Extracellular vesicles as an efficient nanoplatform for the delivery of therapeutics.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-derived vesicles that are enriched with RNAs, proteins and other functional molecules. We exploit the unique physical properties of EVs as a promising and advantageous nanoplatform for the delivery of therapeutic drugs and genetic materials. Early successes in the discovery of various disease-related characteristics of EVs have driven a new wave of innovation in developing nanoscale drug-delivery systems (DDSs). Nevertheless, there are several issues that need to be considered during the development of these alternative DDSs, such as standardized isolation and preservation methods, efficient drug encapsulation, mechanisms of drug release and so on. In this mini-review, we summarize the current status and progress of EV-based DDSs as an efficient nanoplatform for therapeutics delivery, followed by a discussion on their challenges and future prospects for clinical translation and applications.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane particles that represent an endogenous mechanism for cell-to-cell communication. Since discovering that EVs have multiple advantages over currently available delivery platforms, such as their ability to overcome natural barriers, intrinsic cell targeting properties, and circulation stability, the potential use of EVs as therapeutic nanoplatforms for cancer studies has attracted considerable interest. To fully elucidate EVs' therapeutic function for treating cancer, all current knowledge about cellular uptake and trafficking of EVs will be initially reviewed. In order to further improve EVs as anticancer therapeutics, engineering strategies for cancer therapy have been widely explored in the last decade, along with other cancer therapies. However, therapeutic applications of EVs as drug delivery systems have been limited because of immunological concerns, lack of methods to scale EV production, and efficient drug loading. We will review and discuss recent progress and remaining challenges in developing EVs as a delivery nanoplatform for cancer therapy.
Project description:Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors contributing to resistance to chemotherapy. Selective delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to hypoxic tumor niche remains an unsolved issue. For this purpose, we constructed a gold nanoplatform targeting carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) epitope, which is overexpressed in hypoxic tumor cells versus in normal tissues. We designed compatible low-molecular weight carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) ligands and doxorubicin (Dox) ligands and optimized protocols for efficient decoration of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to achieve both good targeting ligand density and optimum drug loading, while preserving colloidal stability. The optimized Dox-HZN-DTDP@Au NPs-LA-PEG2000-CAI (THZN) nanoplatform was proved to be very efficient toward killing HT-29 tumor cells, especially under hypoxic conditions, as compared with the nontargeting nanoplatform. This also mediated the effective release of doxorubicin in the lysosomes following internalization, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, using tumor spheroids as a representative model for hypoxic solid tumors, our THZN nanoplatform enhanced the selective delivery of doxorubicin up to 2.5 times and minimized chemoresistance, showing better tumor drug penetration as compared to that in free drug treatment. Our technology is the first CA IX-targeting gold nanoplatform for efficient delivery of doxorubicin to hypoxic tumors in a controlled fashion, with the perspective to improve the therapy of solid tumors and minimize chemoresistance.
Project description:Small interfering RNAs (siRNA)/microRNAs (miRNA) have promising therapeutic potential, yet their clinical application has been hampered by the lack of appropriate delivery systems. Herein, we employed extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a targeted delivery system for small RNAs. EVs are cell-derived small vesicles that participate in cell-to-cell communication for protein and RNA delivery. We used the aptamer AS1411-modified EVs for targeted delivery of siRNA/microRNA to breast cancer tissues. Tumor targeting was facilitated via AS1411 binding to nucleolin, which is highly expressed on the surface membrane of breast cancer cells. This delivery vesicle targeted let-7 miRNA delivery to MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro as confirmed with fluorescent microscopic imaging and flow cytometry. Also, intravenously delivered AS1411-EVs loaded with miRNA let-7 labeled with the fluorescent marker, Cy5, selectively targeted tumor tissues in tumor-bearing mice and inhibited tumor growth. Importantly, the modified EVs were well tolerated and showed no evidence of nonspecific side effects or immune response. Thus, the RNAi nanoplatform is versatile and can deliver siRNA or miRNA to breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that the AS1411-EVs have a great potential as drug delivery vehicles to treat cancers.
