TNF regulates transcription of NLRP3 inflammasome components and inflammatory molecules in cryopyrinopathies.
ABSTRACT: The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex responsible for caspase-1-dependent maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Gain-of-function missense mutations in NLRP3 cause the disease spectrum known as the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). In this study, we generated Nlrp3-knockin mice on various KO backgrounds including Il1b/Il18-, caspase-1-, caspase-11- (Casp1/11-), and Tnf-deficient strains. The Nlrp3L351P Il1b-/- Il18-/- mutant mice survived and grew normally until adulthood and, at 6 months of age, exhibited marked splenomegaly and leukophilia. Injection of these mice with low-dose LPS resulted in elevated serum TNF levels compared with Nlrp3L351P Casp1/11-/- mice and Il1b-/- Il18-/- littermates. Treatment of Nlrp3A350V mice with the TNF inhibitor etanercept resulted in all pups surviving to adulthood, with normal body and spleen/body weight ratios. Nlrp3A350V Tnf-/- mice showed a similar phenotypic rescue, with marked reductions in serum IL-1β and IL-18, reduced myeloid inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and spleen, and substantial decreases in splenic mRNA expression of both inflammasome components (Nlrp3, Pycard, pro-Casp1) and pro-cytokines (Il1b, Il18). Likewise, we observed a reduction in the expression of both pro-Casp1 and pro-Il1b in cultured Nlrp3A350V Tnf-/- BM-derived DCs. Our data show that TNF is an important transcriptional regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome components in murine inflammasomopathies. Moreover, these results may have therapeutic implications for CAPS patients with partial responses to IL-1-targeted therapies.
Project description:Hypoxia, IL-1? production and oxidative stress are involved in islet graft dysfunction and destruction. However, the link between these events has not yet been determined in transplanted islets. The goal of this study was to determine whether NLRP3 inflammasome is responsible for IL-1? production and if it is activated by hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in transplanted islets. Rat islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient mice. At different times post-transplantation, blood samples were collected and islet grafts harvested. Rat islets were also incubated in vitro either under normoxia or hypoxia for 24?h, in the absence or presence of inhibitors of NLRP3 inflammasome (CASP1 inhibitor) or oxidative stress (NAC). NLRP3, CASP1, IL1B, BBC3 pro-apoptotic and BCL2 anti-apoptotic genes in transplanted and in vitro incubated islets were then studied using real time PCR. IL-1? released in the blood and in the supernatant was quantified by ELISA. Cell death was analysed by propidium iodide and Annexin-V staining. NLRP3, CASP1 and BBC3 in transplanted rat islets and IL-1? in blood transiently increased during the first days after transplantation. In islets incubated under hypoxia, NRLP3, IL1B and CASP1 and IL-1? released in supernatant increased compared to islets incubated under normoxia. These effects were prevented by the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by CASP1 or oxidative stress by NAC. However, these inhibitors did not prevent hypoxia-induced rat islet death. These data show that NLRP3 inflammasome in rat islets is transiently activated after their transplantation and induced through oxidative stress in vitro. However, NRLP3 inflammasome inhibition does not protect islet cells against hypoxia.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome, a caspase-1 activation platform, plays a key role in the modulation of liver inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that interleukin 17 (IL-17) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are key cytokines involved in amplifying and perpetuating the liver damage and fibrosis resulting from NLRP3 activation. To address this hypothesis, gain-of-function Nlrp3A350V knock-in mice were bred onto il17a and Tnf knockout backgrounds allowing for constitutive Nlrp3 activation in myeloid derived cells in mice deficient in IL-17 or TNF. Livers of Nlrp3A350V knock-in mice exhibited severe liver inflammatory changes characterized by infiltration with neutrophils, increased expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL) 1 and CXCL2 chemokines, activated inflammatory macrophages, and elevated levels of IL-17 and TNF. Mutants with ablation of il17a signal showed fewer neutrophils when compared to intact Nlrp3A350V mutants, but still significant inflammatory changes when compared to the nonmutant il17a knockout littermates. The severe inflammatory changes associated with mutant Nlrp3 were almost completely rescued by Tnf knockout in association with a marked decrease in circulating IL-1? levels. Intact Nlrp3A350V mutants showed changes in liver fibrosis, as evidenced by morphometric quantitation of Sirius Red staining and increased mRNA levels of profibrotic genes, including connective tissue growth factor and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1. Il17a lacking mutants exhibited amelioration of the aforementioned fibrosis, whereas Tnf-deficient mutants showed no signs of fibrosis when compared to littermate controls. Conclusion: Our study uncovers key roles for TNF and, to a lesser extent, IL-17 as mediators of liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by constitutive NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myeloid-derived cells. These findings may lead to therapeutic strategies aimed at halting the progression of liver injury and fibrogenesis in various liver pathogeneses driven by NLRP3 activation. (Hepatology 2018;67:736-749).
Project description:The NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokine processing complex that is activated in inflammatory conditions. The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction is not fully understood.Atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed for transcripts of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and for IL-1β release. The Swedish First-ever myocardial Infarction study in Ac-county (FIA) cohort consisting of DNA from 555 myocardial infarction patients and 1016 healthy individuals was used to determine the frequency of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the downstream regulatory region of NLRP3. Expression of NLRP3, Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1 (CASP1), IL1B, and IL18 mRNA was significantly increased in atherosclerotic plaques compared to normal arteries. The expression of NLRP3 mRNA was significantly higher in plaques of symptomatic patients when compared to asymptomatic ones. CD68-positive macrophages were observed in the same areas of atherosclerotic lesions as NLRP3 and ASC expression. Occasionally, expression of NLRP3 and ASC was also present in smooth muscle cells. Cholesterol crystals and ATP induced IL-1β release from lipopolysaccharide-primed human atherosclerotic lesion plaques. The minor alleles of the variants rs4266924, rs6672995, and rs10733113 were associated with NLRP3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not with the risk of myocardial infarction.Our results indicate a possible role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its genetic variants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Project description:This study investigates the role of NLRP3 inflammasome and its main effector Caspase-1 in inflammation and alveolar bone resorption associated with periodontitis. Heat-killed Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) was injected 3x/week (4 weeks) into gingival tissues of wild-type (WT), Nlrp3-KO and Caspase1-KO mice. Bone resorption was measured by µCT and osteoclast number was determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Inflammation was assessed histologically (H/E staining and immunofluorescence of CD45 and Ly6G). In vitro studies determined the influence of Nlrp3 and Caspase-1 in Rankl-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity and on LPS-induced expression of inflammation-associated genes. Bone resorption was significantly reduced in Casp1-KO but not in Nlrp3-KO mice. Casp1-KO mice had increased in osteoclast numbers, whereas the inflammatory infiltrate or on gene expression were similar to those of WT and Nlrp3-KO mice. Strikingly, osteoclasts differentiated from Nlrp3-deficient macrophages had increased resorbing activity in vitro. LPS-induced expression of Il-10, Il-12 and Tnf-? was significantly reduced in Nlrp3- and Casp1-deficient macrophages. As an inceptive study, these results suggest that Nlrp3 inflammasome does not play a significant role in inflammation and bone resorption in vivo and that Caspase-1 has a pro-resorptive role in experimental periodontal disease.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes nucleating around an NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat containing protein), which regulate the secretion of the pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 cytokines. Monocytes and macrophages, the main cells expressing the inflammasome genes, adapt to their surrounding microenvironment by a phenotypic polarization towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype that promotes inflammation or an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype important for resolution of inflammation. Despite the importance of inflammasomes in health and disease, little is known about inflammasome gene expression in relevant human cells and the impact of monocyte and macrophage polarization in inflammasome gene expression. We examined the expression of several members of the NLR, caspase and cytokine family, and we studied the activation of the well-described NLRP3 inflammasome in an experimental model of polarized human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (M1/M2 phenotypes) before and after activation with LPS, a well-characterized microbial pattern used in inflammasome activation studies. Our results show that the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages alters NLR expression. Polarization using IFN-? (M1 phenotype), induces among the NLRs studied, only the expression of NOD2. One of the key results of our study is that the induction of NLRP3 expression by LPS is inhibited in the presence of IL-4+IL-13 (M2 phenotype) at both mRNA and protein level in monocytes and macrophages. Unlike caspase-3, the expression of inflammasome-related CASP1 (encodes caspase-1) and CASP4 (encodes caspase-4) is up-regulated in M1 but not in M2 cells. Interestingly, the presence of LPS marginally influenced IL18 mRNA expression and secretion, unlike its impact on IL1B. Our data provide the basis for a better understanding of the role of different inflammasomes within a given environment (M1 and M2) in human cells and their impact in the pathophysiology of several important inflammatory disorders.
Project description:The inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that mediates caspase-1 activation with subsequent maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is known to be activated by Staphylococcus aureus, one of the leading causes of bacteremia worldwide. Inflammasome activation and regulation in response to bacterial infection have been found to be of importance for a balanced host immune response. However, inflammasome signaling in vivo in humans initiated by S. aureus is currently sparsely studied. This study therefore aimed to investigate NLRP3 inflammasome activity in 20 patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), by repeated measurement during the first week of bacteremia, compared with controls. Caspase-1 activity was measured in monocytes and neutrophils by flow cytometry detecting FLICA (fluorescent-labeled inhibitor of caspase-1), while IL-1? and IL-18 was measured by Luminex and ELISA, respectively. As a measure of inflammasome priming, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of NLRP3, CASP1 (procaspase-1), and IL1B (pro-IL-1?) was analyzed by quantitative PCR. We found induced caspase-1 activity in innate immune cells with subsequent release of IL-18 in patients during the acute phase of bacteremia, indicating activation of the inflammasome. There was substantial interindividual variation in caspase-1 activity between patients with SAB. We also found an altered inflammasome priming with low mRNA levels of NLRP3 accompanied by elevated mRNA levels of IL1B. This increased knowledge of the individual host immune response in SAB could provide support in the effort to optimize management and treatment of each individual patient.
Project description:The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the downregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipogenesis/lipogenesis in obese adolescents with altered abdominal fat partitioning. We performed abdominal SAT biopsies on 58 obese adolescents and grouped them by MRI-derived visceral fat to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plus SAT (VAT/VAT+SAT) ratio (cutoff 0.11). Adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT ratio showed higher SAT macrophage infiltration and higher expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (i.e., TLR4, NLRP3, IL1B, and CASP1). The increase in inflammation markers was paralleled by a decrease in genes related to insulin sensitivity (ADIPOQ, GLUT4, PPARG2, and SIRT1) and lipogenesis (SREBP1c, ACC, LPL, and FASN). Furthermore, SAT ceramide concentrations correlated with the expression of CASP1 and IL1B. Infiltration of macrophages and upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome together with the associated high ceramide content in the plasma and SAT of obese adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT may contribute to the limited expansion of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose depot and the development of insulin resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:The NACHT, LRR, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome induces inflammation in response to organ injury, but little is known about its regulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide the first signal required for activation of the inflammasome and stimulate aerobic glycolysis to generate lactate. We examined whether lactate and the lactate receptor, Gi-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81), regulate TLR induction of signal 1 and limit inflammasome activation and organ injury. METHODS:Primary mouse macrophages and human monocytes were incubated with TLR4 agonists and lactate and assayed for levels of pro-interleukin (IL)1?, NLRP3, and caspase-1 (CASP1); release of IL1?; and activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and caspase-1. Small interfering RNAs were used to reduce levels of GPR81 and arrestin ?-2 (ARRB2), and an NF-?B luciferase reporter transgene was transfected in RAW 264.7 cells. Cell lysates were analyzed by immunoprecipitation with an antibody against GPR81. Acute hepatitis was induced in C56BL/6N mice by administration of lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine. Acute pancreatitis was induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide and cerulein. Some mice were given intraperitoneal injections of sodium lactate or small interfering RNA against Gpr81. Activation of NF-?B in tissue macrophages was assessed in mice that expressed a reporter transgene. RESULTS:In macrophages and monocytes, increasing concentrations of lactate reduced TLR4-mediated induction of Il1B, Nlrp3, and Casp1; activation of NF-?B; release of IL1?; and cleavage of CASP1. GPR81 and ARRB2 physically interacted and were required for these effects. The administration of lactate reduced inflammation and organ injury in mice with immune hepatitis; this reduction required Gpr81 dependence in vivo. Lactate also prevented activation of NF-?B in macrophages of mice, and, when given after injury, reduced the severity of acute pancreatitis and acute liver injury. CONCLUSIONS:Lactate negatively regulates TLR induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome and production of IL1?, via ARRB2 and GPR81. Lactate could be a promising immunomodulatory therapy for patients with acute organ injury.
Project description:Inflammasome activation and caspase-1-dependent (CASP1-dependent) processing and secretion of IL-1? and IL-18 are critical events at the interface of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori with its host. Whereas IL-1? promotes Th1 and Th17 responses and gastric immunopathology, IL-18 is required for Treg differentiation, H. pylori persistence, and protection against allergic asthma, which is a hallmark of H. pylori-infected mice and humans. Here, we show that inflammasome activation in DCs requires the cytoplasmic sensor NLRP3 as well as induction of TLR2 signaling by H. pylori. Screening of an H. pylori transposon mutant library revealed that pro-IL-1? expression is induced by LPS from H. pylori, while the urease B subunit (UreB) is required for NLRP3 inflammasome licensing. UreB activates the TLR2-dependent expression of NLRP3, which represents a rate-limiting step in NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. ureB-deficient H. pylori mutants were defective for CASP1 activation in murine bone marrow-derived DCs, splenic DCs, and human blood-derived DCs. Despite colonizing the murine stomach, ureB mutants failed to induce IL-1? and IL-18 secretion and to promote Treg responses. Unlike WT H. pylori, ureB mutants were incapable of conferring protection against allergen-induced asthma in murine models. Together, these results indicate that the TLR2/NLRP3/CASP1/IL-18 axis is critical to H. pylori-specific immune regulation.
Project description:The macroautophagy/autophagy and inflammasome pathways are linked through their roles in innate immunity and chronic inflammatory disease. Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that regulates pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production. Whether C1P also regulates autophagy and inflammasome assembly/activation is not known. Here we show that CPTP (a protein that traffics C1P from its site of phosphorylation in the trans-Golgi to target membranes) regulates both autophagy and inflammasome activation. In human epithelial cells, knockdown of CPTP (but not GLTP [glycolipid transfer protein]) or expression of C1P binding-site point mutants, stimulated an 8- to 10-fold increase in autophagosomes and altered endogenous LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62 protein expression levels. CPTP depletion-induced autophagy elevated early markers of autophagosome formation (Golgi-derived ATG9A-vesicles, WIPI1), required key phagophore assembly and elongation factors (ATG5, ATG7, ULK1), and suppressed MTOR phosphorylation and that of its downstream target, RPS6KB1/p70S6K. Wild-type CPTP overexpression exerted a protective effect against starvation-induced autophagy. In THP-1 macrophage-like surveillance cells, CPTP knockdown induced not only autophagy but also elevated CASP1/caspase-1 levels, and strongly increased IL1B/interleukin-1β and IL18 release via a NLRP3 (but not NLRC4) inflammasome-based mechanism, while only moderately increasing inflammatory (pyroptotic) cell death. Inflammasome assembly and activation stimulated by CPTP depletion were autophagy dependent. Elevation of intracellular C1P by exogenous C1P treatment (instead of CPTP inhibition) also induced autophagy and IL1B release. Our findings identify human CPTP as an endogenous regulator of early-stage autophagosome assembly and inflammasome-driven, pro-inflammatory cytokine generation and release.