Lysine trimethylation regulates 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein proteostasis during endoplasmic reticulum stress.
ABSTRACT: The up-regulation of chaperones such as the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78, also referred to as BiP or HSPA5) is part of the adaptive cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. GRP78 is widely used as a marker of the unfolded protein response, associated with sustained ER stress. Here we report the discovery of a proteostatic mechanism involving GRP78 trimethylation in the context of ER stress. Using mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified two GRP78 fractions, one homeostatic and one induced by ER stress. ER stress leads to de novo biosynthesis of non-trimethylated GRP78, whereas homeostatic, METTL21A-dependent lysine 585-trimethylated GRP78 is reduced. This proteostatic mechanism, dependent on the posttranslational modification of GRP78, allows cells to differentially regulate specific protein abundance during cellular stress.
Project description:Secretory and transmembrane proteins rely on proper function of the secretory pathway for folding, posttranslational modification, assembly, and secretion. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stimulates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which communicates between the ER and other organelles to enhance ER-folding capacity and restore cellular homeostasis. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa (GRP78), an ER-resident protein chaperone, is a master regulator of all UPR signaling branches. Accumulating studies have established a fundamental role of GRP78 in protein folding, ER stress response, and cell survival. However, role of GRP78 in the heart remains incompletely characterized. Here we showed that embryos lacking GRP78 specifically in cardiac myocytes manifest cardiovascular malformations and die in utero at late gestation. We went further to show that inducible knockout of GRP78 in adult cardiac myocytes causes early mortality due to cardiac cell death and severe decline in heart performance. At the cellular level, we found that loss of GRP78 increases apoptotic cell death, which is accompanied by reduction in AKT signaling and augmentation of production for reactive oxygen species. Importantly, enhancing AKT phosphorylation and activity leads to decreases in oxidative stress and increases in cardiac myocyte survival. Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential role of GRP78 in ensuring normal cardiogenesis and maintaining cardiac contractility and function.
Project description:Environmental injury has been associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a response characterized by activation of the unfolded protein response, proteasomal degradation of proteins, and induction of HSPA5, also known as GRP78 or BiP. Although HSPA5 has been implicated in the stress response to environmental injury in several cell types, its role in the glomerular ER stress response is unknown. In this study, we evaluated HSPA5 activation profiles in rat glomerular mesangial cells (rGMCs) challenged with heavy metals (HgCl2 or Pb2+ acetate) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, ie, benzo(a)pyrene [BaP]). Challenge of rGMCs with 1 or 10 microM HgCl2 or Pb2+ acetate increased HSPA5 mRNA and protein levels. The induction response was sensitive to transcriptional and translational inhibition by actinomycin D (AD) and cyclohexamide, respectively. HSPA5 mRNA was induced by 3 microM BaP in an AD-sensitive manner, but this response was unaffected by the presence of heavy metals. A promoter construct containing sequences that mediate thapsigargin (TH) inducibility of the HSPA5 promoter was refractory to both heavy metals and BaP. The HSPA5 induction response in rGMCs is conserved because it was reproduced with fidelity in immunolocalization experiments of HSPA5 protein in M15 and HEK293 cells in embryonic lines of murine and human origin, respectively. Collectively, these findings identify HSPA5 in the stress response of rGMCs and implicate regulatory mechanisms that are distinct from those involved in TH inducibility.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for the synthesis, initial post-translational modification, folding, export and secretion of proteins. It is also responsible for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In response to cellular stress conditions including glucose deprivation, hypoxia and changes in calcium homeostasis, ER stress machinery is activated and triggers the unfolded protein response, resulting in the restoration of homeostasis or activation of cell death. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a molecular chaperone, may be induced by ER stress at the transcriptional and translational level. A number of studies have demonstrated that GRP78 serves an important role in tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug-resistance. The present review systematically describes the association between GRP78 expression and gastric cancer pathogenesis, and emphasizes that GRP78 is a novel diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker of gastric cancer.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Vascular calcification is common among aging populations and mediated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in protein folding and ER stress has been implicated in bone mineralization. The role of ER stress in VSMC-mediated calcification is less clear. Approach and Results: mRNA expression of the ER stress markers PERK (PKR (protein kinase RNA)-like ER kinase), ATF (activating transcription factor) 4, ATF6, and Grp78 (glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa) was detectable in human vessels with levels of PERK decreased in calcified plaques compared to healthy vessels. Protein deposition of Grp78/Grp94 was increased in the matrix of calcified arteries. Induction of ER stress accelerated human primary VSMC-mediated calcification, elevated expression of some osteogenic markers (Runx2 [RUNX family transcription factor 2], OSX [Osterix], ALP [alkaline phosphatse], BSP [bone sialoprotein], and OPG [osteoprotegerin]), and decreased expression of SMC markers. ER stress potentiated extracellular vesicle (EV) release via SMPD3 (sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3). EVs from ER stress-treated VSMCs showed increased Grp78 levels and calcification. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Grp78/Grp94 in EVs. siRNA (short interfering RNA) knock-down of Grp78 decreased calcification. Warfarin-induced Grp78 and ATF4 expression in rat aortas and VSMCs and increased calcification in an ER stress-dependent manner via increased EV release.<h4>Conclusions</h4>ER stress induces vascular calcification by increasing release of Grp78-loaded EVs. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of action of warfarin, involving increased EV release via the PERK-ATF4 pathway, contributing to calcification. This study is the first to show that warfarin induces ER stress and to link ER stress to cargo loading of EVs.
