Ruxolitinib sensitizes ovarian cancer to reduced dose Taxol, limits tumor growth and improves survival in immune competent mice.
ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy initially reduces the tumor burden in patients with ovarian cancer. However, tumors recur in over 70% of patients, creating the need for novel therapeutic approaches.We evaluated Ruxolitinib, an FDA-approved JAK 1/2 kinase inhibitor, as a potential adjunctive therapy for use with low-dose Taxol (Paclitaxel) by assessing the impact on in vitro proliferation and colony formation of ID8 cells or human TOV-112D ovarian cancer cells, as well as flow cytometric measurement of surface markers associated with cellular stress and stemness by ID8 cells. The syngeneic ID8 murine model of ovarian cancer was used to assess the impact of Ruxolitinib and Taxol, individually and in combination, on tumor initiation and growth, as well as capacity to extend survival.Ruxolitinib (?10 ?M) sensitized both ID8 and TOV-112D cells to low concentrations of Taxol (?5 nM), limiting cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that Taxol induced expression of stress and stemness markers including GRP78 and CD133 was significantly reduced by addition of Ruxolitinib. Finally, we demonstrated that a single administration of a low-dose of Taxol (10 mg/Kg) together with daily Ruxolitinib (30 mg/Kg; which is equivalent to plasma concentrations of ? 0.01 ?M steady-state) limited ID8 tumor growth in vivo and significantly extended median survival up to 53.5% (median 70 v 107.5 days) as compared to control mice.Together, these data support the use of Ruxolitinib in combination with low-dose Taxol as a therapeutic approach with the potential for improved efficacy and reduced side effects for patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
Project description:Ras/Raf/MEKs/ERKs and PI3 K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways have key roles in cancer development and growth processes, as well as in cancer malignance and chemoresistance. In this study, we screened the therapeutic potential of magnolin using 15 human cancer cell lines and combined magnolin sensitivity with the CCLE mutaome analysis for relevant mutation information. The results showed that magnolin efficacy on cell proliferation inhibition were lower in TOV-112D ovarian cancer cells than that in SKOV3 cells by G1 and G2/M cell cycle phase accumulation. Notably, magnolin suppressed colony growth of TOV-112D cells in soft agar, whereas colony growth of SKOV3 cells in soft agar was not affected by magnolin treatment. Interestingly, phospho-protein profiles in the MAPK and PI3 K signaling pathways indicated that SKOV3 cells showed marked increase of Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 and very weak ERK1/2 phosphorylation levels by EGF stimulation. The phospho-protein profiles in TOV-112D cells were the opposite of those of SKOV3 cells. Importantly, magnolin treatment suppressed phosphorylation of RSKs in TOV-112D, but not in SKOV3 cells. Moreover, magnolin increased SA-β-galactosidase-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner in TOV-112D cells, but not in SKOV3 cells. Notably, oral administration of Shin-Yi fraction 1, which contained magnolin approximately 53%, suppressed TOV-112D cell growth in athymic nude mice by induction of p16Ink4a and p27Kip1 . Taken together, targeting of ERK1 and ERK2 is suitable for the treatment of ovarian cancer cells that do not harbor the constitutive active P13 K mutation and the loss-of-function mutations of the p16 and/or p53 tumor suppressor proteins.
Project description:The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is an attractive therapeutic target. However, difficulty in predicting therapeutic response limits the clinical implementation of PI3K inhibitors. This study evaluates the utility of clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for noninvasively assessing the in vivo response to the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 in two ovarian cancer models with differential PI3K pathway activity.The PI3K signalling activity of TOV-21G and TOV-112D human ovarian cancer cells was investigated in vitro. Cellular and vascular response of the xenografts to BEZ235 treatment (65?mg?kg(-1), 3 days) was assessed in vivo using diffusion-weighted (DW) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. Micro-computed tomography was performed to investigate changes in vascular morphology.The TOV-21G cells showed higher PI3K signalling activity than TOV-112D cells in vitro and in vivo. Treated TOV-21G xenografts decreased in volume and DW-MRI revealed an increased water diffusivity that was not found in TOV-112D xenografts. Treatment-induced improvement in vascular functionality was detected with DCE-MRI in both models. Changes in vascular morphology were not found.Our results suggest that DW- and DCE-MRI can detect cellular and vascular response to PI3K/mTOR inhibition in vivo. However, only DW-MRI could discriminate between a strong and weak response to BEZ235.
