Continuous Diffusion Model for Concentration Dependence of Nitroxide EPR Parameters in Normal and Supercooled Water.
ABSTRACT: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of radicals in solution depend on their relative motion, which modulates the Heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions between them. To gain information on radical diffusion from EPR spectra demands both reliable spectral fitting to find the concentration coefficients of EPR parameters and valid expressions between the concentration and diffusion coefficients. Here, we measured EPR spectra of the 14N- and 15N-labeled perdeuterated TEMPONE radicals in normal and supercooled water at various concentrations. By fitting the EPR spectra to the functions based on the modified Bloch equations, we obtained the concentration coefficients for the spin dephasing, coherence transfer, and hyperfine splitting parameters. Assuming the continuous diffusion model for radical motion, the diffusion coefficients of radicals were calculated from the concentration coefficients using the standard relations and the relations derived from the kinetic equations for the spin evolution of a radical pair. The latter relations give better agreement between the diffusion coefficients calculated from different concentration coefficients. The diffusion coefficients are similar for both radicals, which supports the presented method. They decrease with lowering temperature slower than is predicted by the Stokes-Einstein relation and slower than the rotational diffusion coefficients, which is similar to the diffusion of water molecules in supercooled water.
Project description:Reaction intermediates trapped during the single-turnover reaction of the neuronal ferrous nitric oxide synthase oxygenase domain (Fe(II)nNOSOX) show four EPR spectra of free radicals. Fully-coupled nNOSOX with cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin, BH4) and substrate (l-arginine) forms the typical BH4 cation radical with an EPR spectrum ~4.0mT wide and hyperfine tensors similar to reports for a biopterin cation radical in inducible NOSOX (iNOSOX). With excess thiol, nNOSox lacking BH4 and l-arg is known to produce superoxide. In contrast, we find that nNOSOX with BH4 but no l-arg forms two radicals with rather different, fast (~250?s at 5K) and slower (~500?s at 20K), electron spin relaxation rates and a combined ~7.0mT wide EPR spectrum. Rapid freeze-quench CW- and pulsed-EPR measurements are used to identify these radicals and their origin. These two species are the same radical with identical nuclear hyperfine couplings, but with spin-spin couplings to high-spin (4.0mT component) or low-spin (7.0mT component) Fe(III) heme. Uncoupled reactions of nNOS leave the enzyme in states that can be chemically reduced to sustain unregulated production of NO and reactive oxygen species in ischemia-reperfusion injury. The broad EPR signal is a convenient indicator of uncoupled nNOS reactions producing low-spin Fe(III) heme.
Project description:Substituted trityl radicals are important spin probes for functional electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging including oxygen and pH mapping in vivo. Here we report the synthetic procedure for large scale synthesis of deuterated Finland trityl radical with superior EPR spectral properties and higher sensitivity towards oxygen concentrations in solution. Additionally Finland trityl radicals substituted with linkers suitable for attaching peptide, or other synthetic precursors have been synthesized. The effect of deutero-substitution on EPR spectra of homologous derivatives has been evaluated. The compounds are potential candidates for targeted spin probes in EPR imaging.
Project description:The radical intermediates formed upon UVA irradiation of titanium dioxide suspensions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments were investigated applying the EPR spin trapping technique. The results showed that the generation of reactive species and their consecutive reactions are influenced by the solvent properties (e.g., polarity, solubility of molecular oxygen, rate constant for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the solvent). The formation of hydroxyl radicals, evidenced as the corresponding spin-adducts, dominated in the irradiated TiO2 aqueous suspensions. The addition of 17O-enriched water caused changes in the EPR spectra reflecting the interaction of an unpaired electron with the 17O nucleus. The photoexcitation of TiO2 in non-aqueous solvents (dimethylsulfoxide, acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol) in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide spin trap displayed a stabilization of the superoxide radical anions generated via electron transfer reaction to molecular oxygen, and various oxygen- and carbon-centered radicals from the solvents were generated. The character and origin of the carbon-centered spin-adducts was confirmed using nitroso spin trapping agents.
