Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001) more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of -0.70 (-1.13, -0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour.
Project description:The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which obese people differ in their emotionally driven and addictive-like eating behaviors from normal-weight and overweight people. A total of 1142 participants were recruited from a general population, by a web-based cross-sectional survey assessing anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), emotional eating (Emotional Appetite Questionnaire), food addiction (modified Yale Food Addiction Scale), and intuitive eating (Intuitive Eating Scale-2). The statistical design was based on analyses of (co)variance, correlograms, and mediations. A set of Body Mass Index (BMI) group comparisons showed that obese people reported higher levels of depression and emotional eating and that they experienced more severe and frequent food addiction symptoms than overweight and normal-weight people. Associations between anxiety, depression, food addiction symptoms' count, and the difficulties to rely on hunger and satiety cues were found across all weight classes, suggesting that addictive-like eating may represent a unique phenotype of problematic eating behavior that is not synonymous with high BMI or obesity. Conversely, the interrelation between anxiety/depression, emotional eating, and the difficulties to rely on hunger and satiety cues was found only among obese participants, and negative emotional eating mediated the association between depression and anxiety and the difficulties to rely on hunger and satiety cues. This study emphasizes the necessity to develop more comprehensive approaches integrating emotional dysregulation and addictive-like eating behaviors to improve weight management and quality of life of obese people.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Hunger training (HT) is an intervention designed to teach people to eat according to their hunger by connecting physical symptoms of appetite with glucose levels. HT is most effective for weight loss, and improving eating behaviours when adherence is high. However, adherence is a challenge that should be explored prior to wider dissemination. The aim of this study was to explore participants' experience and self-reported adherence and behaviour change related to HT. DESIGN:A qualitative study, nested within a randomised controlled pilot study of two different methods of monitoring glucose during HT. Semistructured interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using a phenomenological approach. SETTING:Single-centre study with participants recruited from the local area. PARTICIPANTS:40 participants began the pilot study and 38 participants (52.6% women) remained at 1?month and completed interviews. RESULTS:Most participants felt they were able to match their hunger to their glucose levels by the end of the intervention. The main adherence barriers were the social pressure to eat, lack of time and lack of flexibility in participants' meal schedules. Common adherence enablers were having a set routine, social support and accountability. Participants described increased awareness of hungry versus non-hungry eating and better cognition of feelings of hunger and satiety as a result of the intervention, which in turn led to changes of food choice, portion size and adjusted meal timing and frequency. CONCLUSIONS:Findings show that HT is acceptable from a patient perspective, and results can be used to inform the translation of HT programme to healthcare settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12618001257257.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Alexithymia, or the difficulty identifying or describing one's own emotions, may be a risk factor for dysregulated eating and excess weight gain. However, the relationships between alexithymia and eating behaviors in community samples of non-clinical youth have not been well-characterized. We hypothesized that alexithymia would be positively associated with disordered and disinhibited eating in a community-based sample of boys and girls without an eating disorder. METHOD:Two hundred children (8-17 years old) across the weight spectrum completed an interview to assess loss of control (LOC) eating and eating-related psychopathology, a laboratory test meal designed to induce disinhibited eating, and questionnaires to assess alexithymia, eating in the absence of hunger, and emotional eating. Linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between alexithymia and eating variables, with age, sex, race, and fat mass as covariates. Test meal analyses also adjusted for lean mass. Given the overlap between alexithymia and depression, all models were repeated with depressive symptoms as an additional covariate. RESULTS:Alexithymia was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting LOC eating (p?<?.05). Moreover, alexithymia was positively associated with disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, and eating in the absence of hunger (ps?<?.05). Greater alexithymia was associated with more carbohydrate and less fat intake at the test meal (ps?<?.05). After adjusting for depressive symptoms, alexithymia remained associated with eating in the absence of hunger and carbohydrate and fat intake (ps?<?.05). DISCUSSION:In healthy children, alexithymia is associated with some facets of eating behavior and food intake. If supported prospectively, these preliminary findings suggest alexithymia may be a modifiable risk factor to reduce disordered eating and excess weight gain in youth.