Project description:We have investigated previously the utility of oligonucleotide expression microarray technology in an analysis of four spontaneously transformed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines, TOV-21G, TOV-81D, OV-90, and TOV-112D. Here, we examine the expression of 290 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that map to human chromosome 3 in a primary culture derived from normal ovarian surface epithelium (NOSE), NOV-31, and the four spontaneously transformed EOC cell lines. One of these cell lines, OV-90, harbors a deletion of an entire chromosome 3p arm. Whereas the most aggressive cell lines (OV-90, TOV-112D, and TOV-21G) exhibited the highest levels of expression, assessed by the mean of expression values of all ESTs, OV-90 showed the lowest mean of expression of ESTs that map to the 3p arm in comparison with TOV-112D and TOV-21G. This difference in expression profile of 3p ESTs in OV-90 is also reflected in the ratio of expression of ESTs on 3p versus the 3q arm and in that the expression values of ESTs that map to 3p were more often lower than higher in OV-90 in two-way comparisons with NOV-31, TOV-21G, and TOV-112D. The loss of a 3p arm does not affect the pattern of differential expression in analyses based on the range of numeric expression values of each EST or fold differences in expression for each EST in comparison with NOV-31. However, 25 differentially expressed ESTs were identified on the basis of threefold differences in expression values between NOV-31 and any EOC cell line; and six of these ESTs were differentially expressed uniquely in OV-90. The investigation of these ESTs could facilitate the identification of novel chromosome 3 genes implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis.
Project description:Ovarian carcinoma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (CA-MSC) produce not only high levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) but also the related cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). IL6-mediated activation of STAT3 is implicated as a critical therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Less is known about the role of LIF, which can similarly activate STAT3, in ovarian cancer. We therefore sought to evaluate the tumorigenic effects of CA-MSC paracrine LIF signaling and the redundancy of IL6 and LIF in activating ovarian cancer STAT3 mediated cancer growth. As expected, we found that both IL6 and LIF induce STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor cells. In addition, both IL6 and LIF increased the percentage of ALDH+?ovarian cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Supporting redundancy of function by the two cytokines, CA-MSC induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased cancer cell "stemness". This effect was not inhibited by LIF or IL6 blocking antibodies alone, but was prevented by dual IL6/LIF blockade or JAK2 inhibition. Similarly, small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated reduction of IL6 or LIF in CA-MSC partially decreased but could not completely abrograte the ability of CA-MSC to induce STAT3 phosphorylation and stemness. Importantly, the in vivo pro-tumorigenic effect of CA-MSC is abrogated by dual blockade with the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib to a much greater extent than treatment with anti-IL6 or anti-LIF antibody alone. Ruxolitinib treatment also improves survival in the immunocompetent ovarian cancer mouse model system with ID8 tumor cells plus MSC. Ruxolitinib-treated tumors in both the immunocompromised and immunocompetent animal models demonstrate decreased phospho-STAT3, indicating on-target activity. In conclusion, CA-MSC activate ovarian cancer cell STAT3 signaling via IL6 and LIF and increase tumor cell stemness. This functional redundancy suggests that therapeutic targeting of a single cytokine may be less effective than strategies such as dual inhibitor therapy or targeting shared downstream factors of the JAK/STAT pathway.
Project description:The proteomic profiles from two distinct ovarian endometrioid tumor-derived cell lines, (MDAH-2774 and TOV-112D) each with different morphological characteristics and genetic mutations, have been studied. Characterization of the differential global protein expression between these two cell lines has important implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. In this comparative proteomic study, extensive fractionation of peptides generated from whole-cell trypsin digestion was achieved by coupling cIEF in the first-dimensional separation with capillary LC (RP-HPLC) in the second dimensional separation. Online analysis was performed using tandem mass spectra acquired by a linear ion trap mass spectrometer from triplicate runs. A total of 1749 and 1955 proteins with protein probability above 0.95 were identified from MDAH-2774 and TOV-112D after filtering through Peptide Prophet/Protein Prophet software. Differentially expressed proteins were further investigated by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) to reveal the association with important biological functions. Canonical pathway analysis using IPA demonstrates that important signaling pathways are highly associated with one of these two cell lines versus the other, such as the PI3K/AKT pathway, which is found to be significantly predominant in MDAH-2774 but not in TOV-112D. Also, protein network analysis using IPA highlights p53 as a central hub relating to other proteins from the connectivity map. These results illustrate the utility of high throughput proteomics methods using large-scale proteome profiling combined with bioinformatics tools to identify differential signaling pathways, thus contributing to the understanding of mechanisms of deregulation in neoplastic cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. RESULTS:The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. CONCLUSION:The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Up to 40% of women with ovarian cancer have short disease-free intervals due to molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance. New therapeutic strategies are sought. Ovarian cancers are sensitive to radiochemotherapy. The taxane cabazitaxel (XRP6258, Jevtana) promotes tubulin assembly and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization in cells, acting similarly in mechanism to paclitaxel. Here, sequences of cabazitaxel-radiation co-administration are tested for drug-alone cytotoxicity and optimal radiosensitization. MATERIALS AND METHODS:SKOV3, OVCAR3, and TOV-112D ovarian cancer cells were administered cabazitaxel 24?h before (first), 18?h before (second), together (third), or 24?h after (fourth) a single radiation dose, and then, investigated by clonogenic assay and flow cytometric assays. Radiation dose-cell survival data were fitted by two-stage multivariate analyses of variance. High-content flow cytometry partitioned cabazitaxel effects into G2-phase versus M-phase events by DNA content, cyclin A2, and phospho-S10-histone H3 (PHH3). Paclitaxel served as a comparator. FINDINGS:Cabazitaxel cytotoxicity and radiosensitization were dose dependent. Cabazitaxel added 24?h before radiation was the most lethal schedule. DNA content measurements by flow cytometry showed that cabazitaxel-treated cells accumulated in the radiosensitive G2/M 4C DNA complement compartment. Cytometry also showed that surviving cabazitaxel-induced cell cycle arrested cells resolve the arrest by entering 4C or by 8C DNA complement cell cycles. INTERPRETATION:The radiosensitizing effect of cabazitaxel was schedule dependent, due to cell cycle redistribution, and best when cabazitaxel was given 24?h before radiation. Clinical trials of administering both cabazitaxel and radiation should be explored in women with chemoresistant ovarian cancer.
