Inclusion of periodontal ligament fibres in mandibular finite element models leads to an increase in alveolar bone strains.
ABSTRACT: Alveolar bone remodelling is vital for the success of dental implants and orthodontic treatments. However, the underlying biomechanical mechanisms, in particular the function of the periodontal ligament (PDL) in bone loading and remodelling, are not well understood. The PDL is a soft fibrous connective tissue that joins the tooth root to the alveolar bone and plays a critical role in the transmission of loads from the tooth to the surrounding bone. However, due to its complex structure, small size and location within the tooth socket it is difficult to study in vivo. Finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal tool with which to investigate the role of the PDL, however inclusion of the PDL in FE models is complex and time consuming, therefore consideration must be given to how it is included. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of including the PDL and its fibrous structure in mandibular finite element models. A high-resolution model of a human molar region was created from micro-computed tomography scans. This is the first time that the fibrous structure of the PDL has been included in a model with realistic tooth and bone geometry. The results show that omission of the PDL creates a more rigid model, reducing the strains observed in the mandibular corpus which are of interest when considering mandibular functional morphology. How the PDL is modelled also affects the strains. The inclusion of PDL fibres alters the strains in the mandibular bone, increasing the strains in the tooth socket compared to PDL modelled without fibres. As strains in the alveolar bone are thought to play a key role in bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement, future FE analyses aimed at improving our understanding and management of orthodontic treatment should include the fibrous structure of the PDL.
Project description:Orthodontic tooth movement occurs as a result of resorption and formation of the alveolar bone due to an applied load, but the stimulus responsible for triggering orthodontic tooth movement remains the subject of debate. It has been suggested that the periodontal ligament (PDL) plays a key role. However, the mechanical function of the PDL in orthodontic tooth movement is not well understood as most mechanical models of the PDL to date have ignored the fibrous structure of the PDL. In this study we use finite element (FE) analysis to investigate the strains in the alveolar bone due to occlusal and orthodontic loads when PDL is modelled as a fibrous structure as compared to modelling PDL as a layer of solid material. The results show that the tension-only nature of the fibres essentially suspends the tooth in the tooth socket and their inclusion in FE models makes a significant difference to both the magnitude and distribution of strains produced in the surrounding bone. The results indicate that the PDL fibres have a very important role in load transfer between the teeth and alveolar bone and should be considered in FE studies investigating the biomechanics of orthodontic tooth movement.
Project description:A dental implant is used to replace a missing tooth. Fixing the implant in its natural position requires the engineering of a substantial amount of conformal bone growth inside the implant socket, osseointegration. However, this conventional implant attachment does not include the periodontal ligament (PDL), which has a fundamental role in cushioning high mechanical loads. As a result, tooth implants have a shorter lifetime than the natural tooth and have a high chance of infections. We have engineered a "bio-implant" that provides a living PDL connection for titanium implants. The bio-implant consists of a hydroxyapatite coated titanium screw, ensheathed in cell sheets made from immortalized human periodontal cells. Bio-implants were transplanted into the upper first molar region of a tooth-extraction mouse model. Within 8 weeks the bio-implant generated fibrous connective tissue, a localised blood vessel network and new bone growth fused into the alveolar bone socket. The study presents a bio-implant engineered with human cells, specialised for the root connection, and resulted in the partial reconstruction of a naturalised tooth attachment complex (periodontium), consisting of all the principal tissue types, cementum, PDL and alveolar bone.
Project description:Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.
Project description:The load-bearing dentoalveolar fibrous joint is composed of biomechanically active periodontal ligament (PDL), bone, cementum, and the synergistic entheses of PDL-bone and PDL-cementum. Physiologic and pathologic loads on the dentoalveolar fibrous joint prompt natural shifts in strain gradients within mineralized and fibrous tissues and trigger a cascade of biochemical events within the widened and narrowed sites of the periodontal complex. This review highlights data from in situ biomechanical simulations that provide tooth movements relative to the alveolar socket. The methods and subsequent results provide a reasonable approximation of strain-regulated biochemical events resulting in mesial mineral formation and distal resorption events within microanatomical regions at the ligament-tethered/enthesial ends. These biochemical events, including expressions of biglycan, decorin, chondroitin sulfated neuroglial 2, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein and localization of various hypertrophic progenitors, are observed at the alkaline phosphatase-positive widened site, resulting in mineral formation and osteoid/cementoid layers. On the narrowed side, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase regions can lead to a sequence of clastic activities resulting in resorption pits in bone and cementum. These strain-regulated biochemical and subsequently biomineralization events in the load-bearing periodontal complex are critical for maintenance of the periodontal space and overall macroscale joint biomechanics.