Project description:Drug nanoformulations hold remarkable promise for the efficient delivery of therapeutics to a disease site. Unfortunately, artificial nanocarriers, mostly liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, show limited applications due to the unfavorable pharmacokinetics and rapid clearance from the blood circulation by the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Besides, many of them have high cytotoxicity, low biodegradability, and the inability to cross biological barriers, including the blood brain barrier. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are novel candidates for drug delivery systems with high bioavailability, exceptional biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. They provide a means for intercellular communication and the transmission of bioactive compounds to targeted tissues, cells, and organs. These features have made them increasingly attractive as a therapeutic platform in recent years. However, there are many obstacles to designing EV-based therapeutics. In this review, we will outline the main hurdles and limitations for therapeutic and clinical applications of drug loaded EV formulations and describe various attempts to solve these problems.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result of these properties, EVs of defined cell types may serve as novel tools for various therapeutic approaches, including (a) anti-tumour therapy, (b) pathogen vaccination, (c) immune-modulatory and regenerative therapies and (d) drug delivery. The translation of EVs into clinical therapies requires the categorization of EV-based therapeutics in compliance with existing regulatory frameworks. As the classification defines subsequent requirements for manufacturing, quality control and clinical investigation, it is of major importance to define whether EVs are considered the active drug components or primarily serve as drug delivery vehicles. For an effective and particularly safe translation of EV-based therapies into clinical practice, a high level of cooperation between researchers, clinicians and competent authorities is essential. In this position statement, basic and clinical scientists, as members of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) and of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, namely European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HaD), summarize recent developments and the current knowledge of EV-based therapies. Aspects of safety and regulatory requirements that must be considered for pharmaceutical manufacturing and clinical application are highlighted. Production and quality control processes are discussed. Strategies to promote the therapeutic application of EVs in future clinical studies are addressed.
Project description:Background:Carbon-based drug delivery systems have attracted great interest because of their excellent photothermal conversion capability and high specific surface area for drug loading. Herein, we report a multifunctional nanoplatform based on hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified and graphene quantum dot (GQD)-gated hollow mesoporous carbon nanoparticle (HMCN) for anticancer drug encapsulation and targeted chemo-photothermal therapy of CD44 receptor-overexpressed cancer cells. Methods:In this design, HMCN was not only used as a nanocarrier with high drug loading content to achieve chemotherapy, but also as a near-infrared absorbing agent to realize photothermal therapy. GQDs could not only prevent premature drug release during blood circulation, but also enhance the chemo-photothermal therapeutic efficacy for complete tumor growth suppression. After being modified with HA, the HA-HMCN(DOX)@GQDs could specifically target cancer cells. Results:As expected, the as-prepared HMCN exhibited high doxorubicin (DOX)-loading capacity of 410 mg/g and excellent light-to-heat conversion property. The DOX was released from HA-HMCN(DOX)@GQDs in a near-infrared laser and pH stimuli-responsive manner, which could enhance the therapeutic effect. In vitro cell biological experimental results confirmed that the nanoplatform possesses excellent biocompatibility, specifically target CD44 receptor-overexpressing human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, and has remarkable synergistic chemo-photothermal killing capacity. The in vivo therapeutic studies in HeLa xenografts also showed negligible toxicity of HA-HMCN@GQDs and complete inhibition of tumor growth of HA-HMCN(DOX) @GQDs with near-infrared irradiation. Conclusion:The excellent therapeutic effects demonstrated in vitro and in vivo suggested the HMCN-based nanoplatform holds potential for efficient dual-responsive targeting drug delivery and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy.
Project description:A multifunctional magneto-plasmonic CoFe2O4@Au core-shell nanoparticle was developed by iterative-seeding based method. This nanocargo consists of a cobalt ferrite kernel as a core (Nk) and multiple layers of gold as a functionalizable active stratum, (named as Nk@A after fifth iteration). Nk@A helps in augmenting the physiological stability and enhancing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) property. The targeted delivery of Doxorubicin using Nk@A as a nanopayload is demonstrated in this report. The drug release profile followed first order rate kinetics optimally at pH 5.4, which is considered as an endosomal pH of cells. The cellular MR imaging showed that Nk@A is an efficient T2 contrast agent for both L6 (r2-118.08?mM(-1)s(-1)) and Hep2 (r2-217.24?mM(-1)s(-1)) cells. Microwave based magnetic hyperthermia studies exhibited an augmentation in the temperature due to the transformation of radiation energy into heat at 2.45?GHz. There was an enhancement in cancer cell cytotoxicity when hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy. Hence, this single nanoplatform can deliver 3-pronged theranostic applications viz., targeted drug-delivery, T2 MR imaging and hyperthermia.