Project description:Proteomics discovery of novel cancer serum biomarkers is hindered by the great complexity of serum, patient-to-patient variability, and triggering by the tumor of an acute-phase inflammatory reaction. This host response alters many serum protein levels in cancer patients, but these changes have low specificity as they can be triggered by diverse causes. We addressed these hurdles by utilizing a xenograft mouse model coupled with an in-depth 4-D protein profiling method to identify human proteins in the mouse serum. This strategy ensures that identified putative biomarkers are shed by the tumor, and detection of low-abundance proteins shed by the tumor is enhanced because the mouse blood volume is more than a thousand times smaller than that of a human. Using TOV-112D ovarian tumors, more than 200 human proteins were identified in the mouse serum, including novel candidate biomarkers and proteins previously reported to be elevated in either ovarian tumors or the blood of ovarian cancer patients. Subsequent quantitation of selected putative biomarkers in human sera using label-free multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) showed that chloride intracellular channel 1, the mature form of cathepsin D, and peroxiredoxin 6 were elevated significantly in sera from ovarian carcinoma patients.
Project description:Objective:Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death among gynecological tumors; however, no effective treatment is currently available. Fucoidan, which is extracted from marine algae, has significant anti-cancer effects. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fucoidan on the proliferation and apoptosis of OC cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Methods:Human ovarian normal epithelial cells (IOSE80) and human OC cells (SKOV-3, A2780, OVCAR-3, TOV-112D, and Caov-3) were selected to verify the safety of fucoidan at various doses in SKOV-3 and Caov-3 cells as well as a xenograft mouse model using various molecular biology techniques. Results:Fucoidan had no significant effect on normal ovarian epithelial cells, but had significantly inhibited the proliferation of OC cells, induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, increased the proportion of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, and inhibited the expression of PI3K and phosphorylation of Akt, which could be partly rescued by IGF-1. Conclusion:Fucoidan had anti-tumor effects both in vivo and in vitro via a mechanism that is related to the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Expression microarray analyses of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines may be exploited to elucidate genetic and epigenetic events important in this disease. A possible variable is the influence of growth conditions on discerning candidates. The present study examined the influence of growth conditions on the expression of chromosome 3 genes in the tumorigenic EOC cell lines, OV-90, TOV-21G and TOV-112D using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) HG-U133A expression microarray analysis. METHODS: Chromosome 3 gene expression profiles (n = 1147 probe sets, representing 735 genes) were extracted from U133A expression microarray analyses of the EOC cell lines OV-90, TOV-21G and TOV-112D that were grown as monolayers, spheroids or nude mouse xenografts and monolayers derived from these tumors. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to compare chromosome 3 transcriptome patterns of each growth condition. Differentially expressed genes were identified and characterized by two-way comparative analyses of fold-differences in gene expression between monolayer cultures and each of the other growth conditions, and between the maximum and minimum values of expression of all growth conditions for each EOC cell line. RESULTS: An overall high degree of similarity (> 90%) in gene expression was observed when expression values of alternative growth conditions were compared within each EOC cell line group. Two-way comparative analysis of each EOC cell line grown in an alternative condition relative to the monolayer culture showed that overall less than 15% of probe sets exhibited at least a 3-fold difference in expression profile. Less than 23% of probe sets exhibited greater than 3-fold differences in gene expression in comparisons of the maximum and minimum value of expression of all growth conditions within each EOC cell line group. The majority of these differences were less than 5-fold. There were 17 genes in common which were differentially expressed in all EOC cell lines. However, the patterns of expression of these genes were not necessarily the same for each growth condition when one cell line was compared with another. CONCLUSION: The various alternative in vivo and in vitro growth conditions of tumorigenic EOC cell lines appeared to modestly influence the global chromosome 3 transcriptome supporting the notion that the in vitro cell line models are a viable option for testing gene candidates.