Project description:Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy was used to study melanin free radicals in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and tyrosine-derived synthetic melanin. TREPR signal traces from RPE cells reveal in vivo light-induced melanin free radical photochemistry in more detail than previously known. Electron spin polarization reflecting a non-Boltzmann population within the energy levels of the spin system is observed in RPE cells as the result of the triplet state photoproduction and subsequent disappearance of free radicals in the melanin polymer. In a set of RPE cells cultured from individual sources, differences in optical absorption, continuous wave EPR spectra, and TREPR signals were correlated with apoptosis assays performed by flow cytometry. Continuous wave EPR spectra of RPE cells and TREPR of acidified synthetic melanin suggest that increased melanin aggregation provides an increase in photoprotection in the RPE cells that are relatively less susceptible to blue light-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitrogen dioxide ((•)NO(2)), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), and nitrosoperoxycarbonate (ONOOCO(2)(-)) are among the most damaging species present in biological systems due to their ability to cause modification of key biomolecular systems through oxidation, nitrosylation, and nitration. Nitrone spin traps are known to react with free radicals and nonradicals via electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions and have been employed as reagents to detect radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and as pharmacological agents against oxidative stress-mediated injury. This study examines the reactivity of cyclic nitrones such as 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) with (•)NO(2), ONOO(-), ONOOCO(2)(-), SNAP, and SIN-1 using EPR. The thermochemistries of nitrone reactivity with RNS and isotropic hfsc's of the addition products were also calculated at the PCM(water)/B3LYP/6-31+G**//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory with and without explicit water molecules to rationalize the nature of the observed EPR spectra. Spin trapping of other RNS such as azide ((•)N(3)), nitrogen trioxide ((•)NO(3)), amino ((•)NH(2)) radicals and nitroxyl (HNO) were also theoretically and experimentally investigated by EPR spin trapping and mass spectrometry. This study also shows that other spin traps such as 5-carbamoyl-5-methyl-pyrroline N-oxide, 5-ethoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-pyrroline N-oxide, and 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide can react with radical and nonradical RNS, thus making spin traps suitable probes as well as antioxidants against RNS-mediated oxidative damage.
Project description:It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase catalysis by prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS)-1 and -2 involves reaction of a peroxide-induced Tyr385 radical with arachidonic acid (AA) to form an AA radical that reacts with O(2). The potential for isomeric AA radicals and formation of an alternate tyrosyl radical at Tyr504 complicate analysis of radical intermediates. We compared the EPR spectra of PGHS-1 and -2 reacted with peroxide and AA or specifically deuterated AA in anaerobic, single-turnover experiments. With peroxide-treated PGHS-2, the carbon-centered radical observed after AA addition was consistently a pentadienyl radical; a variable wide-singlet (WS) contribution from mixture of Tyr385 and Tyr504 radicals was also present. Analogous reactions with PGHS-1 produced EPR signals consistent with varying proportions of pentadienyl and tyrosyl radicals, and two additional EPR signals. One, insensitive to oxygen exposure, is the narrow singlet tyrosyl radical with clear hyperfine features found previously in inhibitor-pretreated PGHS-1. The second type of EPR signal is a narrow singlet lacking detailed hyperfine features that disappeared upon oxygen exposure. This signal was previously ascribed to an allyl radical, but high field EPR analysis indicated that ~90% of the signal originates from a novel tyrosyl radical, with a small contribution from a carbon-centered species. The radical kinetics could be resolved by global analysis of EPR spectra of samples trapped at various times during anaerobic reaction of PGHS-1 with a mixture of peroxide and AA. The improved understanding of the dynamics of AA and tyrosyl radicals in PGHS-1 and -2 will be useful for elucidating details of the cyclooxygenase mechanism, particularly the H-transfer between tyrosyl radical and AA.
