Altered microRNA profiles during early colon adenoma progression in a porcine model of familial adenomatous polyposis.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs are dysregulated in various cancers including colorectal cancer, and are potential useful biomarkers of disease development. We used next generation sequencing to investigate miRNA expression profiles in low- and high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps from pigs carrying a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor (APC1311 , orthologous to human APC1309 ) that model an inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis. We identified several miRNAs and their isomiRs significantly (P < 0.05) differentially expressed between low and high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps. Of these, ssc-let-7e, ssc-miR-98, ssc-miR-146a-5p, ssc-miR-146b, ssc-miR-183 and ssc-miR-196a were expressed at higher level and ssc-miR-126-3p at lower level in high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps. Functional miRNA target analysis revealed significant (P < 0.001) over-representation of cancer-related pathways, including 'microRNAs in cancer', 'proteoglycans in cancer', 'pathways in cancer' and 'colorectal cancer'. This is the first study to reveal miRNAs associated with premalignant transformation of colon polyps.
Project description:The occurrence of colonic polyps is a common phenomenon; however, where there are numerous adenomas or other polyps, and/or the patient is at a relatively young age, an inheritable form of gastrointestinal polyposis should be considered. Patients can present via different referral routes, for example, at colonoscopy where multiple polyps are detected, following a personal diagnosis of colorectal cancer, or by family screening. This article outlines the important considerations in the diagnosis of a polyposis syndrome and key diagnostic features to consider. It will also describe the underlying genetic factors associated with the common polyposis syndromes, including classical familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated FAP, MUTYH-associated adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Cowden syndrome and serrated polyposis, and the subsequent management of each condition.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-? (ER?). The expression of ER? isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are poorly described.<h4>Methods</h4>This study aimed to investigate the expression levels of the ER?1, ER?2, ER?4 and ER?5 isoform variants using quantitative RT-PCR (921 analyses) in FAP, normal mucosa, adenomatous polyps and sporadic colorectal carcinomas.<h4>Results</h4>Decreased expression of ER? isoforms was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p < 0.001). In FAP patients, ER?1 and ER?5 isoforms showed significant down-expression in polyps (p < 0.001) compared with matched normal tissues. However, no differences were observed when sporadic colorectal carcinomas were compared to normal mucosa tissues. These findings suggest an association of the ER? isoform variants in individuals affected by germline mutations of the APC gene. Progressively decreased expression of ER? was found in polyps at early stages of low-grade dysplasia, followed by T1-T2 and T3-T4 tumours (p < 0.05). In sporadic colorectal cancer, the loss of expression was an independent predictor of recurrence, and ER?1 and ER?5 expression levels were associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.002).<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings may provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.
Project description:Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of colorectal cancer (CRC) caused by mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our ability to exhaustively screen for APC mutations identify microsatellite-stable and APC-mutation negative familial CRC patients, enabling us to search for novel genes. We performed genome-wide scan on two affected siblings of one family and 88 ethnicity- and gender-matched healthy controls to identify deletions shared by the siblings. Combined loss of heterozygosity, copy number and allelic-specific copy number analysis uncovered 5 shared deletions. Long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed chromosome 19q13 deletion, which was subsequently found in one other family. The 32 kb deleted region harbors the CYP2A7 gene and was enriched with enhancer, repressor and insulator sites. The wildtype allele was lost in the polyps of the proband. Further, real-time RT-PCR assays showed that expressions of MIA and MIA-RAB4B located 35 kb upstream of the deletion, were up-regulated in the polyps compared to the matched mucosa of the proband. MIA-RAB4B, the read-through long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), RAB4B, PIM2 and TAOK1 share common binding site of a microRNA, miR-24, in their 3'UTRs. PIM2 and TAOK1, two target oncogenes of miR-24, were co-ordinately up-regulated with MIA-RAB4B in the polyps, suggesting that MIA-RAB4B could function as competitive endogenous RNA to titrate miR-24 away from its other targets. The data suggest that the 19.13 deletion disrupted chromatin boundary, leading to altered expression of several genes and lncRNA, could contribute to colorectal cancer via novel genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in much of the world. Most CRCs arise from pre-malignant (dysplastic) lesions, such as adenomatous polyps, and current