Project description:Stem cells residing in the periodontal ligament (PDL) support the homeostasis of the periodontium, but their in vivo identity, source(s), and function(s) remain poorly understood. Here, using a lineage-tracing mouse strain, we identified a quiescent Wnt-responsive population in the PDL that became activated in response to tooth extraction. The Wnt-responsive population expanded by proliferation, then migrated from the PDL remnants that remained attached to bundle bone, into the socket. Once there, the Wnt-responsive progeny upregulated osteogenic protein expression, differentiated into osteoblasts, and generated the new bone that healed the socket. Using a liposomal WNT3A protein therapeutic, we showed that a single application at the time of extraction was sufficient to accelerate extraction socket healing 2-fold. Collectively, these data identify a new stem cell population in the intact periodontium that is directly responsible for alveolar bone healing after tooth removal.
Project description:Vibration in the form of High Frequency Acceleration (HFA) is anabolic on the craniofacial skeleton in the absence of inflammation. Orthodontic forces trigger an inflammation-dependent catabolic cascade that is crucial for tooth movement. It is unknown what effect HFA has on alveolar bone if applied during orthodontic treatment. The objectives of this study are to examine the effect of HFA on the rate of tooth movement and alveolar bone, and determine the mechanism by which HFA affects tooth movement. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided to control, orthodontic force alone (OTM), and different experimental groups that received the same orthodontic forces and different HFA regimens. Orthodontic tooth movement was assessed when HFA parameters, frequency, acceleration, duration of exposure, and direct or indirect application were varied. We found that HFA treatment significantly enhanced the inflammation-dependent catabolic cascade during orthodontic tooth movement. HFA treatment increased inflammatory mediators and osteoclastogenesis, and decreased alveolar bone density during orthodontic tooth movement. Each of the HFA variables produced significant changes in the rate of tooth movement and the effect was PDL-dependent. This is the first report that HFA enhances inflammation-dependent catabolic cascades in bone. The clinical implications of our study are highly significant, as HFA can be utilized to enhance the rate of orthodontic tooth movement during the catabolic phase of treatment and subsequently be utilized to enhance retention during the anabolic remodeling phase after orthodontic forces are removed.
Project description:Previous studies revealed that cementum formation is tightly regulated by inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a mineralization inhibitor. Local PPi concentrations are determined by regulators, including ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), which increases PPi concentrations by adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. Orthodontic forces stimulate alveolar bone remodelling, leading to orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). To better understand how disturbed mineral metabolism and the resulting altered periodontal structures affect OTM, we employed Enpp1 mutant mice that feature reduced PPi and increased cervical cementum in a model of OTM induced by a stretched closed-coil spring ligated between the maxillary left first molar and maxillary incisors. We analyzed tooth movement, osteoclast/odontoclast response, and tooth root resorption by micro-computed tomography, histology, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry. Preoperatively, we noted an altered periodontium in Enpp1 mutant mice, with significantly increased periodontal ligament (PDL) volume and thickness, as well as increased PDL-bone/tooth root surface area, compared to wild-type (WT) controls. After 11 d of orthodontic treatment, Enpp1 mutant mice displayed 38% reduced tooth movement versus WT mice. Molar roots in Enpp1 mutant mice exhibited less change in PDL width in compression and tension zones compared to WT mice. Root resorption was noted in both groups with no difference in average depths, but resorption lacunae in Enpp1 mutant mice were almost entirely limited to cementum, with 150% increased cementum resorption and 92% decreased dentin resorption. Osteoclast/odontoclast cells were reduced by 64% in Enpp1 mutant mice, with a predominance of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells on root surfaces, compared to WT mice. Increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells on root surfaces were associated with robust immunolocalization of osteopontin (OPN) and receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Collectively, reduced response to orthodontic forces, decreased tooth movement, and altered osteoclast/odontoclast distribution suggests Enpp1 loss of function has direct effects on clastic function/recruitment and/or indirect effects on periodontal remodeling via altered periodontal structure or tissue mineralization.