Project description:Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment and in humans. A deca-bromodiphenyl ether mixture (deca-BDE) is the dominating commercial PBDE product today. Deca-BDE is degraded by UV to PBDEs with fewer bromines. We hypothesized that photodegradation of deca-BDE results in the formation of free radicals. We employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with spin trap agents to examine the free radicals formed from UV irradiation of a deca-BDE mixture (DE-83R). The activating wavelength for deca-BDE photochemistry was in the UVA to UVB range. The yields of radicals from irradiated deca-BDE in tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide, and toluene were about 9-, 4-, and 7-fold higher, respectively, than from irradiated solvent alone. Radical formation increased with deca-BDE concentration and irradiation time. The quantum yield of radical formation of the deca-BDE mixture was higher than with an octa-BDE mixture (DE-79; approximately 2-fold), decabromobiphenyl (PBB 209; approximately 2-fold), decachlorobiphenyl (PCB 209; approximately 3-fold), and diphenyl ether (DE; approximately 6-fold), indicating the positive effects of bromine and an ether bond on radical formation. Analysis of hyperfine splittings of the spin adducts suggests that radical formation is initiated or significantly enhanced by debromination paired with hydrogen abstraction from the solvents. To our knowledge this is the first study that uses EPR to demonstrate the formation of free radicals during the photolytic degradation of PBDEs. Our findings strongly suggestthe potential of negative consequences due to radical formation during UV exposure of PBDEs in biological systems.
Project description:Bimolecular collision rate constants of a model solute are measured in water at T = 259-303 K, a range encompassing both normal and supercooled water. A stable, spherical nitroxide spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl, is studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), taking advantage of the fact that the rotational correlation time, ?(R), the mean time between successive spin exchanges within a cage, ?(RE), and the long-time-averaged spin exchange rate constants, K(ex), of the same solute molecule may be measured independently. Thus, long- and short-time translational diffusion behavior may be inferred from K(ex) and ?(RE), respectively. In order to measure K(ex), the effects of dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on the EPR spectra must be separated, yielding as a bonus the DD broadening rate constants that are related to the dephasing rate constant due to DD, W(dd). We find that both K(ex) and W(dd) behave hydrodynamically; that is to say they vary monotonically with T/? or ?/T, respectively, where ? is the shear viscosity, as predicted by the Stokes-Einstein equation. The same is true of the self-diffusion of water. In contrast, ?(RE) does not follow hydrodynamic behavior, varying rather as a linear function of the density reaching a maximum at 276 ± 2 K near where water displays a maximum density.
Project description:Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 microM) with diluted fresh human plasma has been shown to generate material that oxidizes 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid; these oxidants are believed to be chloramines formed from the reaction of HOCl with protein amine groups. Chloramines have also been detected with isolated plasma proteins treated with HOCl. In both cases chloramine formation accounts for approx. 20-30% of the added HOCl. These chloramines decompose in a time-dependent manner when incubated at 20 or 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate and urate remove these chloramines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with the former being more efficient. The reaction of fresh diluted plasma with HOCl also gives rise to protein-derived nitrogen-centred radicals in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner; these have been detected by EPR spin trapping. Identical radicals have been detected with isolated HOCl-treated plasma proteins. Radical formation was inhibited by excess methionine, implicating protein-derived chloramines (probably from lysine side chains) as the radical source. Plasma protein fragmentation occurs in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by the increased mobility of the EPR spin adducts, the detection of further radical species believed to be intermediates in protein degradation and the loss of the parent protein bands on SDS/PAGE. Fragmentation can be inhibited by methionine and other agents (ascorbate, urate, Trolox C or GSH) capable of removing chloramines and reactive radicals. These results are consistent with protein-derived chloramines, and the radicals derived from them, as contributing agents in HOCl-induced plasma protein oxidation.