endoscopic screening approaches with white light do not detect all dysplastic lesions. Thus, new strategies to identify such lesions, including non-polypoid lesions, are needed. We aim to identify and validate novel peptides that specifically target dysplastic colonic epithelium in vivo. We used phage display to identify a novel peptide that binds to dysplastic colonic mucosa in vivo in a genetically engineered mouse model of colo-rectal tumorigenesis, based on somatic Apc (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene inactivation. Binding was confirmed using confocal microscopy on biopsied adenomas and excised adenomas incubated with peptide ex vivo. Studies of mice where a mutant Kras allele was somatically activated in the colon to generate hyperplastic epithelium were also performed for comparison. Several rounds of in vivo T7 library biopanning isolated a peptide, QPIHPNNM. The fluorescent-labeled peptide bound to dysplastic lesions on endoscopic analysis. Quantitative assessment revealed the fluorescent-labeled peptide (target/background: 2.17±0.61) binds ?2-fold greater to the colonic adenomas when compared to the control peptide (target/background: 1.14±0.15), p<0.01. The peptide did not bind to the non-dysplastic (hyperplastic) epithelium of the Kras mice. This work is first to image fluorescence-labeled peptide binding in vivo that is specific towards colonic dysplasia on wide-area surveillance. This finding highlights an innovative strategy for targeted detection to localize pre-malignant lesions that can be generalized to the epithelium of hollow organs.
Project description:Clear-cut inherited Mendelian traits, such as familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, account for <4% of colorectal cancers. Another 20% of all colorectal cancers are thought to occur in individuals with a significant inherited multifactorial susceptibility to colorectal cancer that is not obviously familial. Incompletely penetrant, comparatively rare missense variants in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene, which is responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis, have been described in patients with multiple colorectal adenomas. These variants represent a category of variation that has been suggested, quite generally, to account for a substantial fraction of such multifactorial inherited susceptibility. The aim of this study was to explore this rare variant hypothesis for multifactorial inheritance by using multiple colorectal adenomas as the model. Patients with multiple adenomas were screened for germ-line variants in a panel of candidate genes. Germ-line DNA was obtained from 124 patients with between 3 and 100 histologically proven synchronous or metachronous adenomatous polyps. All patients were tested for the adenomatous polyposis coli variants I1307K and E1317Q, and variants were also sought in AXIN1 (axin), CTNNB1 (beta-catenin), and the mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2. The control group consisted of 483 random controls. Thirty of 124 (24.9%) patients carried potentially pathogenic germ-line variants as compared with 55 ( approximately 12%) of the controls. This overall difference is highly significant, suggesting that many rare variants collectively contribute to the inherited susceptibility to colorectal adenomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Familial adenomatous polyposis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hundreds of colorectal adenomas and eventually colorectal cancer. Oral administration of the spice curcumin has been followed by regression of polyps in patients with this disorder. We performed a double-blinded randomized trial to determine the safety and efficacy of curcumin in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. METHODS:This study included 44 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (18-85 years old) who had not undergone colectomy or had undergone colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or ileal anal pouches, had at least 5 intestinal adenomatous polyps, and had enrolled in Puerto Rico or the United States from September 2011 through November 2016. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given 100% pure curcumin (1,500 mg orally, twice per day) or identical-appearing placebo capsules for 12 months. The number and size of lower gastrointestinal tract polyps were evaluated every 4 months for 1 year. The primary outcome was the number of polyps in the curcumin and placebo groups at 12 months or at the time of withdrawal from the study according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS:After 1 year of treatment, the average rate of compliance was 83% in the curcumin group and 91% in the placebo group. After 12 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean number of polyps between the placebo group (18.6; 95% CI, 9.3-27.8) and the curcumin group (22.6; 95% CI, 12.1-33.1; P = .58). We found no significant difference in mean polyp size between the curcumin group (2.3 mm; 95% CI, 1.8-2.8) and the placebo group (2.1 mm; 95% CI, 1.5-2.7; P = .76). Adverse events were few, with no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS:In a double-blinded randomized trial of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, we found no difference in the mean number or size of lower intestinal tract adenomas between patients given curcumin 3,000 mg/day and those given placebo for 12 weeks. Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT00641147.
