma (n=4) and bronchiectasis (n=4). Gel foam pellets and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles were used as embolic material in 36 patients and 9 patients respectively. The angiographic signs of haemorrhage encountered were extravasation of contrast in 2 patients (4.4%), hypervascularisation in 42 (93.3%), broncho-pulmonary shunt in 13 (28.8%) and bronchial artery aneurysm in 1 patient (2.2%). Immediate control of bleeding occurred in 44 (97.7%) of 45 patients after embolization. Recurrent haemoptysis occurred in 4 cases (11.9%) more than 1 month after embolization but bleeding was less severe, than before treatment. This study suggests that bronchial artery embolization is an effective method of managing patients with severe haemoptysis, minor bleeding recurrences appear to be relatively infrequent.
Project description:Rationale: Intraoperative bleeding impairs physicians' ability to visualize the surgical field, leading to increased risk of surgical complications and reduced outcomes. Bleeding is particularly challenging during endoscopic-assisted surgical resection of hypervascular tumors in the head and neck. A tool that controls bleeding while marking tumor margins has the potential to improve gross tumor resection, reduce surgical morbidity, decrease blood loss, shorten procedure time, prevent damage to surrounding tissues, and limit postoperative pain. Herein, we develop and characterize a new system that combines pre-surgical embolization with improved visualization for endoscopic fluorescence image-guided tumor resection. Methods: Silk-elastinlike protein (SELP) polymers were employed as liquid embolic vehicles for delivery of a clinically used near-infrared dye, indocyanine green (ICG). The biophysical properties of SELP, including gelation kinetics, modulus of elasticity, and viscosity, in response to ICG incorporation using rheology, were characterized. ICG release from embolic SELP was modeled in tissue phantoms and via fluorescence imaging. The embolic capability of the SELP-ICG system was then tested in a microfluidic model of tumor vasculature. Lastly, the cytotoxicity of the SELP-ICG system in L-929 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was assessed. Results: ICG incorporation into SELP accelerated gelation and increased its modulus of elasticity. The SELP embolic system released 83 ± 8% of the total ICG within 24 hours, matching clinical practice for pre-surgical embolization procedures. Adding ICG to SELP did not reduce injectability, but did improve the gelation kinetics. After simulated embolization, ICG released from SELP in tissue phantoms diffused a sufficient distance to deliver dye throughout a tumor. ICG-loaded SELP was injectable through a clinical 2.3 Fr microcatheter and demonstrated deep penetration into 50-µm microfluidic-simulated blood vessels with durable occlusion. Incorporation of ICG into SELP improved biocompatibility with HUVECs, but had no effect on L-929 cell viability. Principle Conclusions: We report the development and characterization of a new, dual-functional embolization-visualization system for improving fluorescence-imaged endoscopic surgical resection of hypervascular tumors.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Few liquid embolic materials are available for treatment of arteriovenous malformations. We describe the in vivo experience with the new PHIL low viscosity (LV) liquid embolic agent in a swine rete mirabile model.<h4>Methods</h4>Eight swine were treated. Two animals underwent embolization of a rete with PHIL LV and the contralateral rete with Squid 12 (euthanized the same day). Six animals underwent embolization of the right rete: two with balloon flow arrest (euthanized at 14?d) and four with a microcatheter alone (euthanized at 14 and 90?d). Performance characteristics of the embolic agents were evaluated. Microscopic and histological analysis of the harvested retia was performed. Macroscopic examinations and high contrast digital-based radiographs of the central nervous system were obtained.<h4>Results</h4>We did not experience any technical complication during embolization of each rete. Overall occlusion ability, on/off injection and ease to retrieve the microcatheter/balloon with PHIL LV were optimal. Fluoroscopic visualization of the PHIL LV cast was adequate to optimal. Average embolization time with flow arrest was 9.5?min versus 19.5?min with microcatheter plugging. Embolizations with PHIL LV required less volume and were shorter when compared to Squid 12. Subacute (14?d) and chronic (90?d) microscopic and histological analysis demonstrated minimal inflammatory changes in the perivascular tissues and permanent occlusion of the embolized vasculature.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In this swine rete model, the new PHIL LV embolic agent had an excellent embolization performance. Vessels embolized remained occluded up to 90?d from the procedure with minimal inflammatory changes.
Project description:Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) plays an important role in clinical tumor therapy by accomplishing vessel-casting embolization of tumor arteries at all levels and suppressing tumor collateral circulation and vascular re-canalization. In this study, we describe smart blood-vessel-embolic nanogels for improving the anti-tumor efficacy of TAE therapy on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). <b>Methods:</b> In this study, an <i>in vitro</i> model composed of two microfluidic chips was used for simulating the tumor capillary network and analyzing artery-embolization properties. Also, blood-vessel-casting embolization of renal arteries was evaluated in normal rabbits. Using a VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model, the therapeutic efficacy of TAE on HCC was investigated for tumor growth, necrosis, and proliferation. Neovascularization and collateral circulation were evaluated by immunofluorescent detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and CD31 following the TAE therapy of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits. <b>Results:</b> Sufficient embolization of all eight levels of micro-channels was achieved in a tumor-vessel-mimetic model with two microfluidic chips using PIBI-2240, and was further confirmed in renal arteries of normal rabbit. Effective inhibition of tumor collateral circulation and vascular re-canalization was observed in VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits due to the reduced expression levels of HIF-1?, VEGF, and CD31. <b>Conclusions:</b> The exceptional anti-tumor effect of PIBI-2240 observed in this study suggested that it is an excellent blood-vessel-embolic material for tumor TAE therapy.