Differential Expression Patterns of Pleurotus ostreatus Catalase Genes during Developmental Stages and under Heat Stress.
ABSTRACT: Catalases are ubiquitous hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzymes. They participate in fungal growth and development, such as mycelial growth and cellular differentiation, and in protecting fungi from oxidative damage under stressful conditions. To investigate the potential functions of catalases in Pleurotus ostreatus, we obtained two catalase genes from a draft genome sequence of P. ostreatus, and cloned and characterized them (Po-cat1 and Po-cat2). Po-cat1 (group II) and Po-cat2 (group III) encoded putative peptides of 745 and 528 amino acids, respectively. Furthermore, the gene structures were variant between Po-cat1 and Po-cat2. Further research revealed that these two catalase genes have divergent expression patterns during different developmental stages. Po-cat1/Po-cat1 was at a barely detectable level in mycelia, accumulated gradually during reproductive growth, and was maximal in separated spores. But no catalase activity of Po-cat1 was detected by native-PAGE during any part of the developmental stages. In contrast, high Po-cat2/Po-cat2 expression and Po-cat2 activity found in mycelia were gradually lost during reproductive growth, and at a minimal level in separated spores. In addition, these two genes responded differentially under 32 °C and 40 °C heat stresses. Po-cat1 was up-regulated under both temperature conditions, while Po-cat2 was up-regulated at 32 °C but down-regulated at 40 °C. The accumulation of catalase proteins correlated with gene expression. These results indicate that the two divergent catalases in P. ostreatus may play different roles during development and under heat stress.
Project description:In the present study, we sought to elucidate the contribution of the Cryptococcus neoformans catalase gene family to antioxidant defense. We employed bioinformatics techniques to identify four members of the C. neoformans catalase gene family and created mutants lacking single or multiple catalase genes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, CAT1 and CAT3 encode putative spore-specific catalases, CAT2 encodes a putative peroxisomal catalase, and CAT4 encodes a putative cytosolic catalase. Only Cat1 exhibited detectable biochemical activity in vitro, and Cat1 activity was constitutive in the yeast form of this organism. Although they were predicted to be important in spores, neither CAT1 nor CAT3 was essential for mating or spore viability. Consistent with previous studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the single (cat1, cat2, cat3, and cat4) and quadruple (cat1 cat2 cat3 cat4) catalase mutant strains exhibited no oxidative-stress phenotypes under conditions in which either exogenous or endogenous levels of reactive oxygen species were elevated. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean times to mortality between groups of mice infected with C. neoformans catalase mutant strains (the cat1 and cat1 cat2 cat3 cat4 mutants) and those infected with wild-type strain H99. We conclude from the results of this study that C. neoformans possesses a robust antioxidant system, composed of functionally overlapping and compensatory components that provide protection against endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses.
Project description:Angiosperms (flowering plants), including both monocots and dicots, contain small catalase gene families. In the dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana, two catalase (CAT) genes, CAT1 and CAT3, are tightly linked on chromosome 1 and a third, CAT2, which is more similar to CAT1 than to CAT3, is unlinked on chromosome 4. Comparison of positions and numbers of introns among 13 angiosperm catalase genomic sequences indicates that intron positions are conserved, and suggests that an ancestral catalase gene common to monocots and dicots contained seven introns. Arabidopsis CAT2 has seven introns; both CAT1 and CAT3 have six introns in positions conserved with CAT2, but each has lost a different intron. We suggest the following sequence of events during the evolution of the Arabidopsis catalase gene family. An initial duplication of an ancestral catalase gene gave rise to CAT3 and CAT1. CAT1 then served as the template for a second duplication, yielding CAT2. Intron losses from CAT1 and CAT3 followed these duplications. One subclade of monocot catalases has lost all but the 5'-most and 3'-most introns, which is consistent with a mechanism of intron loss by replacement of an ancestral intron-containing gene with a reverse-transcribed DNA copy of a fully spliced mRNA. Following this event of concerted intron loss, the Oryza sativa (rice, a monocot) CAT1 lineage acquired an intron in a novel position, consistent with a mechanism of intron gain at proto-splice sites.