Project description:Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of prematurity, has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate a causal role for ER stress in BPD pathogenesis, we generated conditional knockout (KO) mice (cGrp78(f/f)) with lung epithelial cell-specific KO of Grp78, a gene encoding the ER chaperone 78-kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a master regulator of ER homeostasis and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Lung epithelial-specific Grp78 KO disrupted lung morphogenesis, causing developmental arrest, increased alveolar epithelial type II cell apoptosis, and decreased surfactant protein and type I cell marker expression in perinatal lungs. cGrp78(f/f) pups died immediately after birth, likely owing to respiratory distress. Importantly, Grp78 KO triggered UPR activation with marked induction of the proapoptotic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP). Increased expression of genes involved in oxidative stress and cell death and decreased expression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes suggest a role for oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis. Increased Smad3 phosphorylation and expression of transforming growth factor-?/Smad3 targets Cdkn1a (encoding p21) and Gadd45a suggest that interactions among the apoptotic arm of the UPR, oxidative stress, and transforming growth factor-?/Smad signaling pathways contribute to Grp78 KO-induced AEC apoptosis and developmental arrest. Chemical chaperone Tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduced UPR activation and apoptosis in cGrp78(f/f) lungs cultured ex vivo, confirming a role for ER stress in observed AEC abnormalities. These results demonstrate a key role for GRP78 in AEC survival and gene expression during lung development through modulation of ER stress, and suggest the UPR as a potential therapeutic target in BPD.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell neoplasm that is mostly incurable due to acquired resistance during the treatment course. Thus, we evaluated expression and release of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78/BiP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) based pro-survival chaperone involved in immunoglobulin folding and unfolded protein responses.GRP78 protein expression in the ER and on the cell surface did not significantly differ between MGUS, NDMM and RRMM patients although there was a trend to higher surface expression in RRMM. In bone marrow plasma, the amount of released GRP78 protein was not significantly increased between MGUS-, NDMM- and RRMM patients. MM cells of the three cell lines release GRP78 as full-length protein under apoptotic, but not under acidotic or ER-stress conditions. In necrosis, only proteolytic fragments of GRP78 were detected in supernatants of MM cells.GRP78 protein expression and plasma levels were quantified in bone marrow aspirates of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS, n = 29), newly diagnosed MM (NDMM, n = 29) and with relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM, n = 15) by immunohistochemistry and sandwich ELISA. The human MM cell lines U266, NCI-H929 and OPM-2 were used for functional GRP78 release- and processing studies after induction of acidosis, ER stress, apoptosis and necrosis.Ectopic expression of GRP78 on cell membrane or its release in the microenvironment is not a suitable marker to distinguish MGUS from NDMM and RRMM.
Project description:Accumulation of human wild-type (wt) α-synuclein (α-syn) induces neurodegeneration in humans and in experimental rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD). It also leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We overexpressed glucose regulated protein 78, also known as BiP (GRP78/BiP), to test the hypothesis that this ER chaperone modulates the UPR, blocks apoptosis, and promotes the survival of nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in a rat model of PD induced by elevated level of human α-syn. We determined that α-syn activates ER stress mediators associated with pancreatic ER kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6) signaling pathways as well as proaoptotic CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in nigral DA neurons. At the same time, overexpression of GRP78/BiP diminished α-syn neurotoxicity by down regulating ER stress mediators and the level of apoptosis, promoted survival of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and resulted in higher levels of striatal DA, while eliminating amphetamine induced behavioral asymmetry. We also detected a complex between GRP78/BiP and α-syn that may contribute to prevention of the neurotoxicity caused by α-syn. Our data suggest that the molecular chaperone GRP78/BiP plays a neuroprotective role in α-syn-induced Parkinson-like neurodegeneration.