Project description:Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant precancerous condition, clinically characterized by the presence of multiple colorectal adenomas or polyps. Patients with FAP has a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) from these colorectal adenomatous polyps by the mean age of diagnosis at 40 years. Germline mutations of the APC gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Colectomy has recommended for the FAP patients with significant polyposis. Here, we present a clinical molecular study of a four generation Chinese family with FAP. Clinical diagnosis of FAP has been done according to the phenotype, family history and medical records. Patient's blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. In order to identify the pathogenic mutation underlying the disease phenotype targeted next-generation sequencing and confirmatory sanger sequencing has undertaken. Targeted next generation sequencing identified a novel heterozygous splice-acceptor site mutation [c.1744-1G>A] in intron 14 of APC gene, which is co-segregated with the FAP phenotypes in the proband and amongst all the affected family members. This mutation is not present in unaffected family members and in normal healthy controls of same ethnic origin. According to the LOVD database for Chinese colorectal cancer patients, in Chinese population, 60% of the previously reported APC gene mutations causes FAP, are missense mutations. This novel splice-acceptor site mutation causing FAP in this Chinese family expands the germline mutation spectrum of the APC gene in the Chinese population.
Project description:We compared gene expression in low and high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps from pigs carrying an APC 1311 truncating mutation orthologous to human APC 1309 , analysing whole samples and microdissected dysplastic epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed differential expression of gene sets similar to human normal mucosa versus T1 stage polyps. Transcriptome analysis of whole samples revealed many differentially-expressed genes reflecting immune infiltration. Analysis of microdissected dysplastic epithelium was markedly different and showed increased expression in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of several genes known to be involved in human CRC; and revealed possible new roles for GBP6 and PLXND1. The pig model thus facilitates analysis of CRC pathogenesis.
Project description:Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) may account for 20-30% of colon cancers. Although large SSA/Ps are generally recognized phenotypically, small (<1 cm) or dysplastic SSA/Ps are difficult to differentiate from hyperplastic or small adenomatous polyps by endoscopy and histopathology. Our aim was to define the comprehensive gene expression phenotype of SSA/Ps to better define this cancer precursor.RNA sequencing was performed on 5' capped RNA from seven SSA/Ps collected from patients with the serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) versus eight controls. Highly expressed genes were analyzed by qPCR in additional SSA/Ps, adenomas and controls. The cellular localization and level of gene products were examined by immunohistochemistry in syndromic and sporadic SSA/Ps, adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps and controls. We identified 1,294 differentially expressed annotated genes, with 106 increased ?10-fold, in SSA/Ps compared to controls. Comparing these genes with an array dataset for adenomatous polyps identified 30 protein coding genes uniquely expressed ?10-fold in SSA/Ps. Biological pathways altered in SSA/Ps included mucosal integrity, cell adhesion, and cell development. Marked increased expression of MUC17, the cell junction protein genes VSIG1 and GJB5, and the antiapoptotic gene REG4 were found in SSA/Ps, relative to controls and adenomas, were verified by qPCR analysis of additional SSA/Ps (n?=?21) and adenomas (n?=?10). Immunohistochemical staining of syndromic (n?11) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n?17), adenomatous (n?13) and hyperplastic (n?10) polyps plus controls (n?16) identified unique expression patterns for VSIG1 and MUC17 in SSA/Ps.A subset of genes and pathways are uniquely increased in SSA/Ps, compared to adenomatous polyps, thus supporting the concept that cancer develops by different pathways in these phenotypically distinct polyps with markedly different gene expression profiles. Immunostaining for a subset of these genes differentiates both syndromic and sporadic SSA/Ps from adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps.
Project description:Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited disorder that represents the most common gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Germline mutations in the APC gene were initially identified as responsible for FAP, and later, several studies have also implicated the MUTYH gene as responsible for this disease, usually referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). FAP and MAP are characterized by the early onset of multiple adenomatous colorectal polyps, a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and in some patients the development of extracolonic manifestations. The goal of colorectal management in these patients is to prevent CRC mortality through endoscopic and surgical approaches. Individuals with FAP and their relatives should receive appropriate genetic counseling and join surveillance programs when indicated. This review is focused on the description of the main clinical and genetic aspects of FAP associated with germline APC mutations and MAP.