Project description:Catalases are enzymes that play critical roles in protecting cells against the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. They are implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions but some of their functions remain unclear. In order to decipher the role(s) of catalases during the life cycle of Podospora anserina, we analyzed the role of the four monofunctional catalases and one bifunctional catalase-peroxidase genes present in its genome. The five genes were deleted and the phenotypes of each single and all multiple mutants were investigated. Intriguingly, although the genes are differently expressed during the life cycle, catalase activity is dispensable during both vegetative growth and sexual reproduction in laboratory conditions. Catalases are also not essential for cellulose or fatty acid assimilation. In contrast, they are strictly required for efficient utilization of more complex biomass like wood shavings by allowing growth in the presence of lignin. The secreted CATB and cytosolic CAT2 are the major catalases implicated in peroxide resistance, while CAT2 is the major player during complex biomass assimilation. Our results suggest that P. anserina produces external H(2)O(2) to assimilate complex biomass and that catalases are necessary to protect the cells during this process. In addition, the phenotypes of strains lacking only one catalase gene suggest that a decrease of catalase activity improves the capacity of the fungus to degrade complex biomass.
Project description:BAK1 (brassinosteroid-insensitive 1 (BRI1) associated receptor kinase 1) plays major roles in multiple signaling pathways as a coreceptor to regulate plant growth and development and stress response. However, the role of BAK1 in high light signaling is still poorly understood. Here we observed that overexpression of BAK1 in Arabidopsis interferes with the function of high light in promoting plant growth and development, which is independent of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway. Further investigation shows that high light enhances the phosphorylation of BAK1 and catalase activity, thereby reducing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Catalase3 (CAT3) is identified as a BAK1-interacting protein by affinity purification and LC-MS/MS analysis. Biochemical analysis confirms that BAK1 interacts with and phosphorylates all three catalases (CAT1, CAT2, and CAT3) of the Arabidopsis genome, and the trans-phosphorylation sites of three catalases with BAK1-CD are identified by LC-MS/MS in vitro. Genetic analyses reveal that the BAK1 overexpression plants knocked out all the three CAT genes completely abolishing the effect of BAK1 on suppression of high light-promoted growth. This study first unravels the role of BAK1 in mediating high light-triggered activation of CATs, thereby degrading H2O2 and regulating plant growth and development in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Aspergillus fumigatus possesses two catalases (described as fast and slow on the basis of their electrophoretic mobility). The slow catalase has been recognized as a diagnostic antigen for aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients. The antigenic catalase has been purified. The enzyme is a tetrameric protein composed of 90-kDa subunits. The corresponding cat1 gene was cloned, and sequencing data show that the cat1 gene codes for a 728-amino-acid polypeptide. A recombinant protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is enzymatically active and has biochemical and antigenic properties that are similar to those of the wild-type catalase. Molecular experiments reveal that CAT1 contains a signal peptide and a propeptide of 15 and 12 amino acid residues, respectively. cat1-disrupted mutants that were unable to produce the slow catalase were as sensitive to H2O2 and polymorphonuclear cells as the wild-type strain. In addition, there was no difference in pathogenicity between the cat1 mutant and its parental cat1+ strain in a murine model of aspergillosis.
Project description:The response of Peganum harmala L. seedlings subjected to salinity was investigated through the observation of germination at the 4th, 6th and 8th days under normal and two salinity levels (150 and 200 mM NaCl). Genetic response of P. harmala was examined by quantitative estimation and electrophoretic separation of catalase and salt-soluble proteins. The gene expression of catalase and osmotin were investigated using RT-PCR. Final percentage of germination at the eighth day of germination was reduced from 85% in the control to 70 and 30% under the concentration of 150 and 200 mM. The catalase activity and protein content increased as the salinity increased compared to control seedlings. The electrophoretic separation of catalase and salt-soluble proteins exhibited stress-related isozymes and protein bands. RT-PCR of cat1, cat2-3 and cat3 and osmotin genes exhibited up-regulation and down-regulation of genes subsequent to salinity. The reduced germination percentage of salt stressed seedlings was attributed to oxidative damage and osmotic imbalance. The increased catalase activity and protein content were concluded as protective response of P. harmala seedlings to salinity induced oxidative stress and osmoregulation. The additional isozyme bands in the salt-stressed seedlings indicated modulation of CAT gene expression in response to elevated H2O2 subsequent to salinity. The stress specific gene expression was interpreted as molecular mechanism by which plants can tolerate salinity stress. The up-regulation of cat2-3 gene in relation to stress suggests it crucial role in salinity tolerance in P. harmala and further studies are needed for its sequence identification.
Project description:Fungi have evolved efficient metabolic mechanisms for the exact temporal (developmental stages) and spatial (organelles) production of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). We previously demonstrated mechanistic roles of several acetyl-CoA synthetic enzymes, namely, ATP citrate lyase and acetyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs), in the plant-pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae. In this study, we characterized two carnitine acetyltransferases (CATs; CAT1 and CAT2) to obtain a better understanding of the metabolic processes occurring in G. zeae. We found that CAT1 functioned as an alternative source of acetyl-CoA required for lipid accumulation in an ACS1 deletion mutant. Moreover, deletion of CAT1 and/or CAT2 resulted in various defects, including changes to vegetative growth, asexual/sexual development, trichothecene production, and virulence. Although CAT1 is associated primarily with peroxisomal CAT function, mislocalization experiments showed that the role of CAT1 in acetyl-CoA transport between the mitochondria and cytosol is important for sexual and asexual development in G. zeae. Taking these data together, we concluded that G. zeae CATs are responsible for facilitating the exchange of acetyl-CoA across intracellular membranes, particularly between the mitochondria and the cytosol, during various developmental stages.