Project description:The extreme complexity and heterogeneity of fatal tumors requires the development of combination phototherapy considering the limited therapeutic efficiency of conventional monomodal photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photothermal therapy (PTT). However, tumor-specific drug administration and the accompanying hypoxia-restrained PDT present the main obstacles for executing an efficient combination phototherapy. Developing a highly biocompatible, tumor-specific, near infrared absorbing, and oxygen (O2)-evolving multifunctional nanoplatform is thus crucial for an effective PDT-based combination therapy. In this contribution, a multifunctional ZIF-8-gated polydopamine nanoparticle (PDA) carrier was synthesized for simultaneously delivering a photosensitizer and a catalase (CAT) into tumor cells, thus realizing a cooperatively enhanced combination photodynamic and photothermal therapy, as systematically demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The ZIF-8 gatekeeper facilitates the simultaneous and effective delivery of these functional payloads, and the subsequent tumor acidic pH-stimulated drug release. This leads to a significant improvement of combination efficacy by ameliorating tumor hypoxic conditions since the CAT-mediated self-sufficient O2 generation could substantially promote an efficient PDT operation. In addition, this nanoplatform can effectively convert near infrared photoradiation into heat, resulting in thermally induced elimination of cancerous cells. As an intelligent multi-mode therapeutic nanosystem, this inorganic/organic hybrid nanosystem showed great potential for accurate cancer diagnosis and immediate therapy.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid bilayer-delimited nanoparticles released from all types of cells examined thus far. Several groups of EVs, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, have been identified according to their size and biogenesis. With extensive investigations on EVs over the last decade, it is now recognized that EVs play a pleiotropic role in various physiological processes as well as pathological conditions through mediating intercellular communication. Most notably, EVs have been shown to be involved in cancer initiation and progression and EV signaling in cancer are viewed as potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, as membrane nanoparticles, EVs are natural products with some of them, such as tumor exosomes, possessing tumor homing propensity, thus leading to strategies utilizing EVs as drug carriers to effectively deliver cancer therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent reports on exploring EVs signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cancer as well as on developing EVs as therapeutic delivery carriers for cancer therapy. Findings from preclinical studies are primarily discussed, with early phase clinical trials reviewed. We hope to provide readers updated information on the development of EVs as cancer therapeutic targets or therapeutic carriers.
Project description:Recently, living cells with tumor-homing properties have provided an exciting opportunity to achieve optimal delivery of nanotherapeutic agents. However, premature payload leakage may impair the host cells, often leading to inadequate in vivo investigations or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, a nanoplatform that provides a high drug-loading capacity and the precise control of drug release is required. In the present study, a robust one-step synthesis of a doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded gold nanorod/albumin core-shell nanoplatform (NR@DOX:SA) was designed for effective macrophage-mediated delivery to demonstrate how nanoparticle-loaded macrophages improve photothermal/chemodrug distribution and retention ability to achieve enhanced antitumor effects. The serum albumin shell of these nanoagents served as a drug reservoir to delay the intracellular DOX release and drug-related toxicity that impairs the host cell carriers. Near-infrared laser irradiation enabled on-demand payload release to destroy neighboring tumor cells. A series of in vivo quantitative analyses demonstrated that the nanoengineered macrophages delivered the nanodrugs through tumor-tropic migration to tumor tissues, resulting in the twice homogenous and efficient photothermal activations of drug release to treat prostate cancer. By contrast, localized pristine NR@DOX:SAs exhibit limited photothermal drug delivery that further reduces their retention ability and therapeutic efficacy after second combinational treatment, leading to a failure of cancer therapy. Moreover, the resultant unhealable wounds impair quality of life. Free DOX has rapid clearance and therefore exhibits limited antitumor effects. Our findings suggest that in comparison with pristine nanoparticles or free DOX, the nanoengineered macrophages effectively demonstrate the importance and effect of homogeneous drug distribution and retention ability in cancer therapy.