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate alveolar bone change around mandibular anterior teeth during orthodontic decompensation in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and different vertical facial patterns. The records of 29 consecutive Class III patients selected from those pending two-jaw orthognathic surgery were divided into low (??28°), average (30°-37°), and high (??39°) mandibular plane angle (MPA) groups. The DICOM files of CBCT scans and STL files of digital dental models, taken before (T1) and after (T2) presurgical orthodontic treatment, were imported into Dolphin imaging software to reconstruct dentoskeletal images. T1 and T2 images were superimposed and analyzed for bone thickness and height at the level of root apex on each mid-sagittal slice of six mandibular anterior teeth. Differences between T1 and T2 were analyzed by non-parametric tests and mixed-effect model analysis. The results showed that the measurements of alveolar bone height generally decreased after treatment, regardless of MPA. The facial divergence, incisor irregularity, tooth site, treatment time, and change in proclination were identified as the significant factors affecting alveolar bone thickness and height during treatment. The presurgical orthodontic treatment to decompensate mandibular anterior teeth should be very careful in all MPA groups.
Project description:Osteoporosis is associated with decreased bone density and increased bone fragility, but how this disease affects alveolar bone healing is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which osteoporosis affects the jaw skeleton and then to evaluate possible mechanisms whereby an osteoporotic phenotype might affect the rate of alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction. Using an ovariectomized mouse model coupled with micro-computed tomographic imaging, histologic, molecular, and cellular assays, we first demonstrated that the appendicular and jaw skeletons both develop osteoporotic phenotypes. Next, we demonstrated that osteoporotic mice exhibit atrophy of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and that this atrophy was accompanied by a reduction in the pool of osteoprogenitor cells in the PDL. The paucity of PDL-derived osteoprogenitor cells in osteoporotic mice was associated with significantly slower extraction socket healing. Collectively, these analyses demonstrate that the jaw skeleton is susceptible to the untoward effects of osteoporosis that manifest as thinner, more porous alveolar bone, PDL thinning, and slower bone repair. These findings have potential clinical significance for older osteopenic patients undergoing reconstructive procedures.
Project description:Orthodontic forces disturb the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament (PDL), and induce craniofacial bone remodeling which is necessary for tooth movement. Unfortunately, orthodontic tooth movement is often hampered by ischemic injury and cell death within the PDL (hyalinization) and root resorption. Large inter-individual differences in hyalinization and root resorption have been observed, and may be explained by differential protection against hyalinization. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) forms an important protective mechanism by breaking down heme into the strong anti-oxidants biliverdin/bilirubin and the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. These versatile HO-1 products protect against ischemic and inflammatory injury. We postulate that orthodontic forces induce HO-1 expression in the PDL during experimental tooth movement. Twenty-five 6-week-old male Wistar rats were used in this study. The upper three molars at one side were moved mesially using a Nickel-Titanium coil spring, providing a continuous orthodontic force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as control. After 6, 12, 72, 96, and 120 h groups of rats were killed. On parasagittal sections immunohistochemical staining was performed for analysis of HO-1 expression and quantification of osteoclasts. Orthodontic force induced a significant time-dependent HO-1 expression in mononuclear cells within the PDL at both the apposition- and resorption side. Shortly after placement of the orthodontic appliance HO-1 expression was highly induced in PDL cells but dropped to control levels within 72 h. Some osteoclasts were also HO-1 positive but this induction was shown to be independent of time- and mechanical stress. It is tempting to speculate that differential induction of tissue protecting- and osteoclast activating genes in the PDL determine the level of bone resorption and hyalinization and, subsequently, "fast" and "slow" tooth movers during orthodontic treatment.