Project description:Heat stress seriously threatens the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus. Various studies have been performed to study the resistance of P. ostreatus to heat stress. Here, the metabolome was evaluated to determine the response of P. ostreatus mycelia to heat stress at different times (6, 12, 24, 48 h). More than 70 differential metabolites were detected and enriched in their metabolic pathways. Dynamic metabolites changes in enrichment pathways under heat stress showed that heat stress enhanced the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and nucleotides, increased the content of amino acids and vitamins, and accelerated glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in P. ostreatus. The time course changes of P. ostreatus metabolites under continuous heat stress demonstrated that amino acids continuously changed with heat stress, nucleotides clearly changed with heat stress at 12 and 48 h, and lipids exhibited an increasing trend with prolonged heat stress, while few types saccharides and vitamins changed under heat stress. Additionally, heat-treated P. ostreatus produced salicylic acid and other stress-resistant substances that were reported in plants. This study first reported the metabolites changes in P. ostreatus mycelia during 48 h of heat stress. The metabolic pathways and substances that changed with heat stress in this research will aid future studies on the resistance of P. ostreatus and other edible fungi to heat stress.
Project description:Upon infection of a host, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is attacked by the reactive oxygen species produced by phagocytic cells. Detoxification of hydrogen peroxide by catalases was proposed as a way to overcome this host response. A. fumigatus produces three active catalases; one is produced by conidia, and two are produced by mycelia. The mycelial catalase Cat1p was studied previously. Here we characterized the two other catalases, their genes, and the phenotypes of gene-disrupted mutants. CatAp, a spore-specific monofunctional catalase, is resistant to heat, metal ions, and detergent. This enzyme is a dimeric protein with 84.5-kDa subunits. The 749-amino-acid polypeptide exhibits high levels of similarity to the Aspergillus nidulans CatA catalase and to bacterial catalase HPII of Escherichia coli. In spite of increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2), killing of DeltacatA conidia by alveolar macrophages and virulence in animals were similar to the killing of conidia by alveolar macrophages and virulence in animals observed for the wild type. In contrast to the Cat1p and CatAp catalases, the mycelial Cat2p enzyme is a bifunctional catalase-peroxidase and is sensitive to heat, metal ions, and detergent. This enzyme, an 82-kDa monomer, is homologous to catalase-peroxidases of several fungi and bacteria. Surprisingly, mycelium of the double Deltacat1Deltacat2 mutant with no catalase activity exhibited only slightly increased sensitivity to H(2)O(2) and was as sensitive to killing by polymorphonuclear neutrophils as mycelium of the wild-type strain. However, this mutant exhibited delayed infection in the rat model of aspergillosis compared to infection by the wild-type strain. These results indicate that conidial catalase is not a virulence factor and that mycelial catalases transiently protect the fungus from the host.
Project description:Trichoderma asperellum is one of the species which can be isolated from contaminated Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation substrate with green mold disease. This study focused on the relationship between high temperature and infectivity of T. asperellum to P. ostreatus. Antagonism experiments between T. asperellum and P. ostreatus mycelia revealed that high temperature-treated P. ostreatus mycelia were more easily infected by T. asperellum and covered by conidia. Microscopic observation also showed that P. ostreatus mycelia treated with high temperature could adsorb more T. asperellum conidia. Furthermore, conidia obtained from T. asperellum mycelia grown at 36°C featured higher germination rate compared with that incubated at 28°C. High temperature-treated T. asperellum mycelia can produce conidia in shorter periods, and T. asperellum mycelia were less sensitive to high temperature than P. ostreatus. Deactivated P. ostreatus mycelia can induce T. asperellum cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) and P. ostreatus mycelia subjected to high temperature showed induced CWDEs more effective than those incubated at 28°C. Moreover, T. asperellum showed higher CWDEs activity at high temperature. In dual cultures, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased after 36°C, and high concentration of H2O2 could significantly inhibit the growth of P. ostreatus mycelia. In summary, our findings indicated for the first time that high temperature can induce a series of mechanisms to enhance infection abilities of T. asperellum to P. ostreatus mycelia and to cause Pleurotus green mold disease.