Project description:Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for treating various solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a major dose-limiting side effect of cisplatin, which causes progressive and irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we examined the protective effects of glucose-related protein (GRP) 78 and 94, also identified as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone proteins, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Treating murine auditory cells (HEI-OC1) with 25 ?M cisplatin for 24 h increased cell death resulting from excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and caspase-involved apoptotic signaling pathway activation with subsequent DNA fragmentation. GRP78 and GRP94 expression was increased in cells treated with 3 nM thapsigargin or 0.1 ?g/mL tunicamycin for 24 h, referred to as mild ER stress condition. This condition, prior to cisplatin exposure, attenuated cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The involvement of GRP78 and GRP94 induction was demonstrated by the knockdown of GRP78 or GRP94 expression using small interfering RNAs, which abolished the protective effect of mild ER stress condition on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicated that GRP78 and GRP94 induction plays a protective role in remediating cisplatin-ototoxicity.
Project description:Tumor microenvironments are characterized by decreased oxygen and nutrition due to the rapid and progressive nature of tumors and also stresses induced by several anti-tumor therapies. These intense cell stressors trigger a protective cell survival mechanism heralded by the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is induced by an accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) following cell starvation. Although the ER stress response is implicated in cytoprotection, its precise role during anti-angiogenic therapy remains unclear. One of the major proteins involved in ER stress is glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), which binds to unfolded proteins and dissociates from membrane-bound ER stress sensors. To determine the role of ER stress responses during anti-angiogenic therapy and the potential role of GRP78 in combined therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we used GRP78 overexpressing or knockdown RCC cells under hypoxic or hypoglycemic conditions in vitro and in animal models treated with sunitinib. Here, we report that GRP78 plays a crucial role in protecting RCC cells from hypoxic and hypoglycemic stress induced by anti-angiogenic therapy. Knockdown of GRP78 using siRNA inhibited cancer cell survival and induced apoptosis in RCC cells in vitro and also resulted in ER stress-induced apoptosis and hypoxic/hypoglycemic stress-induced apoptosis by inactivating the PERK/eIF-2? pathway. Finally, GRP78 knockdown showed potent suppression of tumor growth and enhanced the antitumor effect of sunitinib in RCC xenografts. Our findings suggest that GRP78 may serve as a novel therapeutic target in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy for the management of RCC.
Project description:Macroautophagy is induced under various stresses to remove cytotoxic materials, including misfolded proteins and their aggregates. These protein cargoes are collected by specific autophagic receptors such as SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) and delivered to phagophores for lysosomal degradation. To date, little is known about how cells sense and react to diverse stresses by inducing the activity of SQSTM1. Here, we show that the peroxiredoxin-like redox sensor PARK7/DJ-1 modulates the activity of SQSTM1 and the targeting of ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugated proteins to macroautophagy under oxidative stress caused by TNFSF10/TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor [ligand] superfamily, member 10). In this mechanism, TNFSF10 induces the N-terminal arginylation (Nt-arginylation) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing molecular chaperone HSPA5/BiP/GRP78, leading to cytosolic accumulation of Nt-arginylated HSPA5 (R-HSPA5). In parallel, TNFSF10 induces the oxidation of PARK7. Oxidized PARK7 acts as a co-chaperone-like protein that binds the ER-derived chaperone R-HSPA5, a member of the HSPA/HSP70 family. By forming a complex with PARK7 (and possibly misfolded protein cargoes), R-HSPA5 binds SQSTM1 through its Nt-Arg, facilitating self-polymerization of SQSTM1 and the targeting of SQSTM1-cargo complexes to phagophores. The 3-way interaction among PARK7, R-HSPA5, and SQSTM1 is stabilized by the Nt-Arg residue of R-HSPA5. PARK7-deficient cells are impaired in the targeting of R-HSPA5 and SQSTM1 to phagophores and the removal of Ub-conjugated cargoes. Our results suggest that PARK7 functions as a co-chaperone for R-HSPA5 to modulate autophagic removal of misfolded protein cargoes generated by oxidative stress.