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dialectical behavior therapy conceptualizes problematic behaviors as attempts to regulate emotions that occur when the individual lacks effective skills with which to manage his or her emotions and cope with distress. Problematic eating behaviors, e.g., binge and emotional eating, may serve to alleviate aversive emotional states, being highly associated with overweight and obesity. Dialectical behavior therapy skills training has been proven effective in reducing binge eating in several clinical studies. However, few studies reveal the effects of DBT on adaptive eating behaviors or the stability of outcomes. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to test the effect of a brief DBT-based skills training intervention, and the stability of outcomes at 3- and 8-month follow-ups. METHODS:Self-report measures of binge eating, emotional eating, intuitive eating, and mindful eating were taken on 5 timepoints before and after a 10-session DBT skills training intervention (2 baseline measures, 1 post-test, and 2 follow-ups). Data were analyzed using a mixed-model intention-to-treat approach and mediation analysis was conducted with path analysis. RESULTS:After the intervention, intuitive eating and mindful eating scores were significantly higher than before the intervention, while emotional eating and binge eating scores were lower. The results remained stable during the follow-up period, with minor fluctuations and small trends towards returning to baseline values for binge eating and emotional eating. Mindful eating partially mediated the improvements in all outcomes. LIMITATIONS:Given that results are entirely based on self-report measures and that some instruments showed poor reliability, in addition to the high attrition rates, the results should be interpreted as preliminary. CONCLUSIONS:The results provide evidence that a brief DBT intervention is effective not only in reducing problematic eating but also in increasing adaptive eating, achieving reasonably stable results. Also, the mediation analysis results support the hypothesis that mindful eating partially explains the effects of the intervention on binge and emotional eating. Future research should address the limitations of this study by investigating a more diverse sample, triangulating different measurement strategies, and including other putative mediators.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The subjective experience of loss of control (LOC) during eating, independent of overeating, may be a salient marker of disordered eating and risk for overweight in youth. However, few studies have directly tested this notion in an adequately powered sample. METHOD:Three-hundred-sixty-seven youth (M ± SD age = 12.7 ± 2.8 y) were categorized as reporting objective binge eating (OBE; 12.5%), subjective binge eating (SBE; 11.4%), objective overeating without LOC (OO; 18.5%), or no episodes (NE; 57.5%). Disordered eating attitudes, general psychopathology, and adiposity were assessed. RESULTS:Children with OBE and SBE generally did not differ in their disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or adiposity. However, both OBE and SBE youth had significantly greater disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and adiposity compared to those with OO or NE (ps < .05). DISCUSSION:For non-treatment-seeking youth, LOC during eating episodes, rather than episode size, appears to be the most salient marker of eating and weight problems.
Project description:The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is currently recognized as the most robust predictor of polygenic obesity. We investigated associations between the FTO rs1421085 and rs17817449 polymorphisms and the FTO rs1421085-rs17817449 haplotype and dietary intake, eating behavior, physical activity, and psychological health, as well as the effect of these associations on BMI. N = 133 treatment seeking overweight/obese Caucasian adults participated in this study. Genotyping was performed from whole blood samples. Weight and height was measured and a non-quantified food frequency questionnaire was completed to assess food group intake. Validated questionnaires were completed to assess physical activity (Baecke questionnaire), psychological health (General Health questionnaire, Rosenburg self-esteem scale and Beck Depression Inventory), and eating behavior (Three Factor Eating questionnaire). The risk alleles of the FTO polymorphisms were associated with poorer eating behaviors (higher hunger, internal locus for hunger, and emotional disinhibition scores), a higher intake of high fat foods and refined starches and more depressive symptoms. The modeled results indicate that interactions between the FTO polymorphisms or haplotypes and eating behavior, psychological health, and physical activity levels may be associated with BMI. The clinical significance of these results for implementation as part of weight management interventions needs further investigation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:During a one-year weight loss trial, we compared the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), a valid 51-item measure of restraint, disinhibition, and hunger subscales, with the newer 16-item Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ) measuring routine and compensatory restraint and external and emotional eating. METHODS:Both questionnaires were administered to women with overweight or obesity (n = 186, mean ± SD, age 50 ± 10.6 y, BMI 34 ± 4.2 kg/m2) at five time points. Completion rates were 100% at baseline and Month 1, 94% at Month 3, 83% at Month 6, and 76% at Month 12. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on baseline WREQ data and correlations were calculated between TFEQ and WREQ subscales. Multilevel models evaluated the relationship between each subscale and weight change over time. RESULTS:Factor analysis revealed a WREQ structure consistent with previous research, and corresponding subscales on the TFEQ and WREQ were correlated. Lower baseline TFEQ restraint predicted greater weight loss. Across five administrations, TFEQ and WREQ restraint scores were positively related to weight loss (p < 0.01) and TFEQ disinhibition and WREQ external and emotional eating scores were negatively related (p < 0.001). Thus, with one baseline administration, only TFEQ restraint was significantly related to weight change, but multiple administrations showed relationships between all TFEQ and WREQ subscales and weight change. CONCLUSIONS:The WREQ offers a shorter alternative to the TFEQ when repeatedly assessing eating behaviors related to weight change.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Certain eating behaviors are common among women with obesity. Whether these behaviors influence outcomes in weight loss programs, and whether such programs affect eating behaviors, is unclear. METHODS:Our aim was to examine the effect of baseline eating behaviors on intervention adherence and weight among postmenopausal women with overweight or obesity, and to assess intervention effects on eating behaviors. Four hundred and 39 women (BMI ?25?kg/m2) were randomized to 12?months of: i) dietary weight loss with a 10% weight loss goal ('diet'; n?=?118); ii) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise for 225 mins/week ('exercise'; n?=?117); iii) combined dietary weight loss and exercise ('diet + exercise'; n?=?117); or iv) no-lifestyle change control (n?=?87). At baseline and 12?months, restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and binge eating were measured by questionnaire; weight and body composition were assessed. The mean change in eating behavior scores and weight between baseline and 12?months in the diet, exercise, and diet + exercise arms were each compared to controls using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) modification of linear regression adjusted for age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Baseline restrained eating was positively associated with change in total calories and calories from fat during the dietary intervention but not with other measures of adherence. Higher baseline restrained eating was associated with greater 12-month reductions in weight, waist circumference, body fat and lean mass. Women randomized to dietary intervention had significant reductions in binge eating (-?23.7%, p?=?0.005 vs. control), uncontrolled eating (-?24.3%, p?<?0.001 vs. control), and emotional eating (-?31.7%, p?<?0.001 vs. control) scores, and a significant increase in restrained eating (+?60.6%, p?<?0.001 vs. control); women randomized to diet + exercise reported less uncontrolled eating (-?26.0%, p?<?0.001 vs. control) and emotional eating (-?22.0%, p?=?0.004 vs. control), and increased restrained eating (+?41.4%, p?<?0.001 vs. control). Women randomized to exercise alone had no significant change in eating behavior scores compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS:A dietary weight loss intervention helped women modify eating behaviors. Future research should investigate optimal behavioral weight loss interventions for women with both disordered eating and obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT00470119 (https://clinicaltrials.gov). Retrospectively registered May 7, 2007.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diet patterns have a profound influence on glycemic control for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and craving-related eating is an important obstacle to dietary adherence. A growing body of research suggests that carbohydrate-restricted (CR) diets can improve glycemic control and reduce medication dependence in T2DM. However, limited data speak to the effects of long-term adherence to CR diets. Mindful eating training has been shown to reduce craving-related eating in overweight populations but has yet to be examined as a behavioral support for dietary adherence in T2DM. This trial examines behavioral mechanisms, particularly craving-related eating, through which mindful eating training might improve adherence to CR dietary recommendations in T2DM. This will clarify the importance of focusing on craving-related eating in the optimization of dietary adherence interventions. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this trial is to determine whether providing training in mindful eating increases adherence to a CR dietary recommendation in T2DM. METHODS:We are randomizing 60 participants to receive a CR diet with or without mindful eating training (12-week group intervention) and are following participants for 12 weeks after intervention completion. We hypothesize that participants who receive mindful eating training (relative to those who do not) will demonstrate greater adherence to the CR diet. RESULTS:Our primary outcome is change in craving-related eating, as assessed using an ecological momentary assessment mobile phone-based platform. Secondary behavioral pathway outcomes include changes in stress-related eating, impulsivity, glycemic control, weight change, dietary adherence, and resumption of dietary adherence after dietary nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS:This theory-driven trial will shed light on the impact of mindfulness training on mechanisms that may impact dietary adherence in T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03207711; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03207711 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/73pXscwaU). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/11002.
Project description:Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [? = -0.